World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Ochakiv known as Ochakov and Alektor is a small city in Mykolaiv Oblast of southern Ukraine. Serving as the center of Ochakiv Raion, the city itself does not belong to the raion and is designated as a city of regional significance. Population,14, 491 For many years the city-fortress served as a capital of the Ottoman province, the land, where the Ochakov is located, was inhabited by Thracians and Scythians in ancient times. It was known as a part of Great Scythia, in the 7th and 6th centuries BC, Greek colonists had founded a commercial colony town Alektor near the Thracian coast. Archaeological excavations show that near the area was the old Milesian colony of Pontic Olbia, in the 1st century BC, Alektor became a Roman colony and part of Roman empire. It was a part of the Romanians ethnogenesis space and a place of passage for many migratory people, as a result of the migrations, the city fell and the inhabitants lived in small settlements built on the shores of Bug and Dnieper Rivers. In the Middle Ages the place was named Vozia by Romanians, the name is supposed to come from a plant known in Romanian as bozii/bozia, a medicinal herb very often found there.
The territory was a part of the Moldavian Berladnici rulership and it fell under Tatar domination in the time of the Mongol invasion of Europe. Alexandru cel Bun, the Moldavias ruler and his ally Vitovt or Vytautas, Lithuanias leader, had freed the Vozia territory, the stronghold will be mentioned in Russian chronics as Dashev. In the 14th century AD the Senarega brothers, Genovese merchants and warriors, had settled a castle at the place called Lerici, very close to Vozia city. It was a point for commerce with Romanians and Tatars. In 1492 Crimean Tatars took Vozia from the Moldavians and named it Özü-Cale, the name was very similar to Romanian Vozia. It referred to the city as Kara-Kerman as an opposite to Cetatea Albă, taken by the Tatars and that city was renamed as Ak-Kerman, today Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. In 1493 the fortress was taken by the Moldavians cossacks of Bohdan Gliński, due to its strategic location the fortress for a long time was a site of contest between the Moldavia, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Moldavias ally Zaporizhian Sich, and Ottoman Empire.
Khadjibey became a centre and left from Özi one. In 1600 Mihai Viteazul of Valahia freed the city for a short time, giovanni Battista Malbi noted in 1620 that the town and the land of Vozia, even ruled by the Tatars, were inhabited by Romanians. The same ethnic note was made by Niccolo Barsi from Lucca in the same century. Daniel Krmann, monk from Poltava, wrote that outside the Turks and Tatars, the conquereres of the Vozia, the city was inhabited by Moldavians, the Russian Empire besieged Ochakiv in 1737, regarding it as the main obstacle to the possession of the Black Sea littoral
Herodotus was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire and lived in the fifth century BC, a contemporary of Socrates. The Histories is the work which he is known to have produced. Despite Herodotus historical significance, little is known of his personal life and his place in history and his significance may be understood according to the traditions within which he worked. His work is the earliest Greek prose to have survived intact, of these only fragments of Hecataeuss work survive yet they allow us glimpses into the kind of tradition within which Herodotus wrote his own Histories. In his introduction to Hecataeus’s work, This points forward to the ‘folksy’ yet ‘international’ outlook typical of Herodotus. Yet, one scholar has described the work of Hecataeus as “a curious false start to history” since despite his critical spirit. It is possible that Herodotus borrowed much material from Hecataeus, as stated by Porphyry in a recorded by Eusebius. But Hecataeus did not record events that had occurred in living memory, unlike Herodotus, Herodotus claims to be better informed than his predecessors by relying on empirical observation to correct their excessive schematism.
For example, He argues for continental asymmetry as opposed to the theory of a perfectly circular earth with Europe. Yet, he retains idealizing tendencies, as in his notions of the Danube. His debt to previous authors of prose ‘histories’ might be questionable, this point is one of the most contentious issues in modern scholarship. It is on account of the strange stories and the folk-tales he reported that his critics in early modern times branded him “The Father of Lies”. Even his own contemporaries found reason to scoff at his achievement, the Athenian historian Thucydides dismissed Herodotus as a “logos-writer”. Moreover, Thucydides developed a historical topic more in keeping with the Greek world-view, the interplay of civilizations was more relevant to Greeks living in Anatolia, such as Herodotus himself, for whom life within a foreign civilization was a recent memory. Modern scholars generally turn to Herodotus’s own writing for reliable information about his life, supplemented with ancient yet much sources, modern accounts of his life typically go something like this, Herodotus was born at Halicarnassus around 484 BC.
His name is not mentioned in the tribute list of the Athenian Delian League, the epic poet Panyassis – a relative of Herodotus – is reported to have taken part in a failed uprising. Herodotus expresses affection for the island of Samos, and this is an indication that he might have lived there in his youth. So it is possible that his family was involved in an uprising against Lygdamis, leading to a period of exile on Samos, Herodotus wrote his Histories in the Ionian dialect, yet he was born in Halicarnassus, which was a Dorian settlement
Eusebius of Caesarea, known as Eusebius Pamphili, was a Greek historian of Christianity and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD, together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely well learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, as Father of Church History he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. Little is known about the life of Eusebius and his successor at the See of Caesarea, wrote a Life of Eusebius, a work that has since been lost. Eusebius own surviving works probably only represent a portion of his total output. Beyond notices in his extant writings, the sources are the 5th-century ecclesiastical historians Socrates and Theodoret. There are assorted notices of his activities in the writings of his contemporaries Athanasius, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Eusebius pupil, Eusebius of Emesa, provides some incidental information.
In his Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius writes of Dionysius of Alexandria as his contemporary, if this is true, Eusebius birth must have been before Dionysius death in autumn 264, most modern scholars date the birth to some point in the five years between 260 and 265. He was presumably born in the town in which he lived for most of his adult life and he was baptized and instructed in the city, and lived in Palestine in 296, when Diocletians army passed through the region. Eusebius was made presbyter by Agapius of Caesarea, S. Wallace-Hadrill, deem the phrase too ambiguous to support the contention. By the 3rd century, Caesarea had a population of about 100,000 and it had been a pagan city since Pompey had given control of the city to the gentiles during his command of the eastern provinces in the 60s BC. The gentiles retained control of the city for the three centuries to follow, despite Jewish petitions for joint governorship, gentile government was strengthened by the citys refoundation under Herod the Great, when it had taken on the name of Augustus Caesar.
In addition to the settlers, Caesarea had large Jewish. Eusebius was probably born into the Christian contingent of the city.46 states that Zacchaeus was the first bishop, through the activities of the theologian Origen and the school of his follower Pamphilus, Caesarea became a center of Christian learning. Origen was largely responsible for the collection of information, or which churches were using which gospels. On his deathbed, Origen had made a bequest of his library to the Christian community in the city. Together with the books of his patron Ambrosius, Origens library formed the core of the collection that Pamphilus established, Pamphilus managed a school that was similar to that of Origen. Pamphilus was compared to Demetrius of Phalerum and Pisistratus, for he had gathered Bibles from all parts of the world, like his model Origen, Pamphilus maintained close contact with his students
Today much of its territory is flooded by the waters of Kakhovka Reservoir. The Zaporizhian Sich grew rapidly in the 15th century from serfs fleeing the more controlled parts of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and it became established as a well-respected political entity with a parliamentary system of government. The Host went through a series of conflicts and alliances involving the three powers, including supporting an uprising in the 18th century and their leader signed a treaty with the Russians. This group was disbanded in the late 18th century by the Russian Empire. The Cossacks served a role of conquering the Caucasian tribes. The name Zaporozhtsi comes from the location of their fortress, the Sich, in Zaporozhia and it is not clear when the first Cossack communities on the Lower Dnieper began to form. There are signs and stories of people living in the steppes as early as the 12th century AD. At that time they were not called Cossacks, since cossack is a Turkish word meaning a free man, during the early 12th century, other Asiatic tribes occupied the steppes to the north of the Black Sea, in such places as Polovci, Pechenihu and others.
There were groups of people who fled into these wild steppes from the lands of Kievan Rus in order to escape oppression or criminal pursuit. Their lifestyle largely resembled that of the now called Cossacks. They survived chiefly from hunting and fishing and raiding the Asiatic tribes for horses, in the 16th century, a great organizer, Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, a Ruthenian noble, united these different groups into a strong military organization. Cossacks were made up mostly of escaped serfs who preferred the dangerous freedom of the wild steppes, many serfs from Poland and Muscovy and even Tatars from Crimea could become part of the Cossack host. They had to accept Orthodox Christianity as their religion, and adopt its rituals, registered Cossacks were a part of the Commonwealth army until 1699. From the second part of the 16th century, the Cossacks started raiding Ottoman territories, the Polish government could not control the fiercely independent Cossacks but, since they were nominally subjects of the Commonwealth, it was held responsible for raids by their victims.
Reciprocally, the Tatars living under the Ottoman rule launched raids in the Commonwealth, however, were raiding wealthy merchant port cities in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, which were just two days away by boat from the mouth of the Dnieper River. By 1615 and 1625, Cossacks had managed to raze townships on the outskirts of Constantinople, in internal agreements, forced by the Poles, the Cossacks agreed to burn their boats and stop raiding. However, boats could be rebuilt quickly, and the Cossack lifestyle glorified raids, during this time, the Habsburg Monarchy sometimes covertly employed Cossack raiders to ease Ottoman pressure on their own borders. Many Cossacks and Tatars shared an animosity towards each other due to the damage done by raids from both sides, Cossack raids followed by Tatar retaliation, or Tatar raids followed by Cossack retaliation, were an almost regular occurrence
The Volkhov is a river in Novgorodsky and Chudovsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast and Kirishsky and Volkhovsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia. It connects Lake Ilmen and Lake Ladoga and belongs to the basin of the Neva River, the length of the river is 224 kilometres, and the area of its drainage basin is 80,200 square kilometres. The city of Veliky Novgorod, the towns of Kirishi and Novaya Ladoga, a number of etymologies, none universally accepted, have been proposed for the name of the river. In his Etymological dictionary of the Russian language, Max Vasmer doubted some philologists opinion that the name is related to the Finnish velho or Russian volkhv. The Volkhov flows out of Lake Ilmen north into Lake Ladoga and it is the second largest tributary of Lake Ladoga. It is navigable over its whole length, discharge is highly variable depending primarily on the level of Lake Ilmen. The Volkhov is reported to reverse the direction of its flow in its section in exceptional circumstances.
The river freezes up in late November, and breaks up in early April, the level of water is regulated by the dam of the Volkhov hydroelectric plant situated 25 km upstream from the mouth of the river. Apart from hydroelectric generating purposes, the dam serves to facilitate navigation in the part of the river previously known for its rapids. The upstream part of the Volkhov is connected to the Msta River by the Siversov Canal bypassing Lake Ilmen, the downstream part is connected with the Neva, the Syas River, and the Svir River by the New Ladoga Canal bypassing Lake Ladoga. The main tributaries are of the Volkhov are the Vishera, joins the Maly Volkhovets armlet, the Kerest, the Oskuya, the Pchyozhva, the Tigoda, the Chyornaya, the Vloya, the Olomna. The drainage basin of the Volkhov includes the parts of Novgorod and Leningrad Oblasts, as well as areas in Tver Oblast, Pskov Oblast of Russia. The main rivers belonging to the basin of the Volkhov are the Msta, the Lovat, the Pola. Its role in facilitating trade is due to its position as the only river penetrating deep into inland Russia that flows north towards the Baltic, in the mid-9th century, the Volkhov was a heavily populated trade artery of the Varangian-dominated Rus Khaganate.
It was a part of the most important trade route connecting Northern Europe to the Orient, by way of the Volga. The ancient Russian capital Staraya Ladoga and one of the most significant Russian medieval cities Velikiy Novgorod are located along the Volkhov, after entering the Volkhov near Gorchakovshchina and Lyubsha, commercial vessels of the Vikings cast anchor at the major trade emporium of Aldeigja. Then they rowed upstream past a series of rapids, guarded by the settlements at Novye Duboviki. There was another outpost at Kholopy Gorodok,13 km north of present-day Velikiy Novgorod, or rather Holmgard and it seems on the whole likely that such pre-urban settlements gave the country its Norse name of Gardariki
Kievan Rus was a loose federation of East Slavic tribes in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Rurik dynasty. The modern peoples of Belarus and Russia all claim Kievan Rus as their cultural ancestors, according to Russian historiography the first ruler to start uniting East Slavic lands into what has become known as Kievan Rus was Prince Oleg. He extended his control from Novgorod south along the Dnieper river valley to protect trade from Khazar incursions from the east, Sviatoslav I achieved the first major expansion of Kievan Rus territorial control, fighting a war of conquest against the Khazars. Vladimir the Great introduced Christianity with his own baptism and, by decree, extended it to all inhabitants of Kiev and beyond. Kievan Rus reached its greatest extent under Yaroslav the Wise, his sons assembled and issued its first written legal code, the state declined beginning in the late 11th century and during the 12th century, disintegrating into various rival regional powers.
The state finally fell to the Mongol invasion of the 1240s. During its existence, Kievan Rus was known as the land of the Rus, in Greek as Ῥωσία, in Old French as Russie, Rossie, in Latin as Russia, and from the 12th century Ruthenia. Various etymologies have been proposed, including Ruotsi, the Finnish designation for Sweden, and Ros, the term Kievan Rus was coined in the 19th century in Russian historiography to refer to the period when the centre was in Kiev. Later, the Russian term was rendered into Belarusian and Ukrainian as Кіеўская Русь Kijeŭskaja Rus’ and Ки́ївська Русь Kyivska Rus’, prior to the emergence of Kievan Rus in the 9th century AD, the lands between the Baltic Sea and Black Sea were primarily populated by eastern Slavic tribes. In the northern region around Novgorod were the Ilmen Slavs and neighboring Krivichi, who occupied territories surrounding the headwaters of the West Dvina, Dnieper, to their north, in the Ladoga and Karelia regions, were the Finnic Chud tribe. In the south, in the area around Kiev, were the Poliane, a group of Slavicized tribes with Iranian origins, the Drevliane to the west of the Dnieper, and the Severiane to the east.
To their north and east were the Vyatichi, and to their south was forested land settled by Slav farmers, controversy persists over whether the Rus’ were Varangians or Slavs. This uncertainty is due largely to a paucity of contemporary sources, attempts to address this question instead rely on archaeological evidence, the accounts of foreign observers and literature from centuries later. To some extent the controversy is related to the myths of modern states in the region. According to the Normanist view, the Rus were Scandinavians, while Russian and Ukrainian nationalist historians generally argue that the Rus were themselves Slavs. Normanist theories focus on the earliest written source for the East Slavs, archaeological evidence from the area suggests that a Scandinavian population was present during the 10th century at the latest. On balance, it likely that the Rus proper were a small minority of Scandinavians who formed an elite ruling class. Liutprand of Cremona, who was twice an envoy to the Byzantine court, identifies the Russi with the Norse, leo the Deacon, a 10th-century Byzantine historian and chronicler, refers to the Rus as Scythians and notes that they tended to adopt Greek rituals and customs
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber and its central feature is a single, prominent pillar or column, often made of stone. Sarcophagus – a stone container for a body or coffin, often decorated and perhaps part of a monument, sepulchre – a cavernous rock-cut space for interment, generally in the Jewish or Christian faiths. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds, Hügelgräber or kurgans, a cairn, might be originally a tumulus. A long barrow is a tumulus, usually for numbers of burials. As indicated, tombs are located in or under religious buildings, such as churches. However, they may be found in catacombs, on land or, in the case of early or pre-historic tombs. The tomb of Emperor Nintoku is the largest in the world by area, the Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt is the largest by volume
Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Eastern Roman Empire. The route allowed traders along its length to establish a prosperous trade with the Empire. An alternative route was along the Dniestr river with stops on the Western shore of Black Sea and these more specific sub-routes are sometimes referred to as the Dnieper trade route and Dniestr trade route, respectively. The route began in Scandinavian trading centers such as Birka and Gotland, crossed the Baltic Sea, entered the Gulf of Finland, from there, a portage led to the Toropa River and downstream to the Western Dvina River. From the Western Dvina, the ships went upstream along the Kasplya River and were portaged again to the Katyn River, along the Dnieper, the route crossed several major rapids and passed through Kiev. After entering the Black Sea, it followed its west coast to Constantinople, though this has come to mean “Vikings” to many, the term for the Byzantines meant all Scandinavians and their kindred living in what is now Russia.
The route was established in the late eighth and early ninth centuries. The route gained significant importance from the tenth until the first third of the century, concurrently with the Volga trade route. These sailboats were transported along the Dnieper to Kiev, there they were sold to the Varangians who re-equipped them and loaded them with merchandise. Places named include Smolensk, Chernihiv, Vytachiv, though Constantine Zuckerman suggests a more obvious etymology, from the Turkic roots sam and bat. The runestone N62 preserves the name Vitaholmr for Vytachiv, on the Dnieper, the Varangians had to portage their ships round seven rapids, where they had to be on guard for Pecheneg nomads. The rapids began below Dnipropetrovsk where the river turns south and fell 50 meters in 66 kilometers and they dont exist anymore, as a chain of basins was established starting from the 1950s to the 1970s. Below the rapids, they had to pass a rocky spot called the Ford of Vrar. The Varangians stopped at St.
George Island, they equipped their ships with sails in the Dnieper estuary and continued to navigate along the western shore of the Black Sea all the way to Constantinople. The Varangian boats were used along the rivers and along the Black Sea shores, according to Constantine VII, the navigation near the western shore of Black Sea contained stops at Sulina, Constantia. There are some remains of the Varangian presence in this area at Murfatlar Cave Complex near Constantia, numerous runic inscriptions and even a graffiti of a viking navy are visible on the walls of the rock church from Murfatlar. Another offshoot was along the Dnieper and the Usyazh-Buk River towards Lukoml, the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks was used to transport different kinds of merchandise. Wine, jewelry, expensive fabrics, volhyn traded spinning wheels and other items
Miletus was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria. Its ruins are located near the village of Balat in Aydın Province. Before the Persian invasion in the middle of the 6th century BC, Miletus greatest wealth and splendor was reached during the Hellenistic era and Roman times. Evidence of first settlement at the site has been inaccessible by the rise of sea level. The first available evidence is of the Neolithic, in the early and middle Bronze age the settlement came under Minoan influence. Legend has it that an influx of Cretans occurred displacing the indigenous Leleges, the site was renamed Miletus after a place in Crete. The Late Bronze Age, 13th century BC, saw the arrival of Luwian language speakers from south central Anatolia calling themselves the Carians, in that century other Greeks arrived. The city at that time rebelled against the Hittite Empire, after the fall of that empire the city was destroyed in the 12th century BC and starting about 1000 BC was resettled extensively by the Ionian Greeks.
Legend offers an Ionian foundation event sponsored by a founder named Neleus from the Peloponnesus, the Greek Dark Ages were a time of Ionian settlement and consolidation in an alliance called the Ionian League. The Archaic Period of Greece began with a sudden and brilliant flash of art, Miletus is the birthplace of the Hagia Sophias architect Isidore of Miletus and Thales, a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher in c.624 BC. The ruins appear on maps at 37°31. 8N 27°16. 7E, about 3 km north of Balat and 3 km east of Batıköy in Aydın Province. In antiquity the city possessed a harbour at the entry of a large bay. The harbour of Miletus was additionally protected by the small island of Lade. Over the centuries the gulf silted up with alluvium carried by the Meander River, there is a Great Harbour Monument where, according to the New Testament account, the apostle Paul stopped on his way back to Jerusalem by boat. He met the Ephesian Elders and headed out to the beach to bid farewell, recorded in the book of Acts 20.
During the Pleistocene epoch the Miletus region was submerged in the Aegean Sea and it subsequently emerged slowly, the sea reaching a low level of about 130 meters below present level at about 18,000 BP. The site of Miletus was part of the mainland, a gradual rise brought a level of about 1.75 meters below present at about 5500 BP, creating several karst block islands of limestone, the location of the first settlements at Miletus. At about 1500 BC the karst shifted due to small crustal movements, since the sea has risen 1.75 m but the peninsula has been surrounded by sediment from the Maeander river and is now land-locked