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Berlin International Film Festival

The Berlin International Film Festival called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival has been held every February since 1978 and is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Cannes Film Festival. Since 2019, Mariette Rissenbeek serves as the executive director of the festival, while Carlo Chatrian is the artistic director. With around 300,000 tickets sold and 500,000 admissions each year, it has the largest public attendance of any annual film festival. Up to 400 films are shown in several sections across cinematic genres. Around twenty films compete for the festival's top awards, called the Golden Bear and several Silver Bears; the European Film Market, a film trade fair held to the Berlinale, is a major industry meeting for the international film circuit. The trade fair serves distributors, film buyers, financiers and co-production agents; the Berlinale Talents, a week-long series of lectures and workshops, is a gathering of young filmmakers held in partnership with the festival.

The film festival, EFM, other satellite events are attended by around 20,000 professionals from over 130 countries. More than 4200 journalists produce media coverage in over 110 countries. At some high-profile feature film premieres held during the festival, movie stars and celebrities are present on the red carpet; the 70th Berlin International Film Festival will be taking place from 20 February to 1 March 2020. During the peak of the Cold War in 1950, Oscar Martay, a film officer of the Information Service Branch of the American High Commissioner for Germany stationed in Berlin, proposed the idea of a film festival in Berlin; the proposal was put through a committee including members of the Senate of Berlin and people from the German film industry on October 9, 1950. Through his efforts and influence, the American military administration was persuaded to assist and to give loans for the first years of the Berlin International Film Festival, which commenced in June 1951 with film historian Dr. Alfred Bauer as its first director, a position he would hold until 1976.

Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca opened the first festival at the Titiana-Palast in Steglitz on June 6, 1951. The first festival ran from June 6–17th with Waldbühne being another festival venue; the winners of the first awards in 1951 were determined by a West German panel, there were five winners of the Golden Bear, divided by categories and genres. Cinderella, which won the Golden Bear for a Music Film won the audience award; the FIAPF banned the awarding of jury prizes at the festival so between 1952 and 1955, the winners of the Golden Bear were determined by the audience members. In 1956, FIAPF formally accredited the festival and since the Golden Bear has been awarded by an international jury; the 20th edition of the festival in 1970 was cut short and awards not issued following controversy over the showing of Michael Verhoeven's film o.k.. The following year, the festival was reformed and a new International Forum for New Cinema was created. Bauer was succeeded by film journalist Wolf Donner in 1976.

After his first Berlinale in June 1977, he negotiated the shift of the festival from the summer to February, a change which has remained since. That festival, the 28th edition, saw the jury award the Golden Bear to Spain for its contribution to the festival rather than a specific film; the three Spanish films which were screened at the festival and won it were short film Ascensor directed by Tomás Muñoz and feature films La palabras de Max by Emilio Martínez Lázaro and Las truchas by José Luis García Sánchez. The 1978 festival saw the start of the European Film Market. After only three years in the role, Donner was followed by Moritz de Hadeln who held the position from 1980 until director Dieter Kosslick took over in 2001. In 2000, the Theater am Potsdamer Platz, known as the Berlinale Palast during the festival, became the festival's principal venue. Since 2009, Friedrichstadt-Palast has been used. In June 2018, it was announced that Mariette Rissenbeek would serve as the new executive director alongside artistic director Carlo Chatrian.

They assumed their posts after Kosslick's final edition in 2019. Rissenbeek became the first woman to lead the Berlinale; the festival is composed of seven different film sections. Films are chosen in each category by a section director with the advice of a committee of film experts. Categories include: Competition: comprises feature-length films yet to be released outside their country of origin. Films in the Competition section compete for several prizes, including the top Golden Bear for the best film and a series of Silver Bears for acting and production. Panorama: comprises new independent and arthouse films that deal with "controversial subjects or unconventional aesthetic styles". Films in the category are intended to provoke discussion, have involved themes such as LGBT issues. Forum: comprises experimental and documentary films from around the world with a particular emphasis on screening works by younger filmmakers. There are no format or genre restrictions, films in the Forum do not compete for awards.

Generation: comprises a mixture of feature-length films aimed at children and youths. Films in the Generation section compete in two sub-categories: Generation Kplus and Generation 14plus. Awards in the section are determined by three separate juries—the Children's Jury, the Youth Jury and an international jury of experts—, whose decisions a

Zevulun Orlev

Zevulun Orlev is an Israeli politician and a former Knesset member, Minister of Welfare & Social Services and leader of the National Religious Party. Orlev is a decorated war hero. Born in Rehovot during the Mandate era, Orlev studied humanities and social sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, before training to be a teacher at Moreshet Yaakov College, he worked as Director General of the Ministry of Religious Affairs, Director General of the Ministry of Education and Culture. Orlev lives in Jerusalem's Givat Mordechai neighborhood with Nira, they have four children. During his national service in the Israel Defense Forces, he reached the rank of Sergeant. Orlev fought in the Six-Day War, he underwent rehabilitation for two years. During the Yom Kippur War, Orlev served in a stronghold on the Bar-Lev Line. During the Egyptian attack on the first day of the war, Orlev took charge of the soldiers in his outpost after the commander was wounded. Under his command, his unit repelled Egyptian attempts to capture the position, he organized the evacuation from the stronghold.

For this, he was awarded a Medal of Distinguished Service. He served as a reservist during the 1982 Lebanon War, he was first elected to the Knesset in the 1999 elections on the National Religious Party list. After being re-elected in the 2003 elections, Orlev was appointed Minister of Welfare and Social Services in Ariel Sharon's government. During the crisis in the party over the Gaza disengagement plan, Orlev led the camp which believed staying in the government, rather than leaving the coalition, was the best option. In response, NRP leader Effi Eitam called Orlev a "Meimadnik"; when Eitam and Yitzhak Levy quit the government in 2004, Orlev and many NRP members refused to leave the coalition. Orlev succeeded in taking control of the party, resulting in Eitam and Levy leaving to form the Renewed Religious National Zionist Party, which would join the National Union. Orlev was re-elected in the 2006 elections. Prior to the 2009 elections the NRP was dissolved and its members joined the Jewish Home.

Orlev won second place on the new party's list, retained his seat in the subsequent elections. Orlev became known for legislative proposal. In 2009 the Knesset debated a Private Members Bill proposed by Orlev, providing for imprisonment of anyone who denied that Israel was a Jewish and democratic state; the bill passed its preliminary reading. Orlev was criticized for proposing a bill that would mandate divorced fathers to pay child support until their children reached age 22, though he retracted and stated he would not pursue the bill. In 2012, he called for the Third Temple to be built in Jerusalem, as well as legislation to protect the project from prosecution and the "hostile, left-wing media", he proposed a Private Members Bill to override an Israeli Supreme Court ruling ordering the demolition five buildings in an Israeli settlement. Orlev did not run in the 2013 elections, he is a co-president of the international Mizrachi movement, which the National Religious Party and its successor Jewish Home represents in the political arena.

Zevulun Orlev on the Knesset website Media related to Zevulun Orlev at Wikimedia Commons

Shared decision-making in medicine

Shared decision-making in medicine is a process in which both the patient and physician contribute to the medical decision-making process. Health care providers explain treatments and alternatives to patients and help them choose the treatment option that best aligns with their preferences as well as their unique cultural and personal beliefs. In contrast to SDM, the traditional biomedical care system placed physicians in a position of authority with patients playing a passive role in care. Physicians instructed patients about what to do, patients took part in the treatment decision. One of the first instances where the term shared decision-making was employed was in a report on ethics in medicine by Robert Veatch in 1972, it was used again in 1982 in the "President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research." This work built on the increasing interest in patient-centredness and an increasing emphasis on recognising patient autonomy in health care interactions since the 1970s.

Some would claim that a general paradigm shift occurred in the 1980s in which patients became more involved in medical decision-making than before. For example, a 2007 review of 115 patient participation studies found that the majority of respondents preferred to participate in medical decision-making in only 50% of studies prior to 2000, while 71% of studies after 2000 found a majority of respondents who wanted to participate. Another early and important driver for shared decision-making came from Jack Wennberg. Frustrated by variations in health care activity that could not be explained by population need or patient preference he described the concept of unwarranted variation, which he attributed to varying physician practice styles. A key means of reducing this unwarranted variation was to recognise "the importance of sound estimates of outcome probabilities and on values that corresponded to patient preferences". Shared decision-making would allow patient preferences and values to determine the right rate of healthcare use.

The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice made shared decision-making a key element of their program of work. Charles et al. described a set of characteristics of shared decision-making, stating “that at least two participants, the clinician and patient be involved. This final element is not accepted by everyone in the field; the view that it is acceptable to agree to disagree is regarded as an acceptable outcome of shared decision-making. SDM relies on the basic premise of informed consent; the model recognizes that patients have personal values that influence the interpretation of risks and benefits differently from the way a physician interprets them. Informed consent is at the core of shared decision-making, i.e. without understanding the advantages and disadvantages of all treatment options, patients cannot engage in making decisions. But there is more than one option, with no clear choice of which option is best when the decision at hand is about a preference-sensitive condition.

Shared decision-making differs from informed consent in that patients base their decisions on their values and beliefs, as well as on being informed. Thus in certain situations the physician's point of view may differ from the decision that aligns most with the patient's values, opinions, or expectations about outcomes. Patient participation is field related to shared decision-making but which focuses more on the patient's role in the patient-physician relationship. There are certain patient characteristics. One study showed that female patients who are younger and more educated and have less severe illnesses than other patients are more to participate in medical decisions; that is, more education appears to increase participation levels and old age to reduce it. Another study found that age was not inversely related to participation levels but that patients who are not as fluent with numbers and statistics tended to let their physicians make medical decisions. Culture makes a difference. In general, for example, Americans play a more active role in the physician-patient relationship, such as by asking follow-up questions and researching treatment options, than do Germans.

In one study, black patients reported that they participate less in shared decision-making than white patients, yet another study showed that black patients desire to participate just as much as their white counterparts and are more to report initiating conversation about their health care with their physicians. Individuals who place a higher value on their health are more to play a passive role when it comes to medical decision-making than those who placed a lower value on health. Researchers Arora and McHorney posit that finding may be the result of their apprehension when it comes to health-related concerns among those who place a high value on health, leading to a tendency to let an expert, rather than themselves, make important medical decisions. There is mounting evidence that giving patients real-time, unfettered access to their own medical records increases their understanding of their health and improves their ability to take care of themselves. Study results indicate that full record access enables patients to become more involved in the quality of their care, such as following up on abnormal test results and determining when to seek care.

Providing patients with ready access to their doctors' visit notes has proven to have a positive impact on the doctor-patie