Afanasev Makarov AM-23
The Afanasev Makarov AM-23 is a Russian designed aircraft autocannon, used in a number of aircraft in the Soviet Air Force. Its GRAU index was 9-A-036, it was used in place of the earlier and slower-firing Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23. In 1953 the first strategic jet bomber, the Tu-16, was introduced into the Soviet Air Force. A new 23 mm cannon was needed for the defensive turrets of this bomber, supposed to be more compact and faster firing than the NR-23; the designers Nikolay M. Afanasev and Nikolay F. Makarov from the TsKB-14 design bureau scaled-up the A-12.7 12.7 mm machine gun to create a 23 mm aircraft cannon. The TKB-495 achieved a maximum rate of 1,350 rounds per minute during the tests and in May 1954 double that of the NR-23, it was renamed the AM-23 in honour of its designers. The Tu-16 bomber was armed with a total of seven AM-23 cannon. A single cannon was fixed in the nose of the aircraft, the others were mounted in pairs in the defensive turrets; the Tu-95 bomber was in most versions equipped with a total of six AM-23 cannon located in three defensive turrets.
The tail turret of the Tu-95 was replaced by an electronic countermeasures installation, which resulted in the Tu-95MS. Apart from the Tu-16 and Tu-95, the AM-23 cannon was installed on the Antonov An-8, An-12B, B-8, B-10, Il-54, Il-76, Myasishchev M-4, 3M and M-6 bombers and transporters; the DB-65U tail turret of the An-12 transporter was equipped with two AM-23 cannon. China bought a licence to produce a copy of the AM-23 cannon, which they designate Type 23-2; the AM-23 aircraft cannon is a gas-operated weapon with a vertically moving wedge breechblock. Two jointed chambering levers are pivoted from the actuating slide; the upper, longer lever is used to ram the cartridge from the belt link into the chamber. An extraction claw on its forward end is used to extract the fired cartridge case; the lower lever has a U-shaped recess on its lower end. As the actuating slide moves back and forth, a lug in the weapon housing is cammed into this recess to guide the chambering levers; the 12.7mm A-12.7 aircraft machine gun and the 23mm ZSU anti-aircraft gun are identical in design and operation.
The AM-23 differs from the ZSU anti-aircraft cannon in having a gas buffer where the ZSU has a disk spring buffer. The propellant gas conducted into the buffer is used to soften the impact of the actuating slide when it reaches the back plate; the compressed gas inside the buffer is used to impart a considerable forward velocity to the actuating slide to start counter-recoil. Ammunition may be fed from the right side. Fired cartridge cases are ejected through a port on the underside of the receiver and empty belt links drop out of the feed mechanism at the opposite side from which the belt was fed. A pneumatic charging mechanism is used to clear misfires. For the AM-23 aircraft cannon a new series of improved caliber 23x115 mm ammunition was developed; this used a new propellant with much higher performance, allowing increased muzzle velocity from a shorter barrel. Although NS-23 and AM-23 ammunition is dimensionally the same, it is not permitted to fire NS-23 and NR-23 ammunition in the AM-23 or GSh-23.
However, AM-23 ammunition can be fired safely in the NS-23 and NR-23. To distinguish AM-23 cartridges from the NS-23 ammunition, the AM-23 projectiles have a 4mm wide white coloured band on the side. Projectile types include high explosive incendiary, high explosive incendiary tracer, armour piercing high explosive, armour piercing incendiary, armour piercing incendiary tracer, chaff expelling, flare expelling and target practice types. List of Russian weaponry Koll, Christian. Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 153. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9. Система Афанасьева
The Beriev Be-30 is a Russian regional airliner and utility transport aircraft designed by the Beriev Design Bureau. It was developed for Aeroflot local service routes using short, grass airstrips, it was designed to be used in the light transport, aerial survey and air ambulance roles. It competed against the Antonov An-28 and the Czechoslovakian LET-410; the original design featured interconnected engines, so that in case of one engine failing, the remaining engine could drive both propellers. This feature was not implemented in the production version; the first prototype flew on 3 March 1967, fitted with Shvetsov ASh-21 piston engines, while the first production prototype flew on 18 July 1968, using more powerful Glushenkov TVD-10 turboprop engines. The first deliveries to Aeroflot were in mid-1969; the Be-30 was designed for a flight crew of two with passenger arrangements for 14 to a maximum of 17 seated two abreast. Corporate shuttle configuration seated seven; the air ambulance configuration could accommodate nine stretcher patients, six seated patients and one medical attendant.
Three Be-30s and five Be-32s were built in the late 1960s. In the early 1990s one of the original Be-32s was converted to a Be-32K demonstrator and presented at the 1993 Paris and Dubai air shows, it was painted in the colors of the now defunct Moscow Airways which had ordered 50 aircraft but ceased operations before any could be built or delivered. Be-30 Prototype first flew on 3 March 1967, powered by two 550 kW ASh-21 piston radial engines, driving three-blade constant speed propellers. Fuel capacity 1,000 kg. Be-30: Production model Be-30A: With'high-density' seating for 21-23 passengers Be-32: Upgraded model first displayed in 1993. Two 754 kW Glushenkov TVD-10B turboprops driving three-blade constant speed propellers. Be-32K:'Westernized' version with two 820 kW Pratt & Whitney PT6A-65B turboprops driving three-blade Hartzell reversible pitch propellers. Fuel capacity 2,250 L. Soviet UnionAeroflot General characteristics Crew: two Capacity: 14-16 passengers Length: 15.7 m Wingspan: 17.0 m Height: 5.52 m Wing area: 32 m² Empty weight: 3,607 kg Useful load: 1,500 kg Max.
Takeoff weight: 5,860 kg Powerplant: 2 × Glushenkov TVD-10 turboprop engines, 708 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 480 km/h at 2,000 m Cruise speed: 460 km/h at 2,000 m Range: 1,300 km "Beriev Be-30/32". Airliners.net. Retrieved 2006-08-18. Beriev site Be-30/32 at Airliners.net
A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with one or more slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage to provide buoyancy. By contrast, a flying boat uses its fuselage for buoyancy. Either type of seaplane may have landing gear suitable for land, making the vehicle an amphibious aircraft. British usage is to call "floatplanes" "seaplanes" rather than use the term "seaplane" to refer to both floatplanes and flying boats. Since World War II and the advent of helicopters, advanced aircraft carriers and land-based aircraft, military seaplanes have stopped being used. This, coupled with the increased availability of civilian airstrips, have reduced the number of flying boats being built. However, numerous modern civilian aircraft have floatplane variants, most of these are offered as third-party modifications under a supplemental type certificate, although there are several aircraft manufacturers that build floatplanes from scratch; these floatplanes have found their niche as one type of bush plane, for light duty transportation to lakes and other remote areas, as well as to small/hilly islands without proper airstrips.
They may operate on a charter basis, provide scheduled service, or be operated by residents of the area for private, personal use. Float planes have been derived from land-based aircraft, with fixed floats mounted under the fuselage instead of retractable undercarriage. Float planes offer several advantages since the fuselage is not in contact with water, which simplifies production by not having to incorporate the compromises necessary for water tightness, general impact strength and the hydroplaning characteristics needed for the aircraft to leave the water. Attaching floats to a landplane allows for much larger production volumes to pay for the development and production of the small number of aircraft operated from the water. Additionally, on all but the largest seaplanes, floatplane wings offer more clearance over obstacles, such as docks, reducing the difficulty in loading while on the water. A typical single engine flying boat is unable to bring the hull alongside a dock for loading while most floatplanes are able to do so.
Floats impose extra drag and weight, rendering floatplanes slower and less manoeuvrable during flight, with a slower rate of climb, relative to aircraft equipped with wheeled landing gear. Air races devoted to floatplanes attracted a lot of attention during the 1920s and 1930s, most notably in the form of the Schneider Trophy, not least because water takeoffs permitted longer takeoff runs which allowed greater optimization for high speed compared to contemporary airfields. There are two basic configurations for the floats on floatplanes: "single float" designs, in which a single large float is mounted directly underneath the fuselage, with smaller stabilizing floats underneath the wingtips, on planes like the Nakajima A6M2-N and; some early twin float designs had additional wingtip stabilizing floats. The main advantage of the single float design is its capability for landings in rough water: a long central float is directly attached to the fuselage, this being the strongest part of the aircraft structure, while the smaller floats under the outer wings provide the aircraft with lateral stability.
By comparison, dual floats restrict handling to waves as little as one foot in height. However, twin float designs facilitate mooring and boarding, – in the case of torpedo bombers – leave the belly free to carry a torpedo. Amphibious aircraft List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft RAPT system "Why Seaplanes Fly With Bullet Speed", December 1931, Popular Science excellent article on the different design features of the floats on floatplanes "Will a Lake Be Your Postwar Landing Field?" Popular Science, February 1945, pp. 134–135
The Beriev Aircraft Company Beriev Design Bureau, is a Russian aircraft manufacturer, specializing in amphibious aircraft. The company was founded in Taganrog in the 1934 as OKB-49 by Georgy Mikhailovich Beriev, since that time has designed and produced more than 20 different models of aircraft for civilian and military purposes, as well as customized models. Today the company employs some 3000 specialists and is developing and manufacturing amphibious aircraft. Pilots flying Beriev seaplanes have broken 228 world aviation records; the records are acknowledged by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Georgy Mikhailovich Beriev founded the design bureau that bears his name at Taganrog in 1932; the traditional focus of the Beriyev Design Bureau has been the development of seaplanes for military and civilian use. The Bureau was moved to Krasnoyarsk in Siberia in 1942 to avoid destruction in World War II, returned to Taganrog in 1945. In November 1989 Beriev became the only defense industry enterprise to win the Prize for Quality awarded by the Soviet Government.
Antonov An-30 "Clank", aerial cartography development of the Antonov An-24 Beriev A-40'Albatros', the largest multipurpose amphibian airplane in the world, NATO codename "Mermaid" Beriev A-50'Shmel', a modified Ilyushin Il-76 modified into an AWACS role, NATO codename "Mainstay" Beriev A-60, a modified Ilyushin Il-76 transport aircraft, converted into an airborne laser laboratory in 1981 Beriev A-100, a modified Ilyushin Il-476 AWACS that will succeed the A-50 and A-50U Beriev Be-1, prototype wing in ground effect aircraft Beriev Be-2, seaplane Beriev Be-4, parasol-wing flying boat Beriev Be-6 "Madge", flying boat used for firefighting duty Beriev Be-8 "Mole", passenger/liaison amphibian Beriev Be-10 "Mallow", jet-engined flying boat Beriev Be-12'Chayka', Amphibious aircraft, similar in function to the Canadair CL-415, used for anti-submarine warfare, based upon the Be-6. NATO codename "Mail" Beriev Be-30 "Cuff", a regional airliner and utility transport aircraft Beriev Be-101 proposed light amphibian with one propeller engine Beriev Be-103 Bekas, a light amphibian, intended for passenger transport, medical aid and tourism Beriev Be-112 proposed twin-engined propeller amphibian airplane Beriev Be-200 Altair, a large multipurpose amphibian airplane Beriev Be-32 "Cuff", a multipurpose airplane meant for cargo/passenger transport and expeditions.
Beriev A-42 Albatros, an updated version of A-40 adopted into service in a SAR and antisubmarine roles, production to begin in 2010. NATO codename "Mermaid". Beriev A-42PE Albatros, a unique Search and Rescue SAR airplane, powered by propfan engines. NATO codename "Mermaid" Beriev Be-2500 Neptune, a proposed super-heavy amphibian cargo aircraft with a max takeoff weight of 2500 metric tons Beriev MBR-2 "Mote", reconnaissance flying-boat Beriev MBR-7, bomber flying-boat Beriev MDR-5, long-range reconnaissance, bomber flying-boat Beriev R-1, experimental jet-powered flying boat Beriev S-13, a clone of the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance plane. Bartini Beriev VVA-14, an amphibious anti-submarine aircraft, only prototypes were produced Tupolev Tu-142MR "Bear-F / -J" Official site in English Official site in Russian US division Beriev Aircraft Corp. in the Taganrog Business Directory
The Beriev MBR-2 was a Soviet multi-purpose flying boat which entered service with the Soviet Navy in 1935. Out of 1365 built, 9 were used by foreign countries including North Korea. In Soviet Union it sometimes carried the nickname of "Kорова" and "Амбар"; the MBR-2 was designed by Georgy Mikhailovich Beriev and first flew in 1931, powered by an imported 373 kW BMW VI. Z engine. Production models, which arrived in 1934, used a licence-built version of this engine, the Mikulin M-17 of 508 kW, could be fitted with a fixed wheel or ski undercarriage. Beriev designed a commercial airliner derivation, the MP-1, which entered airline service in 1934, a freighter version, which followed in 1936. In 1935, an improved version was developed, the MBR-2bis, powered by the Mikulin AM-34N engine, fitted with an enclosed cockpit, dorsal gun-turret and enlarged vertical tail. In this configuration, the machine remained in production until 1941; as with the MBR-2, the bis spawned a commercial derivative and the MP-1bis entered service in 1937.
MBR-2M-17: Short-range maritime reconnaissance, bombing flying-boat, powered by a 508 kW Mikulin M-17B piston engine. MBR-2AM-34 or MBR-2bis: Improved version, powered by a Mikulin AM-34N engine. MBR-2M-103: One MBR-2AM-34 was fitted with the more powerful M-103 engine. One prototype only. MP-1: Civil version of the MBR-2M-17 flying-boat, it could carry six passengers in an enclosed cabin. MP-1bis: Civil version of the MBR-2AM-34 flying-boat. MP-1T: Freight transport conversion of MBR-2. FinlandThe Finnish Air Force operated five captured aircraft from 1941. Soviet UnionAeroflot Soviet Naval Aviation North KoreaNorth Korean Air Force General characteristics Crew: 4-5 Length: 13.50 m Wingspan: 19.00 m Height: 4.40 m Empty weight: 2,718 kg Max. Takeoff weight: 4,245 kg Powerplant: 1 × Mikulin AM-34N V12 engine, 559 kW Performance Maximum speed: 275 km/h Range: 1,500 km Service ceiling: 4,900 m Armament Guns: 1× 7.62 mm PV-1 machine gun in bow 1× 7.62 mm ShKAS machine gun in dorsal turret Bombs: 300 kg of bombs and depth charges carried underwing Aircraft of comparable role and era Supermarine Walrus Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft List of aircraft of World War II Munson, Kenneth.
Bombers and Transport Aircraft 1939-45. Blandford. ISBN 0-7137-0379-2. Beriev MBR-2 at aeroflight.co.uk Century of Flight Beriev MBR-2, TsKB-25 at Russian Aviation Museum MBR-2 series with M-17 engine at Russian Aviation Museum Beriev MP-1, MP-1bis, MP-1T at Russian Aviation Museum
Martin P6M SeaMaster
The Martin P6M SeaMaster, built by the Glenn L. Martin Company, was a 1950s strategic bomber flying boat for the United States Navy that entered service. Envisioned as a way to give the Navy a strategic nuclear force, the SeaMaster was eclipsed by the Polaris submarine-launched ballistic missile. Due to the political situation at the Pentagon, the Navy promoted the P6M as a high speed minelayer. In the immediate postwar defense climate, the United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command was the linchpin of the United States' security as the sole means of delivery of the nation's nuclear arsenal; the Navy saw its strategic role being eclipsed by the Air Force and knew both its prestige and budgets were at stake. Its first attempt to address this came in the form of the USS United States, a large supercarrier intended to launch Navy strategic bombers; this was cancelled in 1950 shortly after her keel was laid down, a victim of budget cuts and US Air Force interference. In response, the Navy chose to create a "Seaplane Striking Force", useful for both nuclear and conventional warfare, including reconnaissance and minelaying.
Groups of these planes supported by seaplane tenders or special submarines could be located close to the enemy, being mobile, they would be hard to neutralize. The requirement issued in April 1951 was for a seaplane able to carry a 30,000 lb warload over a range of 1,500 mi from its aquatic base; the aircraft was to be capable of a low altitude dash at Mach 0.9. Both Convair and Martin submitted proposals, the Martin proposal was chosen as more promising. An order for two prototypes was issued, projected to lead to six pre-production aircraft and a projected twenty-four production aircraft; the plane was to have a Curtiss-Wright turbo-ramjet engine, but this ran into problems and a more conventional Allison J71-A-4 turbojet was employed, fitted in pairs in overwing pods to keep the spray out of the intakes. Wings swept at 40° were used. Many features of Martin's XB-51 bomber prototype were used, including an all-flying "T" tail and a rotating bomb bay—pneumatically sealed against seawater in the P6M.
The first flight of the XP6M-1 came on 14 July 1955, but early tests showed that the engines were mounted too close to the fuselage and scorched it when afterburners were used, leading to angling the engines outward in subsequent aircraft. Flight testing was successful, but, on 7 December 1955, a control system fault destroyed the first prototype with the loss of all aboard; the first prototype, BuNo 138821, c/n XP-1, disintegrated in flight at 5,000 feet due to the horizontal tail going to full up due to a control malfunction, subjecting the airframe to 9 g stress as it began an outside loop, crashing into the Potomac River near the junction of St. Mary's River, killing four crew members. Eleven months on 9 November 1956, the second prototype, BuNo 138822, c/n XP-2, first flown on 18 May 1956, was destroyed, due to a change made in the horizontal stabilizer control system without adequate evaluation before test flying the design; the crash occurred at 15:36 near Delaware due to a faulty elevator jack.
As the seaplane nosed up at ~21,000 feet and failed to respond to control inputs, the crew of four ejected. The airframe broke up after falling to 6,000 feet before impact; the first pre-production YP6M-1 was completed about a year with testing resuming in January 1958. Five more were built in 1958 when the Navy announced that Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity in Hertford, North Carolina, would serve as the testing grounds for the fleet of Martin P6M SeaMasters; these aircraft were fitted with test versions of the full combat equipment suite and were used for bombing, mine laying and reconnaissance evaluations. The J71 engines were unreliable and the aircraft had spray ingestion problems at higher gross weights, which limited takeoffs to ideal conditions; the P6M-1 had a serious control deficiency due to porpoising under some trim settings. These deficiencies resulted in the P6M-1 program being cut as it was no longer considered possible for it to be developed; the Navy and Martin felt that the P6M-2, would provide a useful aircraft.
The first was rolled out in early 1959. Changes included new, more powerful Pratt & Whitney J75 engines, an aerial refueling probe, improved avionics, a canopy with better visibility. A buddy refueling drogue kit had been developed to fit in the bomb bay. Three had been built by summer 1959 and Navy crews were moving them through operational conversion when the program was abruptly canceled in August of that year; the P6M-2 was an impressive aircraft. The aircraft were built, with the skin at the wing roots over 1 in thick; the docile and pleasant handling characteristics of the P6M-1 were replaced by some severe compressibility effects above Mach 0.8. These included rapid changes in directional trim, severe buffeting, wing drop requiring high control inputs to counter; until those problems were fixed, the P6M-2 could not be considered for use by the Fleet. The problems were identified as being caused by the larger engine nacelles required for the J75s. There were problems on the water, including a tendency for the tip floats to dig in under certain situations, engine surges.
These problems were solved, but time had
Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
The Fédération aéronautique internationale, is the world governing body for air sports, stewards definitions regarding human spaceflight. It was founded on 14 October 1905, is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, it maintains world records for aeronautical activities including ballooning, unmanned aerial vehicles, as well as flights into space. The FAI was founded at a conference held in Paris 12–14 October 1905, organised following a resolution passed by the Olympic Congress held in Brussels on 10 June 1905 calling for the creation of an Association "to regulate the sport of flying... the various aviation meetings and advance the science and sport of Aeronautics." The conference was attended by representatives from 8 countries: Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, Spain and the United States. On 2 February 2017 the FAI announced its new strategic partnership with international asset management firm Noosphere Ventures. FAI Secretary General Susanne Schödel, FAI President Frits Brink and Noosphere Ventures Managing Partner Max Polyakov signed the agreement, making Noosphere Ventures FAI’s Global Technical Partner.
The FAI is the international governing body for the following activities: Aerobatics through the FAI Aerobatics Commission Aeromodeling and drones through the FAI Aeromodelling Commission Ballooning through the FAI Ballooning Commission General aviation through the FAI General Aviation Commission Gliding through the FAI Gliding Commission Hang gliding & Paragliding through the FAI Hang Gliding & Paragliding Commission Human-powered aircraft through the FAI Amateur-Built and Experimental Aircraft Commission Microlighting and Paramotoring through the FAI Microlight & Paramotor Commission Parachuting through the FAI Parachuting Commission Rotorcraft through the FAI Rotorcraft Commission The FAI establishes the standards for records in the activities. Where these are air sports, the FAI oversees international competitions at world and continental levels, organizes the World Air Games and FAI World Grand Prix; the FAI organises Expo. This event offers a platform for organisations and individuals to discuss how drones are used today and to create a framework for how they will be used and impact on life in the future.
The FAI keeps records set in human spaceflight, through the FAI Astronautic Records Commission The FAI defines the limit between Earth's atmosphere and outer space, the so-called Karman Line, as the altitude of 100 kilometres above Earth's sea level. Among the FAI's responsibilities are the verification of record-breaking flights. For a flight to be registered as a "World Record," it has to comply with the FAI's strict rules, which include a proviso that the record must exceed the previous record by a certain percentage. Since the late 1930s, military aircraft have dominated some classes of record for powered aircraft such as speed, distance and height, though other classes are claimed by civilians; some records are claimed by countries as their own though their achievements fail to meet FAI standards. These claims are not granted the status of official records. For example, Yuri Gagarin earned recognition for the first manned spaceflight, despite failing to meet FAI requirements; the FAI did not recognize the achievement because he did not land in his Vostok spacecraft, but it recognized that Gagarin was the first human to fly into space.
The FAI established "The Yuri A. Gagarin Gold Medal", awarded since 1968; the following types of craft have records: Class A Free Balloons Class B Airships Class C Aeroplanes Class CS Solar-Powered Aeroplanes Class D Gliders & Motorgliders Class E Rotorcraft Class F Model Aircraft Class F1 – Free flight Class F2 – Control line Class F3 – Radio control F3K - Discus Launch Glider F3F - Slope Soaring Class F4 – Scale model aircraft Class F5 – Electrically powered model aircraft Class F8 - Autonomous flight Class G Parachuting Class H Vertical Take-off and Landing Aeroplanes Class I Manpowered aircraft Class K Spacecraft Class M Tilt-Wing/Tilt Engine Aircraft Class N Short Take-off and Landing Aeroplanes Class O Hang Gliding & Paragliding Class P Aerospacecraft Class R Microlights and Paramotors Class S Space Models Class U Unmanned aerial vehicle The FAI Gold Air Medal was established in 1924 and was first awarded in 1925. It is reserved for those who have contributed to the development of aeronautics by their activities, achievements, initiative or devotion to the cause of Aviation.
The FAI has awarded the Paul Tissandier Diploma since 1952 to those who have served the cause of aviation in general and sporting aviation in particular. The FAI makes awards for each of the following air sports. Awards for Ballooning: The Montgolfier Ballooning Dipl