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Berke–Hulagu war

The Berke–Hulagu war was fought between two Mongol leaders, Berke Khan of the Golden Horde and Hulagu Khan of the Ilkhanate. It was fought in the Caucasus mountains area in the 1260s after the destruction of Baghdad in 1258; the war overlaps with the Toluid Civil War in the Mongol Empire between two members of the Tolui family line, Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke, who both claimed the title of Great Khan. Kublai allied with Hulagu. Hulagu headed to Mongolia for the election of a new Khagan to succeed Möngke Khan, but the loss of the Battle of Ain Jalut to the Mamluks forced him to withdraw back to the Middle East; the Mamluk victory emboldened Berke to invade the Ilkhanate. The Berke–Hulagu war and the Toluid Civil War as well as the subsequent Kaidu–Kublai war marked a key moment in the fragmentation of the Mongol empire after the death of Möngke, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. In 1252, Berke converted to Islam, in 1257 he assumed power in the Golden Horde after the death of Ulaghchi.

Like his brother Batu, he was loyal to the Great Khan Möngke. Although aware of Berke's conversion to Islam, after conquering Persia, destroyed Baghdad in 1258, added Mesopotamia to the Mongol Empire, advanced towards the Levant and Mamluk Sultanate, began a war of attrition against the Mamluk Sultanate. Berke became enraged with Hulagu's rampage through Muslim lands, as a preparatory step, directed his nephew Nogai Khan to raid Poland in 1259 in order to collect booty to finance a war. Several Polish cities were plundered, including Sandomierz. Berke struck an alliance with the Mamluk Sultan Qutuz and Sultan Baibars of Egypt; that same year, Mongke died in a military campaign in China. Muslim historian Rashid al Din quoted Berke Khan as sending the following message to Mongke Khan, protesting the attack on Baghdad,: "He has sacked all the cities of the Muslims. With the help of God I will call him to account for so much innocent blood." Though Berke was Muslim, he was at first resistant to the idea of fighting Hulegu out of Mongol brotherhood.

If we were united we would have conquered all of the world". In 1260 Hulagu's lieutenants in the Middle East lost the Battle of Ain Jalut to the Mamluks while Hulagu was in Mongolia to participate in the succession of a new Great Khan following the death of Mongke. Upon hearing the news, Hulagu began preparing to avenge the defeat. Two years he returned to his lands in Persia, but was distracted and prevented from dealing with the Mamluks when Berke carried through on the threat to war against his cousin so as to avenge the sack of Baghdad. Berke again unleashed Nogai Khan to launch a series of raids – this time multiple reconnaissances in force in the Caucasus region – which drew Hulagu north with the bulk of his forces. Berke dispatched Negudar to eastern Afghanistan and Ghazni, recovering lands under Il Khanate control. Hulagu was loyal to his brother Kublai, but clashes with their cousin Berke, the ruler of the Golden Horde in the northwestern part of the Empire, began in 1262; the suspicious deaths of Jochid princes in Hulagu's service, unequal distribution of war booties and Hulagu's massacres of the Muslims increased the anger of Berke, who considered supporting a rebellion of the Georgian Kingdom against Hulagu's rule in 1259–1260.

Berke forged an alliance with the Egyptian Mamluks against Hulagu, supported Kublai's rival claimant, Ariqboke. Kublai dispatched an army under Abaqa to attack the Golden Horde, while Ariqboke sent Nogai to invade the Ilkhanate. Hulegu marched northwards through the pass of Derbend against Berke. On the banks of the Terek, he was ambushed by an army of the Golden Horde under Nogai, his army was defeated at the Battle of the Terek River, with many thousands being cut down or drowning when the ice of the river gave way. Hulegu subsequently retreated back into Azerbaijan. Arikboqe surrendered to Kublai at Shangdu on August 21, 1264, after which the rulers of the Golden Horde and Chagatai Khanate acknowledged the reality of Kublai's victory and rule, after which Kublai began preparations for his conquest of the Song dynasty; when the Byzantine Empire, the ally of the Ilkhanate, captured Egyptian envoys, Berke sent an army through his vassal Bulgaria, prompting the release of the envoys and the Seljuq Sultan Kaykaus II.

He failed. In the new official version of the family history, Kublai Khan refused to write Berke's name as the khan of Golden Horde for his support to Arikboke and wars with Hulagu, Jochi's family was recognized as legitimate family members. Kublai Khan reinforced Hulagu with 30,000 young Mongols in order to stabilize the political crises in western khanates; as soon as Hulagu died on 8 February 1264, Berke marched to cross near Tiflis, but he died on the way. Within a few months of these deaths, Alghu Khan of the Chagatai Khanate died too; this sudden vacuum of power relieved Kublai's control over the western khanates somewhat. This was the second open war between Mongols, shortly after the beginning of the Toluid Civil War between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke. Before that there had been tensions between Batu and Güyük that could have erupted into an open war, but the premature death of the latter averted hostilities. Together with the war between Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke, Berke and Hulagu set the precedents

Credit Union National Extension Bureau

The Credit Union National Extension Bureau was the organization that advocated for and fostered credit unions in the United States from 1921 until 1934. CUNEB laid the foundation for the Credit Union National Association and the Federal Credit Union Act. CUNEB was organized and funded by Edward Filene, managed by Roy Bergengren, was responsible for the proliferation of credit unions in the United States. In the early 20th century, many ordinary American workers did not have access to loans when they needed them and fell victim to usury and loan sharks. Inspired by cooperative banks in India, American businessman Edward Filene began advocating for credit union legislation in Massachusetts in 1908; the Massachusetts Credit Union Act of 1909 was signed into law and credit unions were formed throughout the state. Filene organized the National Association of Peoples Banks to advance the credit union cause in the United States. Little progress was made until 1921, when Filene observed in Roy Bergengren the key organizer he needed.

Together with Bergengren he founded the Credit Union National Extension Bureau. The Extension Bureau had four goals: 1. to bring about the laws needed for credit union development in the various states, 2. Subsequently, to organize some credit unions in each state that could serve as examples to others, 3. to expand the number of credit unions to the point that they could create self-sustaining state federations, 4. to combine the federations into a self-sustaining national association. In June 1924, the Extension Bureau began publishing The Bridge, a precursor to Credit Union Magazine of which Bergengren was the editor. Bergengren attended the meetings of credit union organizers, he recruited volunteer organizers. Laws were passed and the Extension Bureau began to realize its goals; when Bergengren started what he referred to as his "crusade" in 1921, there were only 199 credit unions in the U. S. By 1925, 15 states had passed 419 credit unions were serving 108,000 members; the collaboration between Bergengren and Filene, the work of the Extension Bureau, proved effective.

It brought state laws to fruition in 26 states and revised flawed legal frameworks in 5 others. In 1934 the Roosevelt Administration passed the Federal Credit Union Act, making it possible to form a credit union anywhere in the United States; the Extension Bureau has been a model for many projects related to international development and microfinance since. Foreshadowing debates that still rage however, the views of Filene and Bergengren diverged on two key issues. First, Bergengren believed that the Extension Bureau should attempt to secure federal legislation first, rather than work state by state. Filene prevailed in this debate, maintaining that a national law should be based on a sound understanding of the diverse circumstances of people across America—from shrimp fishermen in Louisiana, to factory workers in Massachusetts or farmers in the mid-West. Only by developing many state laws first would such a sound national understanding be possible. Second, as the Great Depression set in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation under President Hoover sought to stimulate the economy with soft loans targeted to banks and large companies.

Filene favoured asking for $100 million in reconstruction credits to be pumped into credit unions. Bergengren opposed this position, his view prevailed this time. "To him, it meant destroying the vital principle of the whole movement by converting a community enterprise into an agency of the government. To teach people how to help themselves was more important by far in times of depression than at any other time." With the work of the Bureau completed, a national meeting of credit union leaders was called at Estes Park, Colorado. In a letter to Edward Filene, Bergengren wrote "I sincerely believe that what we are going to do at Estes Park will have extraordinary consequences." On 11 August 1934 the Credit Union National Association – a national federation funded by the nation’s credit unions – was formed to replace the Bureau

56th New Brunswick Legislature

The 56th New Brunswick Legislative Assembly was created following a general election in 2006. Its members were sworn-in on October 3, 2006 but it was called into session by the Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick on February 6, 2007. Eugene McGinley, was elected speaker at the first session of the Assembly on February 6, 2007 but resigned on October 31, 2007 to join the cabinet. Roy Boudreau was elected speaker on November 27, 2007. Premier of New Brunswick Shawn Graham leads the government. Former Premier Bernard Lord was nominal leader of the opposition until January 31, 2007 at which time he resigned his seat and was replaced by interim leader of the Progressive Conservatives, Jeannot Volpé. On October 18, 2008, David Alward was elected leader of the Progressive Conservatives, his first sitting as leader of the opposition was November 25, 2008. Most of the current members were elected at the 36th general election held on September 18, 2006; the exceptions are Chris Collins, elected in a by-election on March 5, 2007 as a result of the resignation of Bernard Lord on January 31, 2007.

The standing of the legislature changed when MLAs Joan MacAlpine-Stiles and Wally Stiles crossed the floor from the Progressive Conservatives to the Liberals on April 17, 2007. Bold denotes a member of the Executive Council of New Brunswick italics denotes a party leader † denotes the speaker Bernard Lord, a Progressive Conservative, was first elected in a 1998 by-election and served as Premier of New Brunswick from 1999 to 2006, he resigned his Moncton East seat on January 31, 2007. Keith Ashfield, a Progressive Conservative, was first elected in the 1999 general election and served as deputy speaker from 1999 to 2003 and in the cabinet from 2003 to 2006, he resigned his New Maryland-Sunbury West seat on September 8, 2008 to seek election to the federal parliament. December 22, 2008 Percy Mockler, Restigouche-la-Vallée was appointed to the Senate of Canada February 9, 2010 Mike Murphy, Moncton North resigns his seat and cabinet post. February 28, 2010 Rose-May Poirier, Rogersville-Kouchibouguac was appointed to the Senate of Canada 2006 New Brunswick general election Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick

Jim Gibbs

Jim Gibbs was an Australian professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. An Australian international and New South Wales interstate representative forward, he played club football in the Newcastle Rugby League for Souths and in Sydney's NSWRFL Premiership for Canterbury-Bankstown. Gibbs was born in New Zealand and in 1911 at age two his family moved to Australia and settled in Glebe, New South Wales, he began his senior football career in 1927 and was one of five brothers that played for South Newcastle. The others were Jack, Bill and Alf. Alf would go on to be an Australian Test front-rower. Gibbs was first selected to represent New South Wales in 1933 and was selected to go on the 1933-34 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain, he made his debut in 1933, becoming Kangaroo No. 184 and Newcastle's fourth international in the process. He played in the tour of New Zealand in 1935, he was selected to go on the 1937-38 Kangaroo tour. Gibbs joined Canterbury-Bankstown for the 1940 NSWRFL season where he was able to secure a first grade position and play in the final against Eastern Suburbs before returning to Newcastle.

He played his last game for South Newcastle in 1946. Gibbs served overseas in the Royal Australian Air Force in the City of Canberra bomber squadron during World War II; such was the influence that Gibbs and his brothers had on the South Newcastle club, a park in Merewether was renamed Gibbs Brothers Oval in 1988. In 2008, Australia's centenary year of rugby league, Gibbs was named at second-row forward in a Newcastle Rugby League team of the century. Gibbs was named in a South Newcastle team of the century in 2010

Jacques Viau

Jacques Viau O. C. c.r. LL. L. LL. D. was a Canadian lawyer practising in Quebec. He served as the Bar of Montreal, he served as president of the Canadian Bar Association from 1977 to 1978. During his term in office, he chaired a committee which produced a major set of recommendations for reform of the Constitution of Canada. Viau was born in 1919 in Lachine, he married Laurette Cadieux Viau. The couple had Hélène and Jacques. Viau earned his degree in a Licentiate of Laws, from the University of Ottawa, he was admitted to the Barreau du Québec in 1942. He practised in Montreal in the area of municipal law. From 1947 to 1952, he was a municipal court judge in Dorval; the government of Quebec appointed him Queen's Counsel in 1951. Viau earned a reputation as an expert in municipal law, he was one of the first lawyers in Quebec to take an interest in municipal law in a systemic fashion. He was credited with being one of the originators of Quebec municipal law as a recognised discipline as it is now known. In 1973-74, Viau served as the Bâtonnier of the Barreau du Québec, as Bâtonnier of the Bar of Montreal.

He was the last person to hold both offices at the same time. He was bâtonnier at a time of considerable change in the legal profession in Quebec. One major change was the new Professional Code introduced by the government of Quebec in 1973, which re-organised the system of professional regulation in Quebec; as a result, the position of bâtonnier would henceforth be elected by universal suffrage of the lawyers of Quebec. Viau was heavily involved in the development of the Société québécoise d'information juridique, a new public organisation for the comprehensive publication of Quebec laws and court decisions, brought into operation in 1975, he had a strong interest in having a systemic approach to the publication of judicial decisions, which became one of the goals of SOQUIJ. During his time in office, Viau was involved in the implementation of the new legal aid system, instituted by the government of Quebec in 1972, in response to new federal funding for legal aid programs across Canada. Another of the major events of his time as bâtonnier was the reform of the examination system for the admission of new lawyers.

When he took office, the examinations required students to memorise large portions of the Civil Code and the Code of Civil Procedure and regurgitate their memory work over a series of exams during a two-day period. The students protested that this was not a effective examination system for a professional discipline. Viau received their complaints and delegated the matter to his colleague on the executive committee, Michel Robert. Robert negotiated a new system of examinations, still used today, he credited Viau with having the ability to delegate complex issues to others, to accept the results with a generosity of spirit. As bâtonnier, Viau inadvertently contributed to a run-in between the Chief Justice of the Superior Court and a future justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, Morris Fish; the affair grew out of a backlog in the criminal trial courts. In an attempt to reduce the backlog, the Deputy Minister of Justice issued a public letter, with the approval of the Chief Justice, announcing that if an accused elected to be tried by judge and jury, rather than by judge alone, the accused would forfeit their right to bail.

The proposal attracted considerable criticism from one fiery letter in the Montreal Star, written under a pseudonym. The author of the letter denounced the proposal as being contrary to law, as nothing in the Criminal Code suggested that an accused who exercised his right to trial by jury would find his pre-trial liberty restricted. In an attempt to resolve the dispute, a committee was created with representatives from the bench and the bar. Viau appointed Fish an up-and-coming young defence counsel, as a member of the committee to represent the interests of the defence bar. What Viau did not know was that Fish was the author of the letter in the Star. At one point in the committee's deliberations, the Chief Justice point-blank demanded of Fish if he was the author of the letter. With a polite smile, Fish replied that the identity of the letter-writer was protected by the tradition of pseudonyms, but he whole-heartedly agreed with the content of the letter. Viau was active in the Canadian Bar Association throughout his career.

He was president of the CBA's municipal law section from 1966 to 1968, vice-president of the Quebec Branch of the CBA from 1969 to 1970. Viau was national president of the CBA in 1977-78, a time of political turmoil in Canada; the year before, the Parti québécois had won the provincial general election in Quebec and formed the government, on a platform of separation from Canada. At the annual meeting of the CBA in the summer of 1977, the outgoing president, Boyd Ferris, proposed that the CBA should recognise the need for national unity and a strong federal government. A resolution to that effect was introduced by Paul Fraser, the president of the British Columbia branch of the CBA and seconded by Robert Lesage, the president of the Quebec Branch; the resolution proved controversial, since some members of the CBA did not think the organisation should take part in political issues, while members from Quebec thought that the motion was attempting to impose a particular view on the sovereignty issue as a condition of membership in the CBA.

After considerable debate and negotiations, the resolution was amended on a motion by Yves Fortier, a pa


Fighter Squadron 42 or VF-42 was an aviation unit of the United States Navy. Established as Scouting Squadron 1B in May 1928, it was redesignated as VS-1S in 1930, redesignated as VS-1B in 1931, redesignated as VS-41 on 1 July 1937, redesignated as VF-42 on 15 March 1941 and disestablished on 22 June 1942, it was the first US Navy squadron to be designated as VF-42. VS-1B was assigned to the USS Ranger in the 1930s. In December 1941 VF-42 was embarked on USS Yorktown for deployment to the Pacific Theatre. VF-42 shot down 25 Japanese aircraft until the squadron was disestablished following the sinking of the Yorktown on 7 June 1942 during the Battle of Midway. History of the United States Navy List of inactive United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons