A beret is a soft, flat-crowned hat of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, wool felt, or acrylic fibre. Mass production of berets began in the 19th century France and Spain, the beret remains associated with these countries. Berets are worn as part of the uniform of many military and police units worldwide, as well as by other organizations. Archaeology and art history indicate that headgear similar to the modern beret has been worn since the Bronze Age across Northern Europe and as far south as ancient Crete and Italy, where it was worn by the Minoans and Romans; such headgear has been popular among the nobility and artists across Europe throughout modern history. The Basque-style beret was the traditional headgear of Aragonese and Navarrian shepherds from the Ansó and Roncal valleys of the Pyrenees, a mountain range that divides Southern France from northern Spain; the commercial production of Basque-style berets began in the 17th century in the Oloron-Sainte-Marie area of Southern France.

A local craft, beret-making became industrialised in the 19th century. The first factory, Beatex-Laulhere, claims production records dating back to 1810. By the 1920s, berets were associated with the working classes in a part of France and Spain and by 1928 more than 20 French factories and some Spanish and Italian factories produced millions of berets. In Western fashion and women have worn the beret since the 1920s as sportswear and as a fashion statement. Military berets were first adopted by the French Chasseurs Alpins in 1889. After seeing these during the First World War, British General Hugh Elles proposed the beret for use by the newly formed Royal Tank Regiment, which needed headgear that would stay on while climbing in and out of the small hatches of tanks, they were approved for use by King George V in 1924. Another possible origin of the RTR beret is that it was suggested to Alec Gatehouse by Eric Dorman-Smith. While the two officers were serving at Sandhurst in 1924, who had transferred to the Royal Tank Corps, had been given the task of designing a practical headgear for the new corps.

Dorman-Smith had toured Spain, including the Basque region, with his friend Ernest Hemingway during the past few years, had acquired a black Basque beret during his travels. The specifications were that it had to protect men's hair from the oil in a tank but not take up space in the cramped interior, he led Gatehouse straight to his room. Hanging on the wall was his Basque beret from Pamplona, he tossed it across, Gatehouse gingerly tried it on. The beret design was adopted... The black RTR beret was made famous by Field Marshal Montgomery in the Second World War; the beret fits snugly around the head, can be "shaped" in a variety of ways – in the Americas it is worn pushed to one side. In Central and South America, local custom prescribes the manner of wearing the beret, it can be worn by both women. Military uniform berets feature a headband or sweatband attached to the wool, made either from leather, silk or cotton ribbon, sometimes with a drawstring allowing the wearer to tighten the hat; the drawstrings are, according to custom, either tied and cut off or tucked in or else left to dangle.

The beret is adorned with a cap badge, either in cloth or metal. Some berets have a piece of buckram or other stiffener in the position where the badge is intended to be worn. Berets are not lined, but many are lined with silk or satin. In military berets, the headband is worn on the outside; the traditional beret has the "sweatband" folded inwardly. In such a case, these berets have only an additional inch or so of the same woollen material designed to be folded inwardly. Newer beret styles made of Polar fleece are popular. Berets came to be popularised across Europe and other parts of the world as typical Basque headgear, as reflected in their name in several languages, while the Basques themselves use the words txapela or boneta, they are popular and common in the Basque Country. The colours adopted for folk costumes varied by region and purpose: black and blue are worn more than red and white, which are used at local festivities; the people of Aragon adopted red berets while the black beret became the common headgear of workers in France and Spain.

A big commemorative black beret is the usual trophy in sport or bertso competitions, including Basque rural sports, the Basque portions of the Tour de France, the Vuelta Ciclista al Pais Vasco. It may bear sewn ornamental references to the contest; the black beret was once considered the national cap of France in Anglo-Saxon countries and is part of the stereotypical image of the Onion Johnny. It is no longer as worn as it once was, but it remains a strong sign of local identity in the southwest of France; when French people want to picture themselves as "the typical average Frenchman" in France or in a foreign country, they use this stereotype from Anglo-Saxon countries. There are three manufacturers in France. Laulhère has been making bérets since 1840. Boneteria Auloronesa is a small artisan French beret manufacturer in the Béarnese town of Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Le Béret Français is another artisan béret maker in the Béarnese village of Laàs; the bere

Forman A. Williams

Forman Arthur Williams is an American academic in the field of combustion and aerospace engineering, Emeritus Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of California San Diego. Williams received his bachelor's degree from Princeton University in 1955 and on Martin Summerfield's advise, he moved to California Institute of Technology to pursue his PhD, graduating it in 1958 under the supervision of Sol Penner, with Richard Feynman on the thesis committee, he presented his PhD thesis to von Kármán at his home. After finishing his PhD, Williams worked in the Division of Engineering and Applied Physics at Harvard University until 1964, after which he joined the faculty at UCSD, he was the fourth faculty member to be appointed, when Sol Penner founded the Engineering department in University of California, San Diego. In January 1981, he accepted the Robert H. Goddard chair at Princeton returning to UCSD in 1988. Williams served as an adjunct Professor at Yale University for one month of each year starting in 1997 and culminating after ten years.

He was the director of Center for Energy Research from 1990 to 2006 at UCSD. He served as a department chair at UCSD for four years. Williams' research interests includes propulsion applications, micro-gravity flames etc.. He made seminal contributions to the combustion field for the past six decades and considered as one of the prominent scientist in combustion, he wrote the Williams spray equation in 1958 when he was still a PhD student, as a statistical model for spray combustion analogous to Boltzmann equation. Though Activation Energy Asymptotics were known to Russian scientists forty years ago, it was Williams call in 1971 in Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics which made the western scientific community to start using the analysis, he wrote down the G equation in a model for premixed turbulent flame as a wrinkled flame. The classification of Combustion instabilities was first introduced by Williams and Barrère in 1969, he worked on number of projects with Air force and other organizations.

He is the principal investigator of the following International Space Station experiments, MDCA, FSDC, FSDC-2, DCE, FLEX, FLEX-2, Cool Flames Investigation. He conducted lot of experiments, some of his recent experiments include spiral flames in von Kármán swirling flow, ethanol flames, fire spread etc. Williams Combustion Theory, second edition published in 1985, is still an authoritative book in the combustion field. Williams is an elected member of National Academy of Engineering and in American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he is a fellow of The Combustion Institute. He is elected as a fellow of APS in 2002, he is a member of AIAA, SIAM etc. He holds an honorary doctorate degree from Technical University of Madrid, he has been in the editorial board of various journals he is in the editorial board of Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Combustion Science and Technology. His awards include the Bernard Lewis Gold Medal and Silver Combustion Medal from The Combustion Institute and the Pendray Aerospace Literature Award and Propellants & Combustion Award from AIAA.

A conference titled Symposium on Advancements in Combustion Theory was conducted at UCSD in 2004 in honor of Williams 70th birthday. Combustion Science and Technology released a special issue in honor of Williams 80th birthday. Forman A. Williams at the Mathematics Genealogy Project


Pittalavanipalem is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located in Pittalavanipalem mandal of Guntur revenue division; the village is dependent on agriculture, with the Kommamuru and Poondla channels of the Krishna Western Delta system providing water for irrigation. Pittalavanipalem gram panchayat is the local self-government of the village, it is divided into wards and each ward is represented by a ward member. The ward members are headed by a Sarpanch; as per the school information report for the academic year 2018–19, the village has a total of 20 schools. These include 15 Zilla Parishad/Mandal Parishad and 4 private schools. List of villages in Guntur district