Bertram "Bertie" Wilberforce Wooster is a recurring fictional character in the comedic Jeeves stories created by British author P. G. Wodehouse. A young English gentleman and one of the "idle rich", Bertie appears alongside his valet, whose intelligence manages to save Bertie or one of his friends from numerous awkward situations; as the first-person narrator of ten novels and over 30 short stories, Bertie Wooster ranks as one of the most vivid comic creations in popular literature. Bertie Wooster is the central figure in all but one of Wodehouse's Jeeves short stories and novels, which were published between 1915 and 1974; the sole exception is the novel Ring for Jeeves, a third-person narration in which he is mentioned but does not appear. All the other Jeeves novels and short stories are narrated by Bertie, with the exception of the short story "Bertie Changes His Mind", narrated by Jeeves; the Wodehouse scholar Norman Murphy believes George Grossmith, Jr. to have been the inspiration for the character of Bertie Wooster.
The Wodehouse character Reggie Pepper was an early prototype of Bertie Wooster. Bertie Wooster and his friend Bingo Little were born in the same village only a few days apart. Bertie's middle name, "Wilberforce", is the doing of his father, who won money on a horse named Wilberforce in the Grand National the day before Bertie's christening and insisted on his son carrying that name; the only other piece of information given about Bertie's father, aside from the fact that he had numerous relatives, is that he was a great friend of Lord Wickhammersley of Twing Hall. Bertie refers to his father as his "guv'nor"; when he was around seven years of age, Bertie was sometimes compelled to recite "The Charge of the Light Brigade" for guests by his mother. Bertie mentions reciting other poems as a child, including "Ben Battle" and works by poet Walter Scott. Like Jeeves, Bertie says. Bertie makes no other mention of his mother, though he makes a remark about motherhood after being astounded by a friend telling a blatant lie: "And this, mark you, a man who had had a good upbringing and had, no doubt, spent years at his mother's knee being taught to tell the truth".
When Bertie was eight years old, he took dancing lessons. It is established throughout the series that Bertie is an orphan who inherited a large fortune at some point, although the exact details and timing of his parents' deaths are never made clear. Bertie Wooster's early education took place at the semi-fictional Malvern House Preparatory School, headed by Rev. Aubrey Upjohn, whom he meets again in Jeeves in the Offing. At Malvern House, Bertie’s friends called him "Daredevil Bertie", though Upjohn and others called him "Bungling Wooster". One detail of Bertie's Malvern House life that comes into several stories is his winning of the prize for scripture knowledge. Bertie speaks with pride of this achievement on several occasions, but in Right Ho, his friend Gussie Fink-Nottle, while intoxicated, publicly accuses Bertie of having won the award by cheating. Bertie stoutly denies this charge, on the same occasion, Gussie makes other groundless accusations against other characters. Despite his pride over his accomplishment, Bertie does not remember what the prize was stating that it was "a handsomely bound copy of a devotional work whose name has escaped me".
Bertie once won a prize at private school for the best collection of wildflowers made during the summer holidays. When Bertie was fourteen, he won the Choir Boys' Handicap bicycle race at a local school treat, having received half a lap start. After Malvern House, Bertie was further educated at the non-fictional Eton and at Magdalen College, Oxford. At Oxford he was a Rackets Blue. Bertie is a member of the Drones Club, most of his friends and fellow Drones members depicted in the stories attended one or both of these institutions with him, it was at Oxford that he first began celebrating the night of the annual Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge. Though ordinarily he drinks in moderation, Bertie says he is "rather apt to let myself go a bit" on Boat Race night drinking more than usual and making mischief with his old school friends. Bertie and others tend to celebrate the occasion by stealing a policeman's helmet, though they get arrested as a result. London magistrates are aware of this tradition and tend to be lenient towards Bertie when he appears in court the morning after the Boat Race only imposing a fine of five pounds.
The Jeeves canon is set in a timeless world based on an idealized England in the early twentieth century. With a few exceptions, the short stories were written first, followed by the novels; the saga begins chronologically in the short story "Jeeves Takes Charge", in which Bertie Wooster first hires Jeeves. Bertie and Jeeves live at Berkeley Mansions, though they go to New York and numerous English country houses. Throughout the short stories and novels, Bertie tries to help his friends and relatives, but ends up becoming entangled in trouble himself, is rescued by Jeeves. Bertie has a new piece of clothing or item that Jeeves disapproves of, though Bertie agrees to relinquish it at the end of the story. Always narrating the st
William Waldorf Astor
William Waldorf "Willy" Astor, 1st Viscount Astor, was a wealthy American-born attorney, politician and newspaper publisher. He moved with his family to England in 1891, became a British subject in 1899, was made a peer as Baron Astor in 1916 and Viscount Astor in 1917 for his contributions to war charities, he was a prominent member of the Astor family. William Waldorf Astor was born in New York City, he was the only child of financier and philanthropist John Jacob Astor III and Charlotte Augusta Gibbes. He studied in Italy under the care of private tutors and a governess, he grew up in a distant household. In his early adult years, Astor went to Columbia Law School, he was called to the United States Bar in 1875. He worked for a short time in law practice and in the management of his father's estate of financial and real estate holdings. Astor married Mary Dahlgren Paul on 6 June 1878, she is buried in Trinity Church Cemetery Manhattan. They had five children: Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor Hon. Pauline Astor, married soldier/politician Herbert Spender-Clay in 1904.
They had three daughters. John Rudolph Astor, buried in Trinity Church Cemetery. Lt. Col. John Jacob Astor, 1st Baron Astor of Hever Gwendolyn Enid Astor, no issue, buried in Trinity Church Cemetery. After some time practicing law, Astor thought he had found his true calling and an opportunity to make a name for himself outside of his family's fortune by entering the political realm. In 1877, with his eyes set on the United States Congress, Astor entered New York City politics as a Republican, he was elected as a member of the New York State Assembly in 1878. Astor was supported by the boss of the New York State Republican machine, the notorious Roscoe Conkling, with whom his family was involved. In 1881, Astor was defeated by Roswell P. Flower as a candidate for the United States Congress. A second attempt at the seat resulted in defeat, he could not compete with his Democratic opponent and his shy nature could not handle the political attacks on his character. This was the end of his political career.
The press used his political failures as fodder for more harsh criticisms. The press had publicized his vast inheritance; the coverage of his political defeats weakened his desire to remain in the United States. In 1882, President Chester A. Arthur appointed Astor Minister to Italy, a post he held until 1885, he told Astor, "Go and enjoy yourself, my dear boy." While living in Rome, Astor developed a lifelong passion for sculpture. Upon the death of his father in February 1890, Astor inherited a personal fortune that made him the richest man in America; that year, he initiated construction of the luxurious Waldorf Hotel in New York, being built on the site of his former residence. His cousin and rival Colonel John Jacob "Jack" Astor IV built the adjoining Astoria Hotel in 1897, the complex became the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. After inheriting his father's fortune after his death in 1890, Astor fell into a family feud the following year with socialite Caroline Webster "Lina" Schermerhorn, wife of his uncle, businessman William Backhouse Astor Jr. and mother of his cousin Jack, over who should be the "official Mrs. Astor".
After Lina won the argument, Astor moved with his wife and children to England. He rented Lansdowne House in London until 1893; that year he purchased a country estate at Cliveden-on-Thames in Taplow, from the Duke of Westminster. To disappear from public view, in the summer of 1892, Astor faked his own death by having his staff report to American reporters that he had died from pneumonia. However, the ruse was soon discovered, whereupon Astor was mocked in the press. In 1895 he built the gothic mansion on the Victoria Embankment at Two Temple Place overlooking the River Thames, he commissioned architect John Loughborough Pearson to design a $1.5 million building, a "crenellated Tudor stronghold" for managing his holdings. Astor made several business acquisitions while living in London. In 1892, he purchased the Pall Mall Gazette, in 1893 established the Pall Mall Magazine. In 1911, he acquired The Observer. In 1912 he sold the Magazine, in 1914 made a present of the Gazette and The Observer, with the building in Newton Street and its contents, to his son Waldorf Astor.
In 1903 he acquired Hever Castle near Edenbridge, about 30 miles south of London. The huge estate built in 1270 was. Astor invested a great deal of time and money to restore the castle, building what is known as the "Tudor Village," and creating a lake and lavish gardens, he added the Italian Garden to display his collection of statuary and ornaments. In 1906 he gave his eldest son Waldorf Astor and his new daughter-in-law, Nancy Witcher Langhorne, the Cliveden estate as a wedding present. Nancy Astor became England’s first female Member of Parliament. In 1908, he opened The Waldorf Hilton in London's West End, to establish an American-style hotel in England. Having become a British subject in 1899, he continued his interest in philanthropy, among the charities benefited by his gifts were The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street.
Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey
Sarah Sophia Child Villiers, Countess of Jersey, born Lady Sarah Fane, was an English noblewoman, through her marriage a member of the Villiers family. She was the eldest daughter of John Fane, 10th Earl of Westmorland, Sarah Anne Child, her mother was the only child of Robert Child, the principal shareholder in the banking firm Child & Co. Under the terms of his will, the Countess of Jersey was the primary legatee, she not only inherited Osterley Park but became senior partner of the bank, her husband, George Villiers, added the surname Child by royal licence. The inheritance made her one of the richest women in England: in 1805 she was able to give £20000 each to four family members without impairing her own income. Lady Jersey married George Child Villiers, 5th Earl of Jersey, on 23 May 1804, in the drawing room of her house in Berkeley Square, her husband's mother, Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, was one of the more notorious mistresses of King George IV when he was Prince of Wales.
Her sister Maria married John Ponsonby, Viscount Duncannon the 4th Earl of Bessborough, a brother of Lady Caroline Lamb. Her own affairs, though conducted discreetly, were said to be numerous: Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, was thought to be one of her lovers; when asked why he had never fought a duel to preserve his wife's reputation, Lord Jersey dryly replied that this would require him to fight every man in London. Lady Jersey was one of the patronesses of Almack's, the most exclusive social club in London, a leader of the ton during the Regency era, she was immortalized as Zenobia in Disraeli's novel Endymion. Caroline Lamb ridiculed her in Glenarvon. This, was unusual since she was notable for acts of kindness and generosity. In politics she was a Tory, although she lacked the passionate interest in politics shown by her cousin Harriet Arbuthnot. On hearing that the Duke of Wellington had fallen from power in 1830, she burst into tears in public, she "moved heaven and earth" against the Reform Act 1832.
Lady Jersey was known by the nickname Silence. The memoirist Captain Gronow, who disliked her, called her "a theatrical tragedy queen", considered her "ill-bred and inconceivably rude", she is a recurring character in the Regency novels of Georgette Heyer, where she is presented as eccentric and unpredictable, but intelligent and observant, capable of kindness and generosity. She died at No. 38, Berkeley Square, Middlesex. Lady Jersey had seven children: George Child Villiers, 6th Earl of Jersey The Honourable Augustus John Villiers, married Georgiana Elphinstone, daughter of George Elphinstone, 1st Viscount Keith; the Honourable Frederick William Child Villiers, married Elizabeth Maria van Reede, daughter of the 7th or 8th Earl of Athlone. The Honourable Francis John Robert Child Villiers. Lady Sarah Frederica Caroline Child Villiers, married Nicholas Paul, 9th Prince Esterházy, his mother, Princess Maria Theresia of Thurn and Taxis was a friend of Lady Jersey and a fellow patroness of Almack's.
Lady Clementina Augusta Wellington Child Villiers. Lady Adela Corisande Maria Child Villiers, married Lt.-Col. Charles Parke Ibbetson, had one daughter Adele. Lady Adela's scandalous elopement to Gretna Green with Captain Ibbetson increased the circulation of all the London newspapers in November 1845, she outlived not only six of her seven children. Portraits of Sarah Sophia Child-Villiers, Countess of Jersey at the National Portrait Gallery, London Lady Sarah Jersey at The Dukes of Buckingham and Chandos The Lady Patronesses of Almack's at Georgian, Regency & Victorian Research by Kristine Hughes. "Archival material relating to Sarah Villiers, Countess of Jersey". UK National Archives
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Devonshire was an English soldier and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1661 to 1684 when he inherited his father's peerage as Earl of Devonshire. He was part of the "Immortal Seven" group that invited William III, Prince of Orange to depose James II of England as monarch during the Glorious Revolution, was rewarded with the elevation to Duke of Devonshire in 1694. Cavendish was the son of William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire, his wife Lady Elizabeth Cecil. After completing his education he made the customary tour of Europe, in 1661, he was elected Member of Parliament for Derbyshire in the Cavalier Parliament, he was a Whig under Charles II of England and James II of England and was leader of the anti-court and anti-Catholic party in the House of Commons, where he served as Lord Cavendish. In 1678 he was one of the committee appointed to draw up articles of impeachment against the Lord Treasurer Lord Danby, he was re-elected MP for Derbyshire in the two elections of 1679 and in 1681.
He was made a privy councillor by Charles II, but he soon withdrew with his friend Lord Russell, when he found that the Roman Catholic interest uniformly prevailed. In January 1681 he carried up to the House of Lords the articles of impeachment against Lord Chief Justice William Scroggs, for his arbitrary and illegal proceedings in the court of King's bench, when the king declared his resolution not to sign the bill for excluding the duke of York, he moved in the House of Commons that a bill might be brought in for the association of all his majesty's Protestant subjects, he openly denounced the king's counsellors, voted for an address to remove them. He appeared in defence of Lord Russell at his trial, after the condemnation he gave the utmost possible proof of his attachment by offering to exchange clothes with Lord Russell in the prison, remain in his place, so allow him to effect his escape. In 1684 he succeeded to the peerage as Earl of Devonshire on the death of his father and sat in the House of Lords.
He opposed the arbritary acts of James II. He was unable to pay and was imprisoned until he signed a bond; the earl went for a time to Chatsworth House, where he occupied himself with the erection of a new mansion, designed by William Talman, with decorations by Antonio Verrio, James Thornhill, Grinling Gibbons. Cavendish was a strong supporter of the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688 which brought William III of Orange to the throne, signing as one of the Immortal Seven the invitation to William. On the occasion of the coronation he was awarded the Order of the Garter. After the revolution, Cavendish was a leading Whig, serving as William's Lord Steward, was created the Duke of Devonshire and Marquess of Hartington in recognition for his services, his last public service was assisting to conclude the union with Scotland, for negotiating which he and his eldest son, the marquis of Hartington, had been appointed among the commissioners by Queen Anne. Cavendish was given an honorary M. A. by the University of Cambridge in 1705.
Cavendish married Lady Mary Butler, daughter of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Preston, on 26 October 1662. They had four children: Lady Elizabeth Cavendish, married Sir John Wentworth, 1st Baronet and had issue William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire Lord Henry Cavendish Lord James Cavendish List of deserters from James II to William of Orange This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh. "Devonshire and Dukes of s.v. William Cavendish, 1st duke of Devonshire". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 130–132
John Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley of Stratton
John Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley of Stratton was an English admiral, of the Bruton branch of the Berkeley family. He was the second son of John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, succeeded to the title on 6 March 1681, by the death of his elder brother Charles, a captain in the navy. On 14 December 1688 he was nominated rear-admiral of the fleet, under the command of Lord Dartmouth. In the following summer he was vice-admiral of the red squadron under Admiral Herbert, fought with him in the Battle of Bantry Bay. On the death of Sir John Ashby, 12 July 1693, he was appointed admiral of the Blue in the fleet under the joint admirals Killigrew and Shovell. On 8 June 1694, Lord Berkeley was detached by Admiral Russell in command of a large division intended to cover the Attack on Brest by the land forces under General Talmash. Several concurring accounts had warned the French of the object of this expedition, when the attempt was made in Camaret Bay, it was repulsed with severe loss. After his return from this expedition, Berkeley continued in command of the fleet, a few days was again sent out to bombard Dieppe and Le Havre.
On 27 August Lord Berkeley resigned the command to Sir Clowdisley Shovell, went to London for the winter. The next summer, 1695, Berkeley renewed the attacks on the French coast, on 4 July, joined by a Dutch squadron under Admiral Philips van Almonde, he appeared in front of St. Malo and shelled the city during two days under the immediate command of Captain John Benbow. In August, Berkeley attacked Calais, without success; the next year, he sailed into the Bay of Biscay and the isle Groix and the smaller islands and Hoedic, were ravaged, St. Martin's was bombarded; such achievements could not lead to any result and to make things worst, one night there was an intrusion into the fleet by the French privateer René Duguay-Trouin, who overpowered one of the frigates in full view of Admiral Berkeley. By the end of July the fleet returned to Spithead, no further operations during that summer being intended, Berkeley went on leave, still preserving the command. However, he never resumed it, being attacked by a pleurisy, of which he died 27 February 1697.
He had married Jane, daughter of Sir John Temple of East Sheen in Surrey, by whom he had but one daughter, who died in infancy. His widow remarried 1st Earl of Portland. John Berkeley, 3rd Baron Berkeley of Stratton
Reginald Jeeves referred to as just Jeeves, is a fictional character in a series of comedic short stories and novels by English author P. G. Wodehouse. Jeeves is the competent valet of a wealthy and idle young Londoner named Bertie Wooster. First appearing in print in 1915, Jeeves continued to feature in Wodehouse's work until his last completed novel Aunts Aren't Gentlemen in 1974, a span of 60 years. Both the name "Jeeves" and the character of Jeeves have come to be thought of as the quintessential name and nature of a valet or butler, inspiring many similar characters. A "Jeeves" is now a generic term as validated by its entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. Jeeves is a valet, not a butler. On rare occasions he fills in for someone else's butler. According to Bertie Wooster, he "can buttle with the best of them." An early prototype for Bertie Wooster is Reggie Pepper, much like Bertie Wooster but without Jeeves, though it was Jeeves who took the name "Reggie". A valet called Jevons appears in Wodehouse's 1914 short story "Creatures of Impulse", may have been an early prototype for Jeeves.
Like Jeeves, Jevons is described as the perfect valet. "Creatures of Impulse" appeared in The Strand Magazine, was not republished in any collection, though some parts went into the making of "The Crime Wave at Blandings". In his 1953 semi-autobiographical book written with Guy Bolton, Bring on the Girls!, Wodehouse suggested that the Jeeves character was inspired by an actual butler named Eugene Robinson whom Wodehouse employed for research purposes. Wodehouse described Robinson as a "walking Encylopaedia Britannica". However, Robinson worked at Wodehouse's house in Norfolk Street where Wodehouse did not live until 1927, long after Jeeves had been created. Wodehouse named his Jeeves after a popular English cricketer for Warwickshire. Wodehouse witnessed Percy Jeeves bowling at Cheltenham Cricket Festival in 1913. Percy Jeeves was killed at the Battle of the Somme during the attack on High Wood in July 1916, less than a year after the first appearance of the Wodehouse character who would make his name a household word.
Little is known about Jeeves's early life. According to Jeeves, he was educated, his mother thought him intelligent. Jeeves has an uncle, Charlie Silversmith, butler at Deverill Hall. Silversmith dandled Jeeves on his knee when Jeeves was young, when Jeeves is an adult, they write to each other. Charlie Silversmith's daughter Queenie Silversmith is Jeeves's cousin. Jeeves mentions his late uncle Cyril in Right Ho, Jeeves, his niece Mabel is engaged to Bertie Wooster's friend Charles "Biffy" Biffen. His cousin Egbert is a constable and plays a role in the short story "Without the Option". Jeeves has three placid aunts, in contrast to Bertie Wooster's aunts. Aunt Emily is interested in psychical research, another aunt, Mrs. Pigott, owns a cat in Maiden Eggesford. Jeeves references an aunt without naming her, including an aunt who read Oliver Wendell Holmes to him when he was young. In Right Ho, Jeeves, he references his Aunt Annie, though she was disliked. In his youth, Jeeves worked as a page boy at a girls' school.
He served in the military to some extent in World War I. In the play Come On, Jeeves states that he was a batman. Shortly before entering Bertie's service, Jeeves was employed by Lord Frederick Ranelagh, swindled in Monte Carlo. Jeeves worked for Lord Worplesdon, resigning after nearly a year because of Worplesdon's eccentric choice of evening dress. Jeeves helps Lord Worplesdon in Joy in the Morning. Other former employers include Mr Digby Thistleton. Jeeves becomes Bertie Wooster's valet. However, his tenure with Bertie Wooster has occasional lapses during the stories. Jeeves works for Lord Chuffnell for a week in Thank You, after giving notice because of Bertie Wooster's unwillingness to give up the banjolele, is employed by J. Washburn Stoker in the same novel, he serves as substitute butler for Bertie's Aunt Dahlia in Stiff Upper Lip, in the same story, he enters Sir Watkyn Bassett's employment for a short time as a trick to get Bertie Wooster released from prison. Jeeves is Lord Rowcester's butler for the length of Ring for Jeeves.
While working for Bertie Wooster, he pretends to be the valet of one of Bertie's friends as part of some scheme, though he is still Bertie's valet. He pretends to be the valet of Bicky Bickersteth in "Jeeves and the Hard-boiled Egg", Rocky Todd in "The Aunt and the Sluggard", Gussie Fink-Nottle when Gussie masquerades as Bertie Wooster in The Mating Season. Jeeves acts as a bookmaker's clerk in Ring for Jeeves, disguising himself for the role with a check suit and walrus moustache. In Wodehouse's play Come On, which has the same plot as Ring for Jeeves, it is mentioned that Jeeves changed his appearance as a bookmaker's clerk, though in the play, Jeeves impersonates a medieval ghost named Lady Agatha, wearing makeup and women's medieval clothing to complete the disguise, he pretends to be a broker's man in "Jeeves and the Greasy Bird" and Bertie's solicitor in Aunts Aren't Gentlemen. In one instance, he pretends to be Bertie Wooster in a telephon