Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The term, historically associated with right-wing politics, has since used to describe a wide range of views. There is no set of policies that are universally regarded as conservative, because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place. Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a range of issues. In contrast to the definition of conservatism, political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism primarily in terms of a general defense of social. In Great Britain, conservative ideas emerged in the Tory movement during the Restoration period, Toryism supported a hierarchical society with a monarch who ruled by divine right. Tories opposed the idea that sovereignty derived from the people, and rejected the authority of parliament, Robert Filmers Patriarcha, or the Natural Power of Kings, published posthumously in 1680 but written before the English Civil War of 1642–1651, became accepted as the statement of their doctrine.
However, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 destroyed this principle to some degree by establishing a government in England. Faced with defeat, the Tories reformed their movement, now holding that sovereignty was vested in the three estates of Crown and Commons rather than solely in the Crown, Toryism became marginalized during the long period of Whig ascendancy in the 18th century. Conservatives typically see Richard Hooker as the father of conservatism, along with the Marquess of Halifax, David Hume. Halifax promoted pragmatism in government, whilst Hume argued against political rationalism and utopianism, Burke served as the private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham and as official pamphleteer to the Rockingham branch of the Whig party. Together with the Tories, they were the conservatives in the late 18th century United Kingdom, Burkes views were a mixture of liberal and conservative. He supported the American Revolution of 1765–1783 but abhorred the violence of the French Revolution and he insisted on standards of honor derived from the medieval aristocratic tradition, and saw the aristocracy as the nations natural leaders.
That meant limits on the powers of the Crown, since he found the institutions of Parliament to be better informed than commissions appointed by the executive and he favored an established church, but allowed for a degree of religious toleration. Burke justified the order on the basis of tradition, tradition represented the wisdom of the species and he valued community. Burke was a leading theorist in his day, finding extreme idealism an endangerment to broader liberties, despite their influence on future conservative thought, none of these early contributors were explicitly involved in Tory politics. Hooker lived in the 16th century, long before the advent of toryism, whilst Hume was an apolitical philosopher, Burke described himself as a Whig. Shortly after Burkes death in 1797, conservatism revived as a political force as the Whigs suffered a series of internal divisions
Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format, the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, and is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets, in common usage and broadsheet are frequently more descriptive of a newspapers market position than physical format. The Berliner format used by many prominent European newspapers is sized between the tabloid and the broadsheet, in a newspaper context, the term Berliner is generally used only to describe size, not to refer to other qualities of the publication. The word tabloid comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as Tabloid pills in the late 1880s, the connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items.
A1902 item in Londons Westminister Gazette noted, The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals, thus tabloid journalism in 1901 originally meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified, easily absorbed format. The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories, a tabloid is defined as roughly 17 by 11 inches and commonly half the size of a broadsheet. Tabloid newspapers, especially in the United Kingdom, boast a very high degree of variation as far as target market, political alignment, editorial style, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two types of tabloid newspaper, red top and compact. The distinction is largely of editorial style, both red top and compact tabloids span the width of the spectrum from socialism to capitalist conservatism. The red top tabloid is, for many, the example of the format. Red tops tend to be written with a simplistic, straightforward vocabulary and grammar, their layout, more often than not, in the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation.
Poll results are often predicted by red top papers, examples of British red top newspapers include The Sun, the Daily Star, the Daily Mirror and the Daily Sport. In contrast to red top tabloids, compacts use a style more closely associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids formerly used the paper size. The term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the newspapers to make the change. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s, two notable British papers that took this step at the time were the Daily Mail and the Daily Express
World Press Photo
World Press Photo Foundation is an independent, non-profit organization based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Founded in 1955, the organization is known for holding an annual photography contest. Since 2011, World Press Photo has organized an annual contest for journalistic multimedia productions, and, in association with Human Rights Watch. A primary objective of the organization is to support professional photojournalism on an international scale through the World Press Photo Academy. It organizes a number of projects throughout the world, workshops. An annual awards ceremony is held in the Oude Kerk in Amsterdam, after the contest, the prizewinning photographs are assembled into a travelling exhibition. A yearbook presenting all prizewinning entries is published annually in six languages, new York-based photographer Spencer Platt of Getty Images won in 2006. His picture showed a group of young Lebanese driving through a South Beirut neighborhood devastated by Israeli bombings, the picture was taken on 15 August 2006, the first day of the ceasefire between Israel and Hezbollah when thousands of Lebanese started returning to their homes.
In 2007, a total of 4,460 professional photographers from 124 countries entered 78,083 images in the competition, the winner was the British photographer Tim Hetherington. In 2008, Anthony Suau, of USA, won the World Press Photo of the Year for the second time, amit Shaal of Israel won third prize in 2011 in the category of Arts and Entertainment, Stories. During an exhibit in Lebanon that year, World Press Photo was asked to remove Shaals photos because, according to the General Security Directorate, Lebanon, WPP refused to censor the Israeli artist and shut down the exhibit ten days ahead of schedule. Since 1994 World Press Photo has organised the Joop Swart Masterclass, where photojournalists who are considered notable are selected to mentor a group of young photographers
Danske Bank is a Danish bank whose name literally translates into Danish Bank. It was founded 5 October 1871 as Den Danske Landmandsbank, Hypothek- og Vexelbank i Kjøbenhavn, headquartered in Copenhagen, it is the largest bank in Denmark and a major retail bank in the northern European region with over 5 million retail customers. Danske Bank was number 454 on the Fortune Global 500 list for 2011, the Danske Bank group operates a number of local banks around the Nordic Region as well as across Ireland. The Danske Bank branches in Baltic states began operating in 2008 after Finnish Sampo Bank was acquired by Danske Bank Group in 2007 for €4.05 billion, Danske Bank, formerly Sampo Bank, is Danske Banks Finnish operations. Sampo Bank was acquired by the Danske Bank Group in 2007, Sampo Bank traces its origins back to 1887, Originally the Finnish state-owned Post and Savings Bank, which accepted deposits from the public at its post offices. In 1999, the bank was merged with Sampo PLCs insurance business to form the Sampo Group.
The banking unit was acquired by Danske Bank in 2007. Danske Banks Northern Irish subsidiary was founded as the Northern Banking Partnership in Belfast in 1809 and it became Northern Bank in 1970, after merging with the Belfast Banking Company. Northern Bank was one of the Big Four banks in Ireland, the bank is considered one of the leading retail banks in Northern Ireland with 82 branches and four finance centres. Danske Bank is one of the four banks in Northern Ireland which are permitted to issue their own banknotes. Danske Banks Irish subsidiary was known as the National Irish Bank. In 1987, both banks were acquired by National Australia Bank, in 1988 the Republic of Ireland operation was renamed National Irish Bank Limited whilst Northern Bank Limited remained the name of the Northern Ireland operation. Nonetheless, a management team continued to run both banks, which shared many services and back office functions. During this era, the logo of the National Irish Bank was that of the National Australia Bank, except that the red star had been recoloured green, the original Northern Bank logo had been the Midland Bank griffin.
The rebrand was completed on 18 November 2012, at the time the bank closed its 27 branches to focus on corporate and private clients. On 31 October 2013 Danske Bank announced it would be withdrawing all personal banking services in the Irish Republic on a basis in the first half of 2014. Danske Bank has set up its own captive technology centre in India called Danske IT, Danske Bank corporate website Yahoo Finance
Ernst Henrich Berling
Ernst Henrich Berling was a German-Danish book printer and publisher. From 1749 he published Danske Post Tidender, which would become Berlingske Tidende, Berling was born in Mecklenburg as the son of mounted forest ranger Melchior Christian Berling and Catharina Hennings. They founded the Danish Berling Dynasty of printers and publishers, in 1733 he set up a printing business and in 1747 he was appointed Royal Book Printer. On 27 December 1748 he received a license to newspapers, German and scholarly, which he had acquired from Inger Wielandt. Most notable among these was his Kjøbenhavnske Danske Post-Tidender, now Berlingske Tidende, the paper set new standards for political news coverage and Danish media. Henry Hellsen, Foregangsmanden Ernst Heinrich Berling, Det Berlingske Bogtrykkeri,1958, harald Ilsøe, Bogtrykkerne i København, Museum Tusculanums Forlag,1992. T. Vogel-Jørgensen, Berlingske tidende gennem to hundrede aar, rasmus Nyerup, Læsendes Aarbog for 1800, p.69 ff. Peter Matthias Stolpe, Dagspressen i Danmark, volume III and IV
Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten, commonly shortened to JP, is a Danish daily broadsheet newspaper. It is based in Viby, a suburb of Århus and its main competitors are the broadsheet Politiken and compact Berlingske. The foundation behind the newspaper, Jyllands-Postens Fond, defines it as an independent liberal newspaper, the paper officially supported the Conservative Peoples Party until 1938. The newspaper was founded in 1871 and issued its first copy on 2 October of that year, the name Jyllandsposten was used, the hyphen being adopted in 1945. The current name was introduced in 1969 and it refers to itself as Denmarks international newspaper. Jyllandsposten quickly became one of Jutlands most modern newspapers and secured an exclusive access to government telegraph wires between 21,00 and midnight every day and this enabled Jyllandsposten to publish news one day earlier than most of its competitors. Gradually the paper expanded, enlarging its format and adding more and more pages, the first issues had only contained four pages.
In 1889 it abandoned the traditional Gothic script in favour of the Latin script used today, Gothic script had been abolished by the Danish spelling reform of 1875, but was still in wide use. Politically the paper supported the Højre party – which became the Conservative Peoples Party in 1915, the paper advocated business interests and strongly opposed socialism. It was critical of business monopolies, in international affairs, it was generally supportive of Britain and critical of Germany, which it considered the only country that wished to attack Denmark, to quote an 1872 edition. This nationalist sentiment was a reaction to Germanys annexation of portions of southern Jutland following the Second War of Schleswig in 1864. Editorially the newspaper supported the Danish minority in Germany and advocated for a new located at the Danevirke. Throughout World War I Jyllands-Posten continued its attacks on Germany despite the governments policy of neutrality in the conflict. In 1918, the newspaper was outlawed in Germany, in 1929, the paper established an office in Copenhagen, and established a corporation with The Times.
In 1931, the paper was acquired by a joint stock company whose main investor became editor-in-chief, in 1934 the newspaper began to use photographs in its layouts. Foreign news stories were supplied by Ritzau, The Times, during the 1920s and 1930s, the editorial line of the paper was right-wing Conservative. Another issue was support of the Danish minority in Germany, the paper expressed its admiration for the authoritarian regimes of Italy and Germany on several occasions, a line assumed by many European newspapers. In 1933, the newspaper advocated that Denmark follow Germanys example, in March 1933, the paper wrote, Only dry tears will be cried at the grave of the Weimar Republic
A. P. Moller–Maersk Group, known as Maersk, is a Danish business conglomerate. A. P. Møller – Maersk Group has activities in a variety of sectors, primarily within the transport. It has been the largest container ship operator and supply vessel operator in the world since 1996, as of September 2016 the company is in the process of splitting its shipping and energy interests into separate divisions. It ranked 148 on the Forbes Global 2000 list for 2015, a. P. Møller – Maersk Group started as the shipping company Dampskibsselskabet Svendborg founded by captain Peter Mærsk-Møller and his son Arnold Peter Møller in Svendborg, April 1904. A. P. Møller had four children, all by his first wife Chastine Estelle Roberta Mc-Kinney, a. P. Møllers second child was Arnold Mærsk Mc- Kinney Møller. In 1939, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller became a partner in the company, following the death of A. P. Møller in June 1965, he became CEO of the company and held this post until 1993, when he was succeeded by Jess Søderberg.
Beginning in 1965, Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller served as chairman and did not relinquish this position until December 2003. Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller was until his one of the managing owners of the company and was chairman of Odense Steel Shipyard until 2 May 2006. Møller, who was a deeply religious Christian, attached a banner with a white seven pointed star on both sides of the black chimney on the steamship Laura when his wife recovered from illness. In a letter to his wife, P. M, the same star became the emblem of the Maersk Group. In May 2014 the company lifted its first-quarter net profit to $1. 02bn as a result of Maersk Line improving its operations. Container shipping and related activities is the largest business area for A. P. Moller – Maersk and it comprises worldwide container services and forwarding solutions and terminal activities under the brand names, Maersk Line and Damco. Since 1996, Mærsk is the largest container shipping company in the world, the largest operating unit in A. P. Moller – Maersk by revenue and staff is Maersk Line.
In 2013 the company described itself as the worlds largest overseas cargo carrier, as per September 2015, being still the largest container fleet, it holds 15. 1% of the global TEU. In 2006, the largest container ship in the world to that date, the E-class vessel Emma Maersk, was delivered to Maersk Line from Odense Steel Shipyard. Seven other sisterships have since been built, and on 21 February 2011, Maersk ordered 10 even larger ships from Daewoo. The first were delivered in 2013 and it held options for 10–20 more, and in June 2011 placed follow-on orders for a second batch of ten sisterships with the same shipyard, but cancelled its option for a third batch of ten. As of February 2010, Maersk had a book for new ships totalling 857000TEU
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker