Citrus bergamia, the bergamot orange, is a fragrant citrus fruit the size of an orange, with a yellow or green color similar to a lime, depending on ripeness. Genetic research into the ancestral origins of extant citrus cultivars found bergamot orange to be a probable hybrid of lemon and bitter orange. Extracts have been used to scent food and cosmetics. Use on the skin can increase photosensitivity; the word bergamot is etymologically derived from the Italian word "bergamotto" of Turkish origin: bey armudu or bey armut. Citrus bergamia is a small tree; the juice tastes more bitter than grapefruit. The active ingredients in bergamot juice are neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, ponceritin and mitrocin and 0.69% miriflin with 0% moisture brutieridin. Melitidin and brutieridin exhibit statin-like properties. Synephrine is not present in citrus bergamot; the bergamot orange is unrelated to the herbs known as bergamot or wild bergamot, Monarda didyma and Monarda fistulosa, which are in the mint family, are named for their similar aroma.
Citrus bergamia has been classified as Citrus aurantium subsp. Bergamia. Citrus bergamia is sometimes confused with: Citrus medica – citron, the yellow fruit of, known as etrog. Production is limited to the Ionian Sea coastal areas of the province of Reggio di Calabria in Italy, to such an extent that it is a symbol of the entire city. Most of the bergamot comes from a short stretch of land there; the fruit is produced in Argentina, Algeria, the Ivory Coast, Tunisia and South-East Asia where it has its roots. Citrus bergamot is commercially grown in southern Calabria, southern Italy, it is grown in southern France and in Côte d'Ivoire for the essential oil and in Antalya in southern Turkey for its marmalade. The fruit is not grown for juice consumption. However, in Mauritius where it is grown on a small-scale basis, it is consumed as juice by the locals. One hundred bergamot oranges yield about three ounces of bergamot oil. Adulteration with cheaper products such as oil of rosewood and bergamot mint has been a problem for consumers.
To protect the reputation of their produce, the Italian government introduced tight controls, including testing and certificates of purity. The Stazione Sperimentale per le Industrie delle Essenze e dei Derivati dagli Agrumi located in Reggio di Calabria, was the quality control body for the essential oil Bergamotto di Reggio Calabria DOP. During World War II, Italy was unable to export to countries such as the Allied powers. Rival products from Brazil and Mexico came on to the market as a substitute, but these were produced from other citrus fruits such as sweet lime; the fruit of the bergamot orange is edible. An essence extracted from the aromatic skin of this sour fruit is used to flavour Earl Grey and Lady Grey teas, as well as confectionery, it is used to make marmalade in Italy. In Sweden and Norway, bergamot is a common flavourant in snus, a smokeless tobacco product. In dry nasal snuff, it is a common aroma in traditional blends. Carpentierbe, a company based in San Giorgio Morgeto, makes a digestif liqueur derived from bergamot marketed under the name Liquore al Bergamotto.
In France the Ardennes region and the city of Nancy, essential oils made from the fruit are used to make a square, flat candy called the "Bergamote de Nancy". Bergamot peel is one of the most common ingredients used in perfumery, prized for its ability to combine with an array of scents to form a bouquet of aromas which complement each other. Bergamot is a major component of the original Eau de Cologne composed by Farina at the beginning of the 18th century in Germany; the first record of bergamot oil as a fragrance ingredient was in 1714, to be found in the Farina Archive in Cologne. In several patch test studies, application of some sources of bergamot oil directly to the skin of guinea pigs was shown to have a concentration-dependent phototoxic effect of increasing redness after exposure to ultraviolet light; this is a property shared by many other citrus fruits. Bergapten has been implicated as a potassium channel blocker. Bergamot is a source of bergamottin which, along with the chemically related compound 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, is believed to be responsible for grapefruit–drug interactions in which the consumption of the juice affects the metabolism of a variety of pharmaceutical drugs.
Used in cosmetics and perfume products, bergamot may cause skin irritation. In the past, psoralen extracted from bergamot oil has been used in tanning accelerators and sunscreens. Known to be photocarcinogenic since 1959, the substances remained in sunscreens until 1995, contributing to many cases of malignant melanoma and death; as of 2017, clinical research conducted on bergamot oil has been of poor quality, with no conclusions about its possible health effects. Use on the skin can be unsafe for children and pregnant women. Potential side effects of drinking large amounts of bergamot oil can include convulsions. Consuming bergamot oil as a component of tea may cause muscle cramps or bl
The Woodbury County Courthouse is located at 620 Douglas Street in Sioux City, the county seat of Woodbury County, United States. It is regarded as "one of the finest Prairie School buildings in the United States" and has been declared a National Historic Landmark for its architecture, it is used for legal proceedings in the county. Crude log structures were used for county business. Sioux City was made the county seat in 1856, it was at this time a county-owned courthouse was considered, it was to be located on the public square and the foundation was laid in 1857. The contract to complete the building was let two years but it was canceled before construction could begin. County offices continued to be located in various locations in the city. Voters approved the construction of a courthouse in October 1875, it was designed by Des Moines architect William L. Foster and built by brothers Charles E. Hedges and Daniel T. Hedges for $75,000. Designed in the Second Empire style, the building was composed of Kasota limestone.
It featured a mansard roof with iron cresting and a corner tower capped with a dome and a statue of Lady Justice. In 1914, the county determined that the courthouse was too small for the city and they decided to build a new one; the old courthouse was sold and the new one, designed by the Minneapolis architect George Grant Elmslie in collaboration with the Sioux City architect William L. Steele and Elmslie's partner, William Gray Purcell, was constructed from July 10, 1916 to March 1, 1918 at a cost of $850,000; this building is the current courthouse, located at the southeast corner of Douglas and Seventh Streets. It is a nearly square four story structure, built out of Roman brick, with granite and terra cotta trim elements, it has a 157-foot eight-story tower, features sculptural work by Alfonso Iannelli over its doors. The northern entrance features metal grillwork designed by Elmslie; the interior floors are marble, the central rotunda features a glass mosaic drinking fountain in one wall.
All ornamental metal work was produced by Crown Iron Works of Minnesota. The interior murals were painted by John Norton of Chicago. In 1973, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1996. List of Iowa county courthouses Hartington City Hall and Auditorium List of National Historic Landmarks in Iowa National Register of Historic Places listings in Woodbury County, Iowa Media related to Woodbury County Courthouse at Wikimedia Commons William Gray Purcell papers, N3, Northwest Architectural Archives, University of Minnesota Libraries, Minneapolis, MN
The Romancero gitano is a poetry collection by Spanish writer Federico García Lorca. First published in 1928, it is composed of eighteen romances with subjects like the night, the sky, the moon. All of the poems deal with the Romani people and their culture, but only as a theme used to carry the larger message that the poet was trying to convey; the Romancero gitano was popular and remains García Lorca's best known book of poetry. It was a stylised imitation of the ballads and poems that were still being told throughout the Spanish countryside. García Lorca himself described the work as a "carved altar piece" of Andalusia with "gypsies, archangels, its Jewish and Roman breezes, crimes, the everyday touch of the smuggler and the celestial note of the naked children of Córdoba. A book that hardly expresses visible Andalusia at all, but where the hidden Andalusia trembles"; the book brought him fame across the Hispanic world. For the rest of his life, the writer would search for the elements of Andalusian culture, trying to find its essence without resorting to the "picturesque" or the cliched use of "local colour".
Gypsy Ballads: A New Translation of the Romancero gitano by Federico García Lorca, Translated by Jeffrey B Frazier. CreateSpace 2017 Gypsy Ballads: A Version of the Romancero gitano of Federico García Lorca, Translated by Michael Hartnett. Goldsmith Press 1973 Gypsy Ballads, Bilingual edition translated by Jane Duran and Gloria García Lorca. Enitharmon Press 2016v
"Hold On Be Strong" is a song performed by Norwegian singer Maria Haukaas Storeng, written by Mira Craig. This song was presented by Norway in the 2008 Eurovision Song Contest in Serbia; the song was elected through the Melodi Grand Prix 2008 on February 9, where she received the highest number of votes from both the televoting and the jury, with 77,566 votes more than the runner up. On 20 May 2008 Storeng performed the song in the first semi-final of Eurovision, won a place in the final, it was the last song performed on the night. It finished in 5th place with a total of 182 points, thus being the highest ranking Western European song of the year; the backing singers for the Eurovision performance were Jorunn Hauge, May Kristin Kaspersen, Kariane Kjærnes, Håvard Gryting and Øystein Nesbakken. The song is written by songwriter Mira Craig. Mira and Maria are singing a duet on Maria's 2008 album Hold On Be Strong. "Hold On Be Strong" - 3:04 "Hold On Be Strong" - 3:00 "Hold On Be Strong" - 3:41 Melodi Grand Prix 2008 Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 2008
High Season for Spies is a 1966 Eurospy film directed by Julio Coll and starring Antonio Vilar, Letícia Román and Peter van Eyck. It was made as a co-production between Portugal and West Germany; the film's action takes place around Lisbon, concerns attempts by various secret agents to steal a formula. Antonio Vilar as Pierre Genet / Dick Letícia Román as Ethel / Ellen Green Peter van Eyck as Kramer / Jack Haskins Américo Coimbra as Mike Danham / João Mikaela as Anne Bardot Artur Semedo as Mr. Bardot Klausjürgen Wussow as Johansson / Bonnard Corny Collins as Jenny Renoir Ricardo Rubinstein as Kommissar Oliveira José Cardoso as Professor Zandor Ricardo Valle as Agent Andrade Frank Braña Antonio Pica Mario Barros as Bob Hermann Greegh as Peterson Richard Wall as Antonio Peter Cowie & Derek Elley. World Filmography: 1967. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1977. High Season for Spies on IMDb
Robin Hood Farm is a heritage-listed former dairy farm homestead and now adolescent drug rehabilitation centre located at 196 Campbelltown Road, Ingleburn, in the City of Campbelltown local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1860 to 1862 by Richard Watson, it is known as Robin Hood Inn and Waratah Dairies. The property is owned by Department of Planning and Infrastructure, a department of the Government of New South Wales, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. Robin Hood Farm is associated with the Robin Hood Inn, established in 1830 on part of the Campbellfields Estate subdivision. Although a number of buildings existed on the Robin Hood Farm estate at this time, no farmhouse as such is recorded; the first license to the inn was issued to Thomas Humphreys in 1830, overseer of a nearby property "Varroville". The Inn's license passed through various hands until 1845 when it was issued to Richard Watson who held it until 1860, it would appear that some time around 1858 Watson had taken up farming, most dairying, on the adjacent property which became known as Robin Hood Farm.
The coming of the railway may have been a factor in Watson's decision to move from the Inn to the farm. Watson appears to have left the farm by 1867 and the farm changed hands numerous times until 1912 when Fred Moore, a Campbelltown grazier, purchased the property. Moore purchased many of the surrounding parcels of land which were consolidated into a single land holding of 125 hectares, subsequently transferred to his wife, Victoria Moore. In the early twentieth century both Robin Hood Farm and nearby Varroville Farm were dairies; the Smith Brothers of Concord leased both from W. H. Staniforth of St. Andrews; the Moores left the farm in 1932 but continued to lease it as a dairy farm until 1959 (1923 Percy and Arthur Smith, dairymen of Concord operated dairies at Robin Hood Farm and Varroville until 1958, running their own dairy herd and purchasing milk from local farmers' when Victoria, by a widow and sold most of the land to Frank Wolstenholme Pty Ltd. The lot containing the farmhouse was sold to Frank Lopresti, a grocer from Lakemba in October 1959.
The farm was acquired by the State Planning Authority in October 1968. In 1969 architect John Fisher was commissioned by the State Planning Authority to restore the first five houses in Campbelltown, resumed under the Cumberland County Planning Scheme, they included Glenalvon House. A two-storey house of Georgian design, with a distinctive silhouette; the walls of the ground floor rooms fill in the ends of the front verandah forming rooms known as "out-shuts". The roof is galvanised iron, hipped with a well proportioned chimney at both ends. A striking circular silo stands near the main building; the farmhouse was believed to have been built in the 1830s but recent research would suggest that the farm was built some 20–30 years but after an earlier pattern. The conservation of the building took it back to its original form, stripping away the years of additions. Prior to the building's restoration, the National Trust listing of the building noted that the building contained much original external joinery.
The conservation work not only removed the "years of additions," but appears to have removed some of the original joinery and the original wooden columns to the front verandah. Apart from the farmhouse there are few remaining building elements from the original farm complex left; these include a brick silo, with conical corrugated iron roof, in urgent need of stabilisation, the remnants of the Dairy, including a brick cool room with original door, altered to dormitory and office accommodation. There is a narrow gauge rail line set in the cement floor of the dairy, used for transporting large feed bins from one end of the dairy to the other; as at 28 January 1999, the house is in excellent condition, the remnants of the barn structure need to be examined before any further changes are carried out. The silo needs urgent stabilisation; the main building has been extensively conserved. The exterior can be considered to be intact in its original form whilst the interior can be considered to be intact in layout and intact in fitout.
Conversion of site to Odyssey House - c. 1989, following conservation works under the guidance of Howard Tanner. A conservation plan for the site was prepared in 1988; as ten years have elapsed since this study was undertaken, it is recommended that the study be updated. The updated plan should address the impact of the "conservation works" on the significant fabric of the building and the impact of the demolition of the barn on the site's overall significance; as at 30 March 2000, Robin Hood Farm has high significance as a surviving mid nineteenth century farm house. It has a distinctive configuration not represented by other buildings in the area. Together with the surviving villas and farmhouses between Liverpool and Campbelltown, Robin Hood Farm demonstrates the variety of agricultural uses of the area and the use of the area as a rural retreat from the earliest days of white settlement, it provides evidence of the changing use and altered intensity of occupation of the area and the shift from cereal cropping to dairying.
Robin Hood Farm was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999 having satisfied the following criteria. The place is important in demon