Vincent van Gogh
Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings and his suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty. Born into a family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling and he turned to religion, and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881 and his younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, in 1886 he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and his paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888.
During this period he broadened his subject matter to include trees, wheat fields. Van Gogh suffered from episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor and he spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris and his depression continued and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver. He died from his injuries two days later, Van Gogh was unsuccessful during his lifetime, and was considered a madman and a failure. He became famous after his suicide, and exists in the imagination as the quintessential misunderstood genius. His reputation began to grow in the early 20th century as elements of his style came to be incorporated by the Fauves. The most comprehensive source on Van Gogh is the correspondence between him and his younger brother, Theo.
Their lifelong friendship, and most of what is known of Vincents thoughts, Theo van Gogh was an art dealer and provided his brother with financial and emotional support, and access to influential people on the contemporary art scene. Theo kept all of Vincents letters to him, Vincent kept few of the letters he received, after both had died, Theos widow Johanna arranged for the publication of some of their letters. A few appeared in 1906 and 1913, the majority were published in 1914, Vincents letters are eloquent and expressive and have been described as having a diary-like intimacy, and read in parts like autobiography
A rotunda is any building with a circular ground plan, and sometimes covered by a dome. It can refer to a room within a building. The Pantheon in Rome is a famous rotunda, a Band Rotunda is a circular bandstand, usually with a dome. The rotunda has historical and architectural value because it was widespread in medieval Central Europe, a great number of parochial churches were built in this form in the 9th to 11th centuries BCE in Central Europe. This type of circular shaped parochial building can be found in great number in Hungary, Slovakia, Austria, Dalmatia, and it was thought of as a structure descending from the Roman Pantheon. However, it can be found mainly not on former Roman territories, generally its size was 6–9 meters inner diameter and the apsis was directed toward the east. Sometimes 3 or 4 apsides were glued to the central circle, several types of rotundas are found in the Carpathian Basin, within the former boundaries of Medieval Hungary. The role and form developed from gradual enlargements of ancient small village churches, many of them still stand today, e. g.
in Nagytótlak, Kallósd and Kissikátor in Hungary or in Bíňa and Šivetice in Slovakia. In many places the ancient foundations have been excavated and conserved, the village church of Sárospatak is complete with a simple circular nave and an eastern apse. The church of Alagimajor at Dunakeszi was enlarged toward the apse in the 14th century, in many cases the rotunda was used as the apse of the villages new and larger church. Such semi-circle apses are preserved all over the Carpathian Basin, rotundas of six apses, a most interesting form, are found at Karcsa, Kiszombor in Hungary, at Horjany in Ukraine and several places in Armenia. There is a connection between Central European and Caucasian rotundas of the 9th to 11th centuries BCE. Several Armenian built rotunda churches have sixfold arched central apsis, i. e. at Aragatz, Bagnayr, Botshor, at the same time eightfold arched central buildings are frequently occurring in Armenia, Irind, Varzhahan. It was a suggestion that there was not only western European, temple of Heaven construction completed on 1420 during Yongle Emperor who constructed Forbidden City of China.
Fujian Tulou is a traditional rural dwellings of the Hakka in Fujian region of China and they are built between the 12th and the 20th centuries. The Baptistery at the Piazza dei Miracoli, Italy, the Church of the Rotonda in Thessaloniki, built as the Tomb of Galerius in 306 AD. The St George Rotunda in Sofia, Bulgaria, a 4th-century Early Christian church, St. George Cathedral Church at Zvartnots, Armenia. St. Martins Rotunda in Vyšehrad Castle, Czech Republic, the Rotunda of St Marija Assunta in Mosta, Malta
National Gallery (Berlin)
The National Gallery in Berlin, Germany, is a museum for art of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. It is part of the Berlin State Museums, from the Alte Nationalgalerie, which was built for it and opened in 1876, its exhibition space has expanded to include five other locations. The museums are part of the Berlin State Museums, owned by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, the holdings of the National Gallery are currently shown in five locations, Alte Nationalgalerie, 19th-century art, on Museum Island Neue Nationalgalerie, 20th-century art, at the Kulturforum. The building, designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, opened on 15 September 1968, Berggruen Museum, in Charlottenburg, showing classics of 20th-century modern art collected by Heinz Berggruen, added to the National Gallery in 1996. Scharf-Gerstenberg Collection, in Charlottenburg, showing 20th-century art from French Romanticism to Surrealism, hamburger Bahnhof, Museum für Gegenwart, contemporary art, added to the National Gallery in 1996.
Friedrichswerder Church, 19th-century sculpture, a designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. In 2012 the building was closed owing to structural damage. From the start it was bound up with the ambitions of Prussia, the collection was initially known as the Wagenersche und Nationalgalerie and was housed in the buildings of the Prussian Academy of Arts. Friedrich August Stüler began working on a design for a building in 1863, based on a sketch by William Is father. Two years and two failed plans later, his proposal was finally accepted. Stüler died before planning was completed and Carl Busse handled the details in 1865. In 1866, by order of the king and his cabinet, ground was broken in 1867 under the supervision of Heinrich Strack. In 1872 the structure was completed and interior work began, the opening took place on March 22,1876 in the presence of William I, who was by German Emperor. The building, today the Alte Nationalgalerie, resembles a Greco-Roman temple and is stylistically a combination of late Classicism and early Neo-Renaissance.
It was intended to express the unity of art and history, and therefore has aspects reminiscent of a church and a theatre as well as a temple. An equestrian statue of Frederick William IV tops the stairs, the inscription over the door reads To German art,1871. On his first visit to Berlin, in November 1916, the young Adolf Hitler sent a postcard of this building to a comrade in arms to him on receiving the Iron Cross. The first director of the National Gallery was Max Jordan, who was appointed in 1874, in 1896, he was succeeded as director by Hugo von Tschudi, formerly assistant head of the Berlin museums under Wilhelm von Bode
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870.
The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, the museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections
Charlottenburg Palace is the largest palace in Berlin, Germany. It is located in the Charlottenburg district of the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf borough, the palace was built at the end of the 17th century and was greatly expanded during the 18th century. It includes much exotic internal decoration in baroque and rococo styles, a large formal garden surrounded by woodland was added behind the palace, including a belvedere, a mausoleum, a theatre and a pavilion. During the Second World War, the palace was damaged but has since been reconstructed. The palace with its gardens are a major tourist attraction, the original palace was commissioned by Sophie Charlotte, the wife of Friedrich III, Elector of Brandenburg in what was the village of Lietzow. Originally named Lietzenburg, the palace was designed by Johann Arnold Nering in baroque style and it consisted of one wing and was built in 2 1⁄2 storeys with a central cupola. The façade was decorated with Corinthian pilasters, on the top was a cornice on which were statues.
At the rear in the centre of the palace were two halls, the upper one being a ceremonial hall and the lower giving access to the gardens. Nering died during the construction of the palace and the work was completed by Martin Grünberg, the inauguration of the palace was celebrated on 11 July 1699, Fredericks 42nd birthday. Friedrich crowned himself as King Friedrich I in Prussia in 1701, on his return in 1702, Eosander began to extend the palace, starting with two side wings to enclose a large courtyard, and the main palace was extended on both sides. Sophie Charlotte died in 1705 and Friedrich named the palace and its estate Charlottenburg in her memory, in the following years, the Orangery was built on the west of the palace and the central area was extended with a large domed tower and a larger vestibule. On top of the dome is a vane in the form of a gilded statue representing Fortune designed by Andreas Heidt. The Orangery was originally used to overwinter rare plants, during the summer months, when over 500 orange and sour orange trees decorated the baroque garden, the Orangery regularly was the gorgeous scene of courtly festivities.
Inside the palace, was a described as the eighth wonder of the world, the Amber Room. It was designed by Andreas Schlüter and its construction by the Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram started in 1701, Friedrich Wilhelm I gave the Amber Room to Tsar Peter the Great as a present in 1716. When Friedrich I died in 1713, he was succeeded by his son, Friedrich Wilhelm I whose building plans were less ambitious, building was resumed after his son Friedrich II came to the throne in 1740. During that year, stables for his guard regiment were completed to the south of the Orangery wing. The building of the new wing was supervised by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, the Superintendent of all the Royal Palaces, the decoration of the exterior was relatively simple but the interior furnishings were lavish
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave. As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for a terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, pergolas are sometimes confused with arbours, and the terms are often used interchangeably. An arbour is generally regarded as a bench seat with a roof. A pergola, on the hand, is a much larger and more open structure. As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for a terrace or a link between pavilions. Pergolas may link pavilions or extend from a door to an open garden feature such as an isolated terrace or pool. Freestanding pergolas, those not attached to a home or other structure, provide an area that allows for breeze and light sun. Pergolas give climbing plants a structure on which to grow, at the Medici villa, La Petraia and outer curving segments of such green walks, the forerunners of pergolas, give structure to the pattern, which can be viewed from the long terrace above it.
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave, the English term was borrowed from Italian. The clearly artificial nature of the pergola made it fall from favor in the naturalistic gardening styles of the 18th and 19th centuries, a particularly extensive pergola features at the gardens of The Hill, designed by Thomas Mawson for his client W. H. Lever. Wooden pergolas are either made from a weather-resistant wood, such as western redcedar or, formerly, of coast redwood, are painted or stained, for a low maintenance alternative to wood, fiberglass, aluminum and CPVC can be used. These materials do not require paint or stain like a wooden pergola and their manufacture can make them even stronger. Breezeway Brise soleil Latticework Patio Trellis Vine training systems
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
Giambattista Pittoni or Giovanni Battista Pittoni was an Italian painter of the late Baroque or Rococo period. He was among the founders of the Academy of Fine Arts of Venice, of which in 1758 he became the second president, Pittoni was born in Venice on 6 June 1687.383 The theory of Rodolfo Pallucchini that Pittoni studied under Antonio Balestra is now generally discounted. However, in 1720 he may have travelled to France with his uncle Francesco, together with Rosalba Carriera, Antonio Pellegrini and he was elected to the Accademia Clementina of Bologna in 1727.28 Pittoni died in Venice on 6 November 1767. His tomb is in the church of San Giacomo dellOrio, Venice.384 The catalogue raisonné by Franca Zava Boccazzi of Pittonis paintings lists 247 extant and 117 lost, missing or destroyed works. The catalogue raisonné by Alice Binion of his drawings includes 304 items.91 Pittoni had a reputation during his lifetime. He was a restorer of older paintings, he was often selected as restorer or inspector of the quadri pubblici.
He sold nine paintings to the soldier-turned-collector Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg, Pittoni was successful, well liked and well respected. His reputation rapidly faded after his death, and by the end of the century he was totally forgotten. Interest in him was revived in the century by the publications of Laura Coggiola Pittoni, beginning with Dei Pittoni. Compendio delle vite de pittori veneziani istorici più rinomati del presente secolo con suoi ritratti tratti dal naturale, della pittura veneziana e delle opere pubbliche de veneziani maestri libri V. Venezia, Stamperia di G. Albrizzi. Pittoni Firenze, Istituto di edizioni artistiche, ——— Pseudo influenza francese nellarte di Giambattista Pittoni. Die Tätigkeit der Venezianer Maler Piazzetta und Pittoni für den Kurfürsten Clemens August von Köln, Hefte für Geschichte, Kunst und Volkskunde 19, 364–72. Muzeum i twórca, Studia z historii sztuki i kultury ku czci Stanisława Lorentza, per il catalogo di Giambattista Pittoni, Proposte e inediti.
Nota sulla grafica di Antonio Kern, pitture mitologiche di Giambattista Pittoni in rapporto a Sebastiano Ricci. Atti del Congresso internazionale di studi su Sebastiano Ricci e il suo tempo 1, la vicenda dei Tombeaux des princes, storia e fortuna della serie Swiny tra Bologna e Venezia. Saggi e memorie di storia dellarte 10,79, 81-102, due nuove micropitture di Giambattista Pittoni. In. Per Maria Cionini Visani, Scritti di amici, münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 32, 182–206. Three New Mythological Paintings by Giambattista Pittoni, Piazzetta and Tiepolo at Parma
Heinz Berggruen was a German art dealer and collector who sold 165 works of art to the German federal government to form the core of the Berggruen Museum in Berlin, Germany. Berggruen was born in Berlin on 6 January 1914 to assimilated Jewish parents, Ludwig Berggruen, a businessman who owned an office supply business before the war and he attended the Goethe-Gymnasium in Wilmersdorf and graduated to the Friedrich-Wilhelms University in 1932 where he read literature. After 1933 he continued his studies at the universities of Grenoble and he contributed free-lance articles to the Frankfurter Zeitung, the forerunner of todays Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. He immigrated to the United States in 1936 and studied German literature at University of California, after working as an art critic for the San Francisco Chronicle, in 1939 he became an assistant to the director at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. There, he helped to prepare an exhibition about the Mexican painter Diego Rivera, later, he met Frida Kahlo and claims to have had a short love affair with her in New York in 1940.
That same year he says that he bought his first picture for $100 and it was a watercolour by Paul Klee, and he bought it from a Jewish refugee in need of money. After the Second World War Berggruen returned to Europe as member of the U. S. Army and he moved to Paris, where he worked in the fine arts division of UNESCO, run by his former boss at the San Francisco museum, Grace Morley. Within a few years, he opened a bookshop on the Île Saint-Louis, specializing in illustrated books. During this time he got acquainted with Pablo Picasso in Paris and he soon became an important dealer in Picasso prints, as well as in second-hand Picasso paintings. Berggruen resigned as director of the Paris gallery in 1980 in order to devote himself to collecting and dealing. In 1988, he donated 90 Klee works to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, in 1990, he lent a good part of his collection to the National Gallery in London. In 1995, the German government lent him an apartment in Berlin, the collection, comprising 118 works, opened to the public in 1997.
For this, Berggruen was awarded the honorary citizenship of Berlin, there is no evidence for the story that he talked his fellow Berliner Helmut Newton into giving his photographic collection to the city. Berggruen has been married twice and has four children, in 1939, Berggruen married the American Lillian Zellerbach. They had two children, John Berggruen, owner of the John Berggruen Gallery in San Francisco, Helen Berggruen, in 1960, he married the German actress Bettina Moissi, a Catholic of Albanian and German descent. They had two children, Olivier Berggruen, art historian and curator, Nicolas Berggruen, a financier, Berggruen died at the American Hospital of Paris in Neuilly-sur-Seine on 23 February 2007. At his own wish he was buried in the forest cemetery in Waldfriedhof Dahlem, Berggruen stated I am neither French nor German, he told reporters at the time. Id very much like to think there was a European nationality, but I think I may be dreaming