Bergen County, New Jersey

Bergen County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2018 Census estimate, the county's population was 936,692, an increase of 3.5% from the 2010 census, which in turn represented an increase of 20,998 from the 884,118 counted in the 2000 Census. Located in the northeastern corner of New Jersey and its Gateway Region, Bergen County is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area and is directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan, to which it is connected by the George Washington Bridge. Bergen County has no large cities, its most populous place, with 43,010 residents at the time of the 2010 census, is Hackensack, its county seat. Mahwah covered the largest area of any municipality, at 26.19 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $75,849, the fourth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 45th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Bergen County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a median household income of $81,708 per the 2010 Census, increasing to an estimated $84,677 in 2014, 18% higher than the $71,919 median statewide.

The county hosts an extensive park system totaling nearly 9,000 acres. The origin of the name of Bergen County is a matter of debate, it is believed that the county is named for one of the earliest settlements, Bergen, in modern-day Hudson County. However, the origin of the township's name is debated. Several sources attribute the name to Bergen, while others attribute it to Bergen, North Holland in the Netherlands; some sources say that the name is derived from one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam, Hans Hansen Bergen, a native of Norway, who arrived in New Netherland in 1633. At the time of first European contact, Bergen County was inhabited by Native American people the Lenape Nation, whose sub-groups included the Tappan and Rumachenanck, as named by the Dutch colonists; some of their descendants are included among the Ramapough Mountain Indians, recognized as a tribe by the state in 1980. Their ancestors had moved into the mountains to escape encroachment by English colonists, their descendants reside in the northwest of the county, in nearby Passaic County and in Rockland County, New York, tracing their Lenape ancestry to speakers of the Munsee language, one of three major dialects of their language.

Over the years, they absorbed other ethnicities by intermarriage. In the 17th century, the Dutch considered the area comprising today's Bergen and Hudson counties as part of New Netherland, their colonial province of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch claimed it after Henry Hudson explored Newark Bay and anchored his ship at Weehawken Cove in 1609. From an early date, the Dutch began to import African slaves to fill their labor needs. Bergen County was the largest slaveholding county in the state; the African slaves were used for labor at the ports to support shipping, as well as for domestic servants and farm labor. Early settlement attempts by the Dutch included Pavonia and Achter Col, but the Native Americans repelled these settlements in Kieft's War and the Peach Tree War. European settlers returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen Township, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of present-day New Jersey. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, on August 27, 1664, New Amsterdam's governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English Navy.

The English organized the Province of New Jersey in 1665 splitting the territory into East Jersey and West Jersey in 1674. On November 30, 1675, the settlement Bergen and surrounding plantations and settlements were called Bergen County in an act passed by the province's General Assembly. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly. Bergen County consisted of only the land between the Hudson River and the Hackensack River, extending north to the border between East Jersey and New York. In January 1709, the boundaries were extended to include all of the current territory of Hudson County and portions of the current territory of Passaic County; the 1709 borders were described as follows: "Beginning at Constable's Hook, so along the bay and Hudson's River to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York. † The line between East and West Jersey here referred to is not the line adopted and known as the Lawrence line, run by John Lawrence in September and October 1743.

It was the compromise line agreed upon between Governors Daniel Coxe and Robert Barclay in 1682, which ran a little north of Morristown to the Passaic River. This line being afterward objected to by the East Jersey proprietors, the latter procured the running of the Lawrence line. Bergen was the location of several battles and troop movements during the American Revolutionary War. Fort Lee's location on the bluffs of the New Jersey Palisades, opposite Fort Washington in Manhattan, made it a strategic position during the war. In November 1776, the Battle of Fort Lee took place as part of a British plan to capture George Washington and to crush the Continental Army, wh

William Hurrell Mallock

William Hurrell Mallock was an English novelist and economics writer. A nephew of the historian Froude, he was educated and at Balliol College, Oxford, he won the Newdigate Prize in 1872 for his poem The Isthmus of Suez and took a second class in the final classical schools in 1874, securing his Bachelor of Arts degree from Oxford University. Mallock never entered a profession, he attracted considerable attention by his satirical novel, The New Republic, conceived while he was a student at Oxford, in which he introduced characters recognized as such prominent individuals as Benjamin Jowett, Matthew Arnold, Violet Fane, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Henry Huxley. Although the book was not well received by critics at first, it did cause instant scandal concerning the portrait of literary scholar Walter Pater: Moreover, Pater was the subject of a cruel satire in W. H. Mallock's The New Republic, published in Belgravia in 1876-7 and in book form in 1877, he appeared there as'Mr. Rose'—an effete, sensualist with a perchant for erotic literature and beautiful young men.

Mallock's book appeared during the competition for the Oxford Professorship of Poetry and played a role in convincing Pater to remove himself from consideration. A few months Pater published what may have been a subtle riposte: "A Study of Dionysus: The Spiritual Form of Fire and Dew."His keen logic and gift for acute exposition and criticism were displayed in years both in fiction and in controversial works. In a series of books dealing with religious questions he insisted on dogma as the basis of religion and on the impossibility of founding religion on purely scientific data. In Is Life Worth Living? and the satirical novel The New Paul and Virginia he attacked positivist theories and defended the Roman Catholic Church. In a volume on the intellectual position of the Church of England and Doctrinal Disruption, he advocated the necessity of a defined creed. Volumes on similar topics were Religion as a Credible Doctrine and The Reconstruction of Belief, he authored articles, being a frequent contributor to many newspapers and magazines, including The Forum, National Review, Public Opinion, Contemporary Review, Harper’s Weekly.

One in particular, directed against Thomas Huxley's agnosticism, appeared in the April 1889 issue of The Fortnightly Review, being Mallock's response to a controversy between, among others and William Connor Magee, the Bishop of Peterborough. He published several works on economics, directed against radical and socialist theories: Social Equality and Progress, Labor and the Popular Welfare and Masses, Aristocracy and Evolution, A Critical Examination of Socialism – and visited the United States in order to deliver a series of lectures on the subject: The Civic Federation of New York, an influential body which aims, in various ways, at harmonising divergent industrial interests in America, having decided on supplementing its other activities by a campaign of political and economic education, invited me, at the beginning of the year 1907, to initiate a scientific discussion of socialism in a series of lectures or speeches, to be delivered under the auspices of certain of the great Universities in the United States.

This invitation I accepted, the project being a new one, some difficulty arose as to the manner in which it might best be carried out – whether the speeches or lectures should in each case be new, dealing with some fresh aspect of the subject, or whether they should be arranged in a single series to be repeated without substantial alteration in each of the cities visited by me. The latter plan was adopted, as tending to render the discussion of the subject more comprehensible to each local audience. A series of five lectures the same, was accordingly delivered by me in New York, Chicago and Baltimore. Among his anti-socialist works should be classed his novel, The Old Order Changes, his other novels are A Romance of the Nineteenth Century, A Human Document, The Heart of Life, Tristram Lacy, The Veil of the Temple, An Immortal Soul. Mallock is given prominent space in Russell Kirk's The Conservative Mind: Mallock is remembered chiefly for one book, The New Republic, that his first, composed while he still was at Oxford – "the most brilliant novel written by an undergraduate," says Professor Tillotson, justly....

But other books of Mallock's are worth looking into still — his theological and philosophical studies, his didactic novels, his zealous volumes of political expostulation and social statistics his books of verse. "He had astonishing acuteness, great argumentative power and accurate knowledge, excellent style," Saintsbury says of Mallock. "He might have seemed — he did seem, I believe, to some – to have in him the making of an Aristophanes or a Swift of not so much lessened degree... And yet after the chiefly scandalous success of The New Republic he never'came off.' To attribute this to the principles he advocated is to nail on those who dislike those principles their own favourite gibe of'the stupid party.'"... In the past two or three years, interest in Mallock has revived somewhat stimulated by that conservative revival for which Mallock hoped, the lines of which he predicted. Is Life Worth Living?, Social Equality, The Limits of Pure Democracy, together with Mallock's charming autobiography, are deserving of attention from

Charles Wugk Sabatier

Charles-Désiré-Joseph Wugk Sabatier was a Canadian pianist, organist and music educator of French birth. Born Charles Wugk in Tourcoing, Sabatier was the son of an immigrant from Saxony, he enrolled at the Conservatoire de Paris under his birth name in 1838, studying there through 1840. He adopted the last name of Sabatier some time during his early career. An article in the Toronto Globe published on 25 September 1856 claimed that Sabatier was pianist to the Duchess of Montpensier and that he had conducted opera in Brussels; the former account is most accurate but music historians reject the latter claim. Sabatier most arrived in Canada in 1848, although an exact year is not substantiated, he first resided in the city of Montreal and lived in Quebec City from 1854-1856. During these years he worked as a music teacher, church organist, concert pianist for both public and private performances, he played concerts of his own work as a guest artist at St Lawrence Hall in Toronto in 1856. His composition Le Drapeau de Carillon was published in the Journal de Quebec for St Jean-Baptiste Day in 1858.

He lived in a variety of cities over the next several years, first in St-Jean-Chrysostome-de-Lévis and in St-Gervais and Chambly. In the latter city he was employed at a convent as an instructor in music. Sabatier settled in Montreal where he remained for the rest of his life. In that city he worked as a private music teacher and counted pianist Dominique Ducharme, organist Ernest Gagnon, composer Calixa Lavallée among his students, he founded the short-lived journal L'Artiste with Paul Stevens and Édouard Sempé in May 1860. On 24 August 1860 his Cantata was premiered under his direction on the occasion of the visit of the Prince of Wales. For the performance he conducted the 250 voice a full orchestra; the soloists for the cantata included Emma Albani. Sabatier died in Montreal in 1862 at the age of 42