Orangeburg County, South Carolina
Orangeburg County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 92,501, its county seat is Orangeburg. The county was created in 1769. Orangeburg County comprises the Orangeburg, SC Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Columbia-Orangeburg-Newberry, SC Combined Statistical Area, it is located in the Midlands region of South Carolina. It is the home of South Carolina State University, the only public four-year HBCU in the state of South Carolina, it is home to Claflin University, the oldest black college or university in the state. The district was occupied for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples. By the time of European encounter, Siouan-speaking tribes, such as the Pee Dee and Catawba, inhabited the Piedmont area above the fall line; the Orangeburg Judicial District was chartered by European Americans in 1769 from a unorganized upland area between the Congaree and Savannah rivers. A county of the same name but called Orange, was organized within the district but deorganized in 1791, after the American Revolutionary War.
The southwest portion bordering on the Savannah River, about half of Orangeburg District, was separated and organized as Barnwell District in 1800. In 1804 the northern third of the district was separated to form the new Lexington District, which gained another, smaller portion of Orangeburg District in 1832. During the nineteenth century, the districts and counties were developed chiefly as cotton plantations for short-staple cotton; this development followed the invention of the cotton gin in the late eighteenth century, which made the processing of short-staple cotton profitable. The county became a center of labor by black slaves on the plantations, who were transported from coastal areas and the Upper South to cultivate and process cotton; those brought from the coastal areas were of the Gullah culture and language. The enslaved African Americans outnumbered the white planters and non-slaveholding whites. Reflecting the patterns of nineteenth-century settlement, the area is still chiefly agricultural and majority-African American in population.
In 1868, under the revised state constitution during the Reconstruction era, South Carolina districts were organized as counties. Resident voters were enabled to elect their state representatives rather than having them chosen by the state legislature, as was done previously. Election of representatives by the state legislature had kept the districts dominated by the elite owners of major plantations in the Low Country and elsewhere; the changes in rules expanded participation in the franchise by more male residents. Emancipation of slaves after the war under newly ratified federal constitutional amendments resulted in freedmen voting. Using voter intimidation, white Democrats took control of the state legislature by the end of the century. A small western portion of Orangeburg County was annexed in 1871 to the newly formed Aiken County during the Reconstruction era. In 1908 the northern portion of the County along the Congaree River was separated and included in the newly formed Calhoun County, with its seat at Saint Matthews.
In 1910 a small western portion of Berkeley County, around Holly Hill and Eutawville, was annexed to Orangeburg County, thus bringing the county to its present size. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,128 square miles, of which 1,106 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county in fifth-largest by land area. Region within the state Orangeburg county is a big county, covering 1,128 square miles, it is about 60 miles from the western part of the county to the eastern part of the county. Orangeburg county lies within 3 "regions" of South Carolina; the western part of the county lies in the "CSRA". The middle part of Orangeburg county is included in the "Midlands" Region; the eastern and south eastern part of the county are located in the "Lowcountry" region of the state. As of the census of 2000, there were 91,582 people, 34,118 households, 23,882 families residing in the county; the population density was 83 people per square mile.
There were 39,304 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.86% Black or African American, 37.17% White, 0.46% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. 0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 34,118 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.10% were married couples living together, 20.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 11.90% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 87.00 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,567, the median income for a family was $36,165. Males had a median income of $29,331 versus $20,956 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,057. About
Charleston, South Carolina metropolitan area
The Charleston metropolitan area is an area centered on Charleston, South Carolina. The U. S. Office of Management and Budget designates the area as the Charleston–North Charleston, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan statistical area used for statistical purposes only by the United States Census Bureau and other federal agencies; the OMB defines the area as comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, an area with 664,607 in the 2010 census. Principal cities include Charleston, North Charleston, Summerville; the area is referred to as the Tri-County Area or the Lowcountry, though the latter term has referred to South Carolina coast in general. Berkeley Charleston Dorchester Charleston North Charleston Goose Creek Mount Pleasant Summerville Hanahan James Island Johns Island Ladson Moncks Corner Awendaw Folly Beach Hollywood Isle of Palms Kiawah Island Lincolnville Meggett Ravenel Ridgeville Seabrook Island St. George St. Stephen Sullivan's Island Bonneau Harleyville Jamestown McClellanville Reevesville Rockville Cross Gumville Huger Pineville Wadmalaw Island As of the census of 2000, there were 549,033 people, 227,957 households, 161,448 families residing within the MSA.
The racial makeup of the MSA was 65.10% White, 30.80% African American, 0.41% Native American, 1.32% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.38% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $40,345, the median income for a family was $47,186. Males had a median income of $33,229 versus $24,118 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $19,037. Portions of the Charleston, South Carolina metropolitan area are home to all branches of the United States Military. During the Cold War, the Naval Base became the third largest U. S. homeport serving over 80 submarines. In addition, the Charleston Naval Shipyard repaired frigates, cruisers, sub tenders, submarines; the Shipyard was responsible for refueling nuclear subs. During this period, the Weapons Station was the Atlantic Fleet's load out base for all nuclear ballistic missile submarines. Two SSBN "Boomer" squadrons and a sub tender were homeported at the Weapons Station, while one SSN attack squadron, Submarine Squadron 4, a sub tender were homeported at the Naval Base.
At the 1996 closure of the Station's Polaris Missile Facility Atlantic, over 2,500 nuclear warheads and their UGM-27 Polaris, UGM-73 Poseidon, UGM-96 Trident I delivery missiles were stored and maintained, guarded by a U. S. Marine Corps Security Force Company. In 2010, the Air Force Base and Naval Weapons Station merged to form Joint Base Charleston. Today, Joint Base Charleston, encompassing over 20,877 acres and supporting 53 Military Commands and Federal Agencies, provides service to over 79,000 Airmen, Soldiers, Coast Guardsmen, DOD civilians and retirees. Charleston Naval Weapons Station, Joint Base Charleston, Goose Creek and Hanahan Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Atlantic Naval Nuclear Power Training Command Nuclear Power School Nuclear Power Training Unit Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS Daniel Webster Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS Sam Rayburn Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS La Jolla, 2015 delivery Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS San Francisco, After 2015 delivery Naval Consolidated Brig, East Coast Mobile Mine Assembly Unit Eleven Naval Operations Support Center Charleston Navy Reserve Center Navy Munitions Command CONUS, Detachment Charleston Explosive Ordnance Detachment Naval Health Clinic Charleston Navy Dental Clinic Naval Criminal Investigative Service Training, Federal Complex Lay berth for Roll-On Roll-Off Naval Ships, Military Sealift Command, Federal Complex MV Cape Ducato, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Douglas, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Domingo, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Decision, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Diamond, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex MV Cape Edmont, Military Sealift Command Ship, Ready Reserve Force, Federal Complex Charleston Air Force Base, Joint Base Charleston, North Charleston Charleston Air Force Auxiliary Base, North, SC Charleston Defense Fuel Storage and Distribution Facility, Hanahan 628th Air Base Wing 628th Mission Support Group 628th Medical Group 315th Airlift Wing 437th Airlift Wing 373rd Training Squadron, Detachment 5 1st Combat Camera Squadron 412th Logistics Support Squadron OL-AC Air Force ROTC Det 772 Civil Air Patrol – Charleston Composite Squadron Marine Corps Reserve Center, Naval Weapons Station Coast Guard Sector Charleston Coast Guard Station Charleston Coast Guard Helicopter Air Facility, Johns Island Coast Guard Eurocopter HH-65 Dolphin, Johns Island Coast Guard Reserves, Charleston Coast Guard Maritime Law Enforcement Academy, Federal Complex USCGC Hamilton National Security Cutter, Federal Complex USCGC James National Security Cutter, Federal Complex USCGC Tarpon, Marine Protector-class coastal patrol boat, Tybee Island USCGC Yellowfin, Marine Protector-class coastal patrol
Old Berkeley County Courthouse (South Carolina)
Old Berkeley County Courthouse known as Old Courthouse, is a historic courthouse located at Mount Pleasant, Charleston County, South Carolina. It was built in 1884, is a two-story, stucco over brick building in the Late Victorian style, it features large matching double stairways leading to the main entrance on the second floor. The building served as county courthouse for Berkeley County from 1884 to 1898. After 1898 until 1968, it was used by both Lutherans as a church, it is now known as the G. Mcgrath Darby Building, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. It is located in the Mount Pleasant Historic District
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Williamsburg County, South Carolina
Williamsburg County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census its population was 34,423; the county seat is Kingstree. After a previous incarnation of Williamsburg County, the current county was created in 1804. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 937 square miles, of which 934 square miles is land and 2.9 square miles is water. Florence County - north Marion County - northeast Georgetown County - east Berkeley County - south Clarendon County - west As of the census of 2000, there were 37,217 people, 13,714 households, 10,052 families residing in the county; the population density was 40 people per square mile. There were 15,552 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 66.26% Black or African American, 32.74% White, 0.16% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 0.73% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 13,714 households out of which 34.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.30% were married couples living together, 22.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families.
24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.60% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 87.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,214, the median income for a family was $30,379. Males had a median income of $26,680 versus $18,202 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,794. About 23.70% of families and 27.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.10% of those under age 18 and 25.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 34,423 people, 13,007 households, 8,854 families residing in the county.
The population density was 36.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,359 housing units at an average density of 16.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 65.8% black or African American, 31.8% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.0% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 4.6% were American. Of the 13,007 households, 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 23.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.9% were non-families, 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.13. The median age was 40.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $24,191 and the median income for a family was $33,705. Males had a median income of $37,678 versus $22,303 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,513. About 26.5% of families and 32.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.6% of those under age 18 and 27.5% of those age 65 or over.
Kingstree Andrews Greeleyville Hemingway Lane Stuckey National Register of Historic Places listings in Williamsburg County, South Carolina Simms "Life of Francis Marion" "History of Williamsburg" by William Willis Boddie, 1923 Geographic data related to Williamsburg County, South Carolina at OpenStreetMap
South Carolina's 1st congressional district
The 1st Congressional District of South Carolina is a coastal congressional district in South Carolina, represented by Democrat Joe Cunningham since January 3, 2019. He succeeded Republican Mark Sanford, defeated by Katie Arrington in the Republican primary; the district has been based in Charleston. It has included Myrtle Beach, which became a major tourist destination in the late 20th century, as well as other coastal areas that have attracted retirees and seasonal visitors. From 1993 to 2013, the district boundaries extended from Seabrook Island in the south to the North Carolina border and included parts of Charleston, Dorchester and Georgetown counties and all of Horry County to the North Carolina line. In 2010, the state received another seat in Congressional apportionment due to an increase in population; the state's districts had to be redrawn, completed in 2013. In the final plan, the 1st congressional district was redrawn to reach from Hilton Head to mid-coast South Carolina, ending at the Santee River and comprising parts of Charleston, Berkeley and Beaufort counties.
This configuration is similar to the one. Horry County was included in the new 7th congressional district. Following the Civil War and granting of citizenship to former slaves, in 1870, Charleston's population was 53 percent black; the city's large population of free people of color had developed many leaders who advanced in the changing society. These population majorities protected freedmen against some of the election-related violence that occurred in other parts of the state in the 1870s as white Democrats worked to suppress black voting and regain political control of the state. During Reconstruction, the black Republicans from this district supported Republican candidates, including four terms for Joseph H. Rainey as US Representative to Congress, a record by an African-American legislator not surpassed until the 1950s. After the Democrats regained control of the state in 1876, during an election season marked by violence and fraud, Reconstruction ended in 1877, they passed laws establishing racial segregation and making voter registration and voting more difficult, such as the "eight-box law."
African-American George W. Murray won in the disputed 1894 congressional election from this district, but passage of a new state constitution by Democrats in 1895 disfranchised most African-American citizens in 1896. Their participation in the political system was ended for seven decades; the white Democrats established a one-party state and used various devices to maintain the exclusion of blacks until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Party realignments in the late 20th century resulted in many new black voters supporting the national Democratic Party. White conservatives in the South shifted and joined the Republican Party, in 1980 electing the first Republican congressman from the state to be elected in the 20th century. Since the buildup of the military in this region the Navy, the area's white voters have supported conservative candidates. Given the crippling of the Republican Party by the disfranchisement of blacks, a Republican was not elected to a full term in this district in the 20th century until 1980, when Tommy Hartnett was swept in by Reagan's coattails.
But, his election represented a different party and was the result of a major realignment of white conservative voters in the late 20th century to the Republican, rather than the Democratic Party. Starting with national candidates in the late 1960s and 1970s, white voters in South Carolina began to shift to the Republican Party; as after every decennial census, the state legislature conducted redistricting after the 1990 census. The white Republican-controlled legislature shifted most of Charleston's African-American majority areas into South Carolina's 6th Congressional District, creating a majority-minority district. To make up for the loss of population, the 1st was extended all the way up the Atlantic coast to Myrtle Beach; the 2010 redistricting cut the district back to the southeastern corner of the state. Since that time, the 1st Congressional District has had a majority-white population. But, in 2008, with the appeal of the Barack Obama presidential campaign, Democrat Linda Ketner came within two points of winning the 1st district congressional seat.
In the following off-year election of 2010, Republican Tim Scott, a conservative African American, won the seat with 65 percent of the vote. During the 2018 South Carolina primaries on June 12, 2018, Mark Sanford lost re-nomination to the seat; the Republicans would go on to lose the seat to the Democrats after the district swung to the Democrats in the 2018 midterm elections. As noted, Tim Scott, a Republican from North Charleston, was elected as the 1st district's representative in 2010, he was appointed by Governor Nikki Haley to the United States Senate after Jim DeMint resigned on January 1, 2013. The district boundaries had been redrawn in 2011. A special election was held on May 7, 2013 to determine the district's Representative to the US House to fill the new vacancy. In a Primary Election held on March 19, 2013, Elizabeth Colbert-Busch, the sister of comedian Stephen Colbert, won the Democratic nomination. Former Governor Mark Sanford, who represented the district from 1995 to 2001, former Charleston County Councilman Curtis Eilliott Bostic faced each other in a runoff Primary for the Republican nomination on April 2, 2013.
Sanford won the nomination, defeated challengers Colbert-Busch and South Carolina Green Party candidate E
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups