The Berlin U-Bahn is a rapid transit railway in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, a major part of the city's public transport system. Together with the S-Bahn, a network of suburban train lines, a tram network that operates in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in 1902, the U-Bahn serves 173 stations spread across ten lines, with a total track length of 151.7 kilometres, about 80% of, underground. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening. Over the course of a year, U-Bahn trains travel 132 million km, carry over 400 million passengers. In 2017, 553.1 million passengers rode the U-Bahn. The entire system is maintained and operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe known as the BVG. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn was expanded until the city was divided into East and West Berlin at the end of World War II.
Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. The East Berlin U-Bahn lines from West Berlin were severed, except for two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin; these were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. Friedrichstraße was the exception because it was used as a transfer point between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system, a border crossing into East Berlin; the system was reopened following the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification. The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. In 2006, travel on the U-Bahn was equivalent to 122.2 million km of car journeys. The Berlin U-Bahn was built in three major phases: Up to 1913: the construction of the Kleinprofil network in Berlin, Schöneberg, Wilmersdorf. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Berlin city administrators feared that an underground would damage the sewers, favouring an elevated railway following the path of the former city walls. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September 1896, work began on a elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten, with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz. Known as the "Stammstrecke", the route was inaugurated on 15 February 1902, was popular. Before the year ended, the railway had been extended: by 17 August, east to Warschauer Brücke. In a bid to secure its own improvement, Schöneberg wanted a connection to Berlin; the elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December 1910. Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn.
The early network ran east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable. In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north-south lines to be established. In 1920, the surrounding areas were annexed to form Groß-Berlin, removing the need for many negotiations, giving the city much greater bargaining power over the private Hochbahngesellschaft; the city mandated that new lines would use wider carriages—running on the same, standard-gauge track—to provide greater passenger capacity. Construction of the Nord-Süd-Bahn connecting Wedding in the north to Tempelhof and Neukölln in the south had started in December 1912, but halted for the First World War. Work resumed in 1919, although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. On 30 January 1923, the first section opened between Hallesches Tor and Stettiner Bahnhof, with a continuation to Seestraße following two months later.
Underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network. The line branched at Belle-Alliance-Straße, now. In 1912, plans were approved for AEG to build its own north-south underground line, named the GN-Bahn after its termini and Neukölln, via Alexanderplatz. Financial difficulties stopped the construction in 1919; the first section opened on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße, with the intermediate Hermannplatz becoming the first
The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic, starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall cut off West Berlin from all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989, its demolition began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, accompanied by a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses; the Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. GDR authorities referred to the Berlin Wall as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart; the West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame", a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt in reference to the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border, which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.
Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin. Between 1961 and 1989 the Wall prevented all such emigration. During this period over 100,000 people attempted to escape and over 5,000 people succeeded in escaping over the Wall, with an estimated death toll ranging from 136 to more than 200 in and around Berlin. In 1989 a series of revolutions in nearby Eastern Bloc countries—Poland and Hungary in particular—caused a chain reaction in East Germany that resulted in the demise of the Wall. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the Wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric people and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the Wall.
The "fall of the Berlin Wall" paved the way for German reunification, which formally took place on 3 October 1990. After the end of World War II in Europe, what remained of pre-war Germany west of the Oder-Neisse line was divided into four occupation zones, each one controlled by one of the four occupying Allied powers: the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union; the capital of Berlin, as the seat of the Allied Control Council, was subdivided into four sectors despite the city's location, within the Soviet zone. Within two years, political divisions increased between the other occupying powers; these included the Soviets' refusal to agree to reconstruction plans making post-war Germany self-sufficient, to a detailed accounting of industrial plants and infrastructure - some of, removed by the Soviets. France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Benelux countries met to combine the non-Soviet zones of Germany into one zone for reconstruction, to approve the extension of the Marshall Plan.
Following World War II, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin headed a group of nations on his Western border, the Eastern Bloc, that included Poland and Czechoslovakia, which he wished to maintain alongside a weakened Soviet-controlled Germany. As early as 1945, Stalin revealed to German communist leaders that he expected to undermine the British position within the British occupation zone, that the United States would withdraw within a year or two, that nothing would stand in the way of a united communist Germany within the bloc; the major task of the ruling communist party in the Soviet zone was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties, which in turn would be presented as internal measures. Property and industry was nationalized in the East German zone. If statements or decisions deviated from the described line and punishment would ensue, such as imprisonment and death. Indoctrination of Marxism-Leninism became a compulsory part of school curricula, sending professors and students fleeing to the West.
The East Germans created an elaborate political police apparatus that kept the population under close surveillance, including Soviet SMERSH secret police. In 1948, following disagreements regarding reconstruction and a new German currency, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade, preventing food and supplies from arriving in West Berlin; the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and several other countries began a massive "airlift", supplying West Berlin with food and other supplies. The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the Western policy change. Communists attempted to disrupt the elections of 1948, preceding large losses therein, while 300,000 Berliners demonstrated for the international airlift to continue. In May 1949, Stalin lifted the blockade; the German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949. By a secret treaty, the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs accorded the East Ge
Berlin Ostbahnhof is a main line railway station in Berlin, Germany. It is located in the Friedrichshain quarter, now part of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg borough, has undergone several name changes in its history, it was known as Berlin Hauptbahnhof from 1987 to 1998, a name now applied to Berlin's new central station at the former Lehrter station. Alongside Berlin Zoologischer Garten station it was one of the city's two main stations; the station opened on 23 October 1842 as Frankfurter Bahnhof, the terminus of a 81 km railway line to Frankfurt via Fürstenwalde. In 1845 the independent Berlin–Frankfurt railway merged into the Niederschlesisch-Märkische-Eisenbahngesellschaft, aiming at the extension of the line from Frankfurt to Breslau. After the NME lines were taken over by the Prussian state in 1852, the station was renamed Schlesischer Bahnhof. In 1867 the Old Ostbahnhof, the terminus of the Prussian Eastern Railway line was opened, located north of the present Ostbahnhof station. In 1882 the Old Ostbahnhof was again abandoned and Schlesischer Bahnhof was rebuilt on the present site when construction began on the Berlin Stadtbahn, an elevated railway through the Berlin city center built to link the city's major stations.
The Stadtbahn was completed in 1886. The Ostbahnhof is one planned; as the terminus of both the Silesian and the Eastern Railway line, Schlesischer Bahnhof developed to Berlin's "Gate to the East". Until World War I, trains ran from the German capital via Königsberg to Saint Petersburg and to Moscow as well as to Vienna and Constantinople via Breslau and Kattowitz. During the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire, numerous Jewish refugees arrived here to travel on to the emigration harbors in Hamburg and Bremerhaven; the station was damaged by strategic bombing in World War II and had to be rebuilt by the East German railway, the Deutsche Reichsbahn. In 1950 it was renamed Berlin Ostbahnhof, as upon the implementation of the Oder–Neisse line, the former Silesia province was now a part of Poland, its German population expelled. Memories of the German history of Silesia were repressed by the German Democratic Republic. Following the division of Germany, the station was, together with Berlin-Lichtenberg, one of two major railway stations in East Berlin.
The wall ran only 200 metres away from the station. Express trains ran from Ostbahnhof to Leipzig and Dresden; the station was again served by international trains like the Vindobona to Vienna. In 1987 the postwar building was demolished and the station began to be rebuilt as East Berlin's main station, grandly renamed Berlin Hauptbahnhof; the plan called for a large reception area for arriving Soviet bloc dignitaries. However, only part of the work was complete by the time of German reunification in 1990. A built staircase to the underground car park from this period in front of the station remains unfinished and fenced off. A constructed hotel was demolished in the early 1990s; the name Hauptbahnhof remained long after the division of Berlin ended, until 1998, when the station was re-renamed Berlin Ostbahnhof. One year work began to demolish the station and rebuild it once again, completed in 2002. Little remains of the 1980s structure except for an administrative block, some façade elements, parts of the platform structure.
The station has 9 platforms. 5 platforms are used for 4 for S-Bahn. 2 tracks are through tracks. The station is served by the following service: Intercity Express services Berlin - Brunswick - Göttingen - Kassel - Frankfurt - Mannheim - Freiburg - Basel - Interlaken/Zurich Intercity Express services Berlin - Brunswick - Göttingen - Kassel - Frankfurt Intercity Express services Berlin - Hanover - Göttingen - Kassel - Frankfurt - Stuttgart/Basel Intercity Express services Binz – Berlin – Hanover – Dortmund/Münster – Cologne/Aachen – Mainz – Mannheim – Stuttgart – Tübingen/Austria Intercity services Norddeich - Emden - Oldenburg - Bremen - Hanover - Brunswick - Magdeburg - Brandenburg - Berlin - Cottbus Intercity services Amsterdam - Amersfoort - Hengelo - Osnabrück - Hanover - Berlin Eurocity services Berlin - Frankfurt - Poznań - Warsaw / Gdynia Regional services IRE 1 Hamburg – Uelzen – Stendal – Berlin Regional services RE 1 Magdeburg – Brandenburg – Potsdam – Berlin – Erkner – Fürstenwalde – Frankfurt Regional services RE 2 Wismar – Schwerin – Wittenberge – Nauen – Berlin – Königs Wusterhausen – Lübben – Cottbus Regional services RE 7 Dessau – Bad Belzig – Michendorf – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Wünsdorf-Waldstadt Local services RB 14 Nauen – Falkensee – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport Berlin S-Bahn services S 3 Spandau - Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Ostkreuz – Karlshorst – Köpenick – Erkner Berlin S-Bahn services S 5 Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Ostkreuz – Lichtenberg – Strausberg Nord Berlin S-Bahn services S 7 Potsdam – Wannsee – Westkreuz – Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Ostkreu
Die Wende is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and a market economy in the German Democratic Republic around 1989 and 1990. It encompasses several processes and events which have become synonymous with the overall process; these processes and events are: the Peaceful Revolution during the presidency of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, a time of massive protest and demonstrations against the political system of the GDR and for civil and human rights in late 1989. The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989 following a press conference held by the Politbüro during which Günter Schabowski announced the introduction of unconditional travelling permissions, unusual after four decades of severe travelling restrictions and intended to tone down the protesters but instead because of Schabowski's unclear and ambiguous wording led to an onrush of people willing to leave the country and the accidental opening of the border checkpoints at the same night.
The transition to democracy in East Germany following the Peaceful Revolution, leading to the only democratic elections to the Volkskammer of the GDR on 18 March 1990. The process of German reunification leading to the Einigungsvertrag on 31 August 1990, the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany on 12 September 1990 and the joining of the five re-established East German Länder to the Federal Republic of Germany. In hindsight, the German word Wende took on a new meaning; this period is marked by West German aid to East Germany, a total reaching an estimated $775 billion over 10 years. To some extent, Germany is still in the midst of the Nachwendezeit: differences between East and West still exist, a process of "inner reunification" is not yet finished; this fundamental change has marked the reunification of Germany. The term was first used publicly in East Germany on 18 October 1989 in a speech by interim GDR leader Egon Krenz. Whilst it referred to the end of the old East German government, die Wende has become synonymous with the fall of the Wall and of East Germany, indeed of the entire Iron Curtain and Eastern Bloc state socialism.
Moments in Time 1989/1990. Films and photos from private collections
Potsdam Hauptbahnhof is the main station in the German city of Potsdam, capital of the state of Brandenburg. It lies on the Berlin–Magdeburg railway and was founded in 1838. However, it has had this name only since 1999, it was called Bahnhof Potsdam and it was called Potsdam Stadt station from 1960. The station is the terminus of line S7 of the Berlin S-Bahn, it is connected with the central bus station, a transfer point between Potsdam and the southwestern region of Berlin, has a stop on the Potsdam tram network. It is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 2 station; the first railway from Berlin to Potsdam was opened on 22 September 1838. It was the first railway in Prussia and is now one of the oldest railways in Germany still in operation, its final stop was at the site of the current Potsdam station. From the station, a port track ran to a steam boat landing west of the Long Bridge. With the commissioning of the Potsdam Railway bridge over the Havel by the Potsdam-Magdeburg Railway Company on 7 August 1846, the former terminus became a through station.
The station building was built in the neoclassical style. This and the station forecourt now lay north of the tracks. In 1928, it was connected to the Berlin S-Bahn network; the complete electrication of the suburban line lasted nearly a year. In World War II, the station was destroyed and a new station building was built after the war. From 1953 to 1958, it was connected to East Berlin by S-Bahn Durchläuferzüge, which did not stop in West Berlin. From 1958, East Germany relocated internal traffic to the developing Berlin outer ring. After the commissioning of the outer ring so-called Sputnik trains ran from the new Potsdam Süd station on the south-western outskirts via Schönefeld Airport to East Berlin. Long-distance trains on internal routes and Interzone trains ran over the outer ring; the station was renamed Potsdam Stadt in 1960 and Potsdam Süd station was renamed Potsdam Hauptbahnhof in 1961. The electric S-Bahn service to Potsdam was disrupted by the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and abandoned a few months later.
The Potsdam Stadt and Babelsberg stations could only be reached by local trains from inter alia the old Potsdam Hauptbahnhof. The transit trains between West Berlin and West Germany passed through Potsdam Stadt and there were personnel to monitor boarding and disembarking passengers at Potsdam Griebnitzsee. Passengers could not board there until 1963. In January 1990, local services were re-established to Berlin-Wannsee and full S-Bahn services were re-established in 1992. In 1997, work began on demolishing the old Potsdam Stadt station, including its entrance building, the roundhouse and sidings, replacing them with new buildings; the design for the new works were produced by the office of Gerkan and Partners. It consists of two long building complexes that are linked by a connecting structure topped by a wavy roof; the extensions to the platforms were integrated into the connecting structure. The S-Bahn platform was built new and a regional platform was upgraded. At the south entrance, a new station forecourt was built with bus and tram platforms and a bus parking area.
A new shopping centre and a cinema was opened under the name of Bahnhofspassagen Potsdam, along with office and commercial areas. On 1 September 1999, Potsdam Stadt station was renamed as Potsdam Hauptbahnhof, its DS-100 code is BPD and its station code is 5012. The construction of the station was controversial and was discussed at length. A proposal for a facade with yellow brickwork was rejected and the dimensions of the building give the impression of office complexes, the scale of which—as the critics predicted—would be at odds with the historical city of Potsdam. UNESCO considered whether Potsdam should be added to the List of World Heritage in Danger because of the project. Subsequent changes during construction and the non-commencement of some parts of the construction, meant that this could be avoided. Since December 2014, equipment has been in use at the platform allowing “train dispatch by the driver by cab monitor”. At the May 2006 timetable change the last pair of Intercity-Express services to stop at the station were removed.
The reason for this is that all ICE and all Intercity services between Berlin and the western states operate over the Hanover–Berlin high-speed railway and the journey from Potsdam to the western states is faster by taking a detour via Berlin than a route via Magdeburg would be. The station is served by the following services: Intercity services Emden - Oldenburg - Bremen - Hannover - Braunschweig - Magdeburg - Brandenburg - Berlin - Cottbus Regional services HKX Goslar – Vienenburg – Wernigerode / Thale – Quedlinburg – Halberstadt – Magdeburg – Brandenburg – Berlin Regional services RE 1 Magdeburg – Brandenburg – Potsdam – Berlin – Fürstenwalde – Frankfurt Local services RB 20 Oranienburg – Henningsdorf – Golm – Potsdam Local services RB 21 Wustermark – Golm – Potsdam – Berlin Local services RB 22 Königs Wusterhausen – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Saarmund – Golm – Potsdam – Berlin Local services RB 23 Michendorf – Caputh-Geltow – Potsdam Berlin S-Bahn services S 7 Potsdam - Wannsee - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Lichtenberg - Ahrensfelde List of railway stations in Brandenburg Potsdam Tramway Berlin S-Bahn Paul Sigel.
Architekturführer Potsdam (in Ge
The Berlin Stadtbahn is a major railway thoroughfare in the German capital Berlin, which runs through Berlin from east to west. It connects the eastern district of Friedrichshain with Charlottenburg in the west via 11 intermediate stations including Hauptbahnhof; the Berlin Stadtbahn is also defined as the longer route between Ostkreuz and Westkreuz, although this is not technically correct. The line was built in the 1880s, it is 12 kilometers in length, is elevated above the city's streets. The four track route carries S-Bahn, Regional-Express, EuroCity and Intercity-Express trains; the Stadtbahn line is an elevated rail line with viaducts totalling 8 kilometers in length and including 731 masonry viaduct arches. A further 2 kilometers of the line are situated on 64 bridges, that cross adjoining streets and the River Spree; the remaining length of the line is on an embankment. The line carries four tracks, in two pairs; the northern pair are reserved for use by the S-Bahn, are electrifed using a third rail carrying 800V DC.
The S-Bahn tracks have platforms at all eleven stations along the Stadtbahn. The southern pair of tracks are used by Regionalbahn, Regional-Express, EuroCity and Intercity-Express trains, are electrified using the German standard of 15 kV at 16.7 Hz AC, supplied by overhead line. Six of the Stadtbahn stations have platforms on these tracks, although not all trains stop at all stations, depending on the class and route of the train. From east to west, the Stadtbahn has stations at: Ostbahnhof Jannowitzbrücke Alexanderplatz Hackescher Markt Friedrichstraße Hauptbahnhof Bellevue Tiergarten Zoologischer Garten Savignyplatz Charlottenburg The S-Bahn tracks of the Stadtbahn carry the following routes:; the longer distance tracks carry Regionalbahn and Regional-Express routes RE1, RE2, RE7 and RB14. Although most InterCity and Intercity-Express trains now use the north-south tunnel route via Hauptbahnhof, some trains do still remain on the Stadtbahn's long distance tracks; these trains those heading toward Hanover and Cologne call at Hauptbahnhof and Ostbahnhof.
In 1871, eight main line railways existed in Berlin, with terminal stations at the city's edge or outside the city limits. This was impractical for many passengers, who were forced to use hackney carriages to transfer from one train to another. Therefore, a railway line was planned to connect these terminuses with each other. In 1872, the Deutsche Eisenbahnbaugesellschaft filed the planning application for a railway line through the city, connecting the then-Schlesischer Bahnhof to Charlottenburg, continuing to Potsdam. In December 1873, the state of Prussia as well as the private rail enterprises Berlin-Potsdamer Eisenbahn, Magdeburg-Halberstädter Eisenbahn and Berlin-Hamburger Bahn bought shares in the DEG, jointly founded the Berliner Stadteisenbahngesellschaft. However, things did not go as expected and the DEG went into bankruptcy in 1878, which forced the Prussian state government to take over operations, pay for the construction of the line with state money and to reimburse the former private owners of the DEG.
The state's interest in the line was attributed to the military, which after the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War was of the opinion that the railway networks would hinder mobilisation when not properly interconnected. On 15 July 1878 the Königliche Direktion der Berliner Stadteisenbahn, under the management of Ernst Dircksen, was commissioned to manage the site; the directorate at first reported to the Prussian Ministry of Transport and became a subsidiary of the Ministry of Public Operations. The planned railway had two tracks each for passenger traffic. Having taken similar projects in London and New York City into consideration, passenger traffic received priority over freight trains. Furthermore, the new railway line was not only to serve as a connection between the mainline terminii in Berlin, but would offer connections to the Berlin Ringbahn and the suburban rail lines; the traffic routing was not only influenced by the location of the existing stations the line was supposed to connect, but by land availability in the city centre.
One of the original drafts, which called for building the line along Leipziger Straße, had to be scrapped because of overly high land prices. The moat of the 17th century Berlin Fortress was filled up between Hackescher Markt and Jannowitzbrücke stations and, since it was public land, was used for building the railway line; this explains some of the curvy sections on the Stadtbahn between Alexanderplatz and Jannowitzbrücke stations. Its elevated nature sets the Stadtbahn apart from the previous Berliner Verbindungsbahn, built in 1851, built at street level and was a hindrance to travel. Work on the line started in 1875 and the Stadtbahn was opened on 7 February 1882 for local traffic; the costs of construction, including purchase of the land, were estimated at about 5 million Goldmark per kilometre. The line would become the core route of the Berlin S-Bahn; the Stadtbahn was equipped with longitudinal iron sleepers on the Haarmann system, however these were replaced with wooden sleeper
Bus transport in Berlin
Bus transport is the oldest public transport service in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, having been introduced in 1846. Since 1929, services have been operated by BVG, although during the Cold War-era division of the city they operated in West Berlin only. BVG's fleet consists of 1,300 vehicles. 30 October 1846 saw the first bus services from the Concessionierte Berliner Omnibus-Compagnie. In 1868, a new company was created, the ABOAG which on 1 January 1929 merged with other Berlin public transport companies to create the BVG. After the opening of Berlin Wall, the transport companies were no longer able to cope up with the traffic, so once again, solo buses by other transport companies and 100 hired coaches were used; the 3-digit numbering system was unified and implemented on June 2, 1991, just before the reunification of BVG in 1 January 1992. Normal bus routes make up most of the network and consist of around 300 lines, numbered from 100 to 399; the most famous line is the 100, which serves the tourist route from Alexanderplatz to the Zoological Garden passing many of Berlin's sights.
The suburban buses, operating outside Berlin and not managed by BVG, are included in the tariff area of Berlin public transport. Each bus line has a 3-digit number; the second digit indicates the borough in which the line runs: 0 = across more than 1 or 2 boroughs 1 = for the former boroughs of Wilmersdorf and Zehlendorf 2 = for the district of Reinickendorf 3 = for the district of Spandau 4 = for the districts of Mitte and Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg 5 = for the district of Pankow and the former one of Hohenschönhausen 6 = for the district of Treptow-Köpenick 7 = for the districts of Tempelhof-Schöneberg and Neukölln 8 = for the former district of Steglitz 9 = for the district of Marzahn-Hellersdorf and the former one of Lichtenberg As for the MetroTram lines, there are 17 MetroBus lines, each running every 10 minutes with a 24-hour service. Unlike the other bus lines, they are shown on many tramway maps and on some railway maps of the city; the list of Metrobus routes are: M11: Dahlem-Dorf - Schöneweide M19: Grunewald - Mehringdamm M21: Rosenthal - Jungfernheide M27: Pankow - Jungfernheide M29: Grunewald - Hermannplatz M32: Rathaus Spandau - Dallgow-Döberitz, Havelpark M37: Spandau - Staaken M41: Sonnenallee - Hauptbahnhof M44: Buckow - Hermannstraße M45: Spandau - Zoologischer Garten M46: Zoologischer Garten - Britz-Süd M48: Zehlendorf - Alexanderplatz M49: Heerstraße/Nennhauser Damm - Zoologischer Garten M76: Walter-Schreiber-Platz - Lichtenrade M77: Marienfelde, Waldsassener Straße - Alt-Mariendorf M82: Marienfelde, Waldsassener Straße - Rathaus Steglitz M85: Lichterfelde Süd - Hauptbahnhof The express buses are 13 rapid lines used to reach the airports or linking the suburbs to the city centre, with far fewer stops.
The most famous route is TXL. X7: Schönefeld - Rudow X9: Zoologischer Garten - Tegel Airport X10: Zoologischer Garten - Teltow, Rammrath-Brücke X11: Krumme Lanke - Schöneweide X21: Märkisches Viertel, Quickborner Straße - U Jakob-Kaiser-Platz X33: Märkisches Viertel, Wilhelmsruher Damm - Rathaus Spandau X34: Kladow - Zoologischer Garten X36: Rathaus Spandau - Haselhorst X49: Staaken - Messe Nord/ICC X54: Pankow - Hellersdorf X69: Marzahn - Köpenick, Müggelschlößchenweg X76: Walter-Schreiber-Platz - Lichtenrade X83: Königin-Luise-Straße/Clayallee - Lichtenrade The night buses, consisting of 45 lines, substitute the U-Bahn; the other lines serve suburban neighbourhoods not served by any public service running in daytime. Apart from the service buses managed by BVG and other local companies, in the city there are hundreds of private tourist coaches. For national and international routes an important company based in the city is the Berlin Linien Bus; the main bus station of Berlin is the Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin known as ZOB.
It is located in Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and linked to the stations of Kaiserdamm and Messe Nord/ICC. On 18 February 2011 MR Software released "OMSI - The Bus Simulator" for Windows, it is a bus simulator set in the late 1980s in West Berlin that features the MAN SD200 and MAN SD202 double-decker buses with a complex set of functions and made in various years. The player operates these buses along line 92 that served the Staaken, Wilhelmstadt and Falkenhagener Feld localities in the borough of Spandau; as of 2015, the BVG bus fleet consisted of 1300 buses. Single Decker Long Bus Bendy Bus Double Decker Dieter Gammrath, Hein Jung: "Berliner Omnibusse". Alba, Düsseldorf 1988, ISBN 3-87094-334-3 Gammrath, Schmiedeke: "Berliner Omnibusse". Alba, Düsseldorf 1999, ISBN 3-87094-359-9 Route planner by WikiRoutes.info BVG official website Bus transport page on BVG website