click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bernard Baruch

Bernard Mannes Baruch was an American financier, stock investor, philanthropist and political consultant. After his success in business, he devoted his time toward advising U. S. Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt on economic matters, became a philanthropist. Bernard Baruch was born to a Jewish family on August 19, 1870 in Camden, South Carolina, to Belle and Simon Baruch, a physician, he was the second of four sons, including brothers Herman B. Baruch, Sailing Wolfe Baruch, Hartwig Nathaniel Baruch. In 1881 the family moved from Camden to New York City, where Bernard and his brothers attended local schools, he graduated from the City College of New York. Baruch married an Episcopalian, of New York, they had three children: Belle Baruch. Baruch became a broker and a partner in A. A. Housman & Company. With his earnings and commissions, he bought a seat on the New York Stock Exchange for $19,000. There he amassed a fortune before the age of 30 by profiting from speculation in the sugar market.

Baruch founded the Intercontinental Rubber Company of New York, which dominated the guayule rubber market in the U. S. with holdings in Mexico. His partners in the enterprise were Senator Nelson Aldrich, Daniel Guggenheim, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. George Foster Peabody and others. By 1903 Baruch had his own brokerage firm and gained the reputation of "The Lone Wolf of Wall Street" because of his refusal to join any financial house. By 1910, he had become one of Wall Street's best-known financiers. In 1925 Baruch endowed the United Daughters of the Confederacy Mrs. Simon Baruch University Award in memory of his mother, to support scholars who have written unpublished monographs for full-length books on Confederate history, his mother had supported their activities. Bernard Baruch made millions in the US bull market in stocks since 1924. However, he started anticipating a Wall Street crash as early as 1927 and sold stocks short periodically in 1927 and 1928. On September 25, 1929, after the 1929 post Labor Day peak of the Dow, Baruch refused to join a bull pool of financiers to support the declining market.

He advised humorist Will Rogers to exit the market before the crash. “I did what you told me,” Rogers told Baruch when the two met after the Black Tuesday crash of Oct 29, 1929, “and you saved my life”. In 1916, Baruch left Wall Street to advise President Woodrow Wilson on national defense and terms of peace, he served on the Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense and, in January 1918, became the chairman of the new War Industries Board. With his leadership, this body managed the US's economic mobilization during World War I. In 1919, Wilson asked Baruch to serve as a staff member at the Paris Peace Conference. Baruch did not approve of the reparations France and Britain demanded of Germany, supported Wilson's view that there needed to be new forms of cooperation, as well as the creation of the League of Nations. For his services in support of the war effort, Baruch was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal with the following citation: The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Mr. Bernard M. Baruch, a United States Civilian, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I, in the organization and administration of the War Industries Board and in the coordination of allied purchases in the United States.

By establishing a broad and comprehensive policy for the supervision and control of the raw materials, manufacturing facilities, distribution of the products of industry, he stimulated the production of war supplies, coordinated the needs of the military service and the civilian population, contributed alike to the completeness and speed of the mobilization and equipment of the military forces and the continuity of their supply. War Department, General Orders No. 15 In the 1920s and 1930s, Baruch expressed his concern that the United States needed to be prepared for the possibility of another world war. He wanted a more powerful version of the War Industries Board, which he saw as the only way to ensure maximum coordination between civilian business and military needs. Baruch remained a prominent government adviser during this time, supported Franklin D. Roosevelt's domestic and foreign policy initiatives after his election. Baruch was a major contributor to Eleanor Roosevelt's controversial initiative to build a resettlement community for unemployed mining families in Arthurdale, West Virginia.

This relationship did not stop the Nye Committee from investigating Baruch's role in war profiteering. In 1940, responding to pleas to help Harry Truman's shoestring bid for reelection to the U. S. Senate, Baruch provided crucial funding; when the United States entered World War II, President Roosevelt appointed Baruch a special adviser to the director of the Office of War Mobilization. His offices at this time were at 120 Broadway, he supported what was known as a "fight" bill. Baruch advocated the creation of a permanent superagency similar to his old Industries Board, his theory enhanced the role of civilian businessmen and industrialists in determining what was needed and who would produce it. Baruch's ideas were adopted, with James Byrnes appointed to carry them out, it is estimated that these policies cut two years off the time taken to produce tanks, etc. and caught Hitler by surprise. During World War II Bar

Beckman Research Institute

The Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope is a not-for-profit medical research facility located at and partnering with the City of Hope National Medical Center in Duarte, CA, United States. It is dedicated to studying normal and abnormal biological processes which may be related to cancer, diabetes, HIV/AIDS and other life-threatening diseases. Both basic and clinical research are carried out in cooperation with the City of Hope National Medical Center; the institute itself is organized into more than 20 divisions. As of 2019, the director is Steven T. Rosen; the Beckman Research Institute hosts the Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences whose founding dean was Arthur Riggs. City of Hope was founded by the Jewish Consumptive Relief Association as a tuberculosis sanatorium, the Los Angeles Sanatorium, in 1913; as tuberculosis was controlled by use of antibiotics, executive director Samuel H. Golter proposed that the institution expand to become a national medical center studying other diseases.

City of Hope's Cancer Research Institute was dedicated in 1952. Since the research scope has continued to expand, with cancer and diabetes as major foci, as well as other life-threatening diseases. In 1983, a major challenge grant of $10 million from the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation enabled the research division of the City of Hope to undergo significant expansion and create the Beckman Research Institute. Funds were available for buildings and endowment, but had to support research and the advancement of knowledge related to the "causes and cure of human disease." The Beckman Research Institute at City of Hope was the first of five Beckman research institutes to receive funding in the United States. Joseph T. Holden John Steven Kovach Arthur Riggs Richard Jove David Horne, Steven T. Rosen Research and treatment are coordinated between the City of Hope National Medical Center and the Beckman Research Institute; as of 2019, over 300 clinical trials were being conducted at any one time, at least one-third of eligible patients were enrolled in clinical trials.

A number of significant achievements have been reported by researchers affiliated with the Beckman Research Institute at City of Hope. These include: Researchers associated with the Beckman Research Institute are credited with starting the biotechnology industry. Keiichi Itakura and Arthur Riggs, with Genentech scientist Herbert Boyer, were the first to develop human recombinant gene products, their techniques were used to create synthetic somatostatin in E. coli, the first expression of a human protein in bacteria, in 1977. The techniques and tools of genetic synthesis were standardizable and applicable to many similar problems; the group reported the expression of human insulin in bacteria by 1978. Barry Forman identified the first new steroid-like hormone in 30 years, androstanol, a hormone with a different mechanism of action from others, that may be useful in treatment of diabetes. Fouad Kandeel leads clinical trials testing the use of islet transplantation to treat patients who are incapacitated by severe type 1 diabetes.

Bart Roep leads immune intervention strategies with the ultimate goal to cure type 1 diabetes. Arthur Riggs went on to work with Shmuel Cabilly on "fundamental technology required for the artificial synthesis of antibody molecules", since used to create "smart" cancer drugs. Riggs has been associated with the institute in several ways, including as directory of the Beckman Research Institute from 2000–2007, now director emeritus. Gerd Pfeifer was able to prove a definitive link between smoking and lung cancer, by demonstrating genetic damage in lung cells, caused by a chemical in cigarette smoke; the Beckman Research Institute has partnered with the Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation in the Health of Women Study, a long-term cohort study tracking the health of women via online and mobile platforms, it will study both women who do not have breast cancer. The Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation hopes to recruit one million women volunteers to become part of its participating "Army of Women". Hua Eleanor Yu and her group are studying the involvement of STAT3 with cancer cells and the immune system, developing possible drug treatments to attack tumor cells.

John Rossi has worked on treatments for pancreatic cancer and liver cancer. He was the first researcher to use RNA to block the progress of the virus that causes HIV/Aids by degrading the HIV virus within infected cells, he is involved in ongoing work with David DiGiusto and others to develop disease-resistant immune systems by transplanting gene-modified HIV-1-resistant stem and progenitor cells. With John Zaia and others, Rossi has worked on Lentiviral vectors for delivering RNA-based gene therapy; this approach combines stem cell and gene therapy to deliver RNA molecules that can block the genes that the HIV/AIDS virus uses to infect immune cells. John Zaia is investigating the possibility that cancer chemotherapy can perturb reservoirs of HIV, which has relevance to therapeutic interventions to cure HIV; as of December 2011, Charity Watch rated the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope as an "A-" grade charity. Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Irell & Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences at City of Hope National Medical Center

Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre

Maratha and Aloda massacre refers to the massacre of Turkish Cypriots by EOKA B on 14 August 1974 during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in the villages of Maratha and Aloda. 89 people from Maratha and Santalaris were killed, a further 37 people were killed in the village of Aloda. In total, 126 people were killed during the massacre. According to the 1960 census, the inhabitants of the three villages were Turkish Cypriots; the total population of Maratha and Santalaris was 207. By 1973, the total population of the villages had risen to 270, with 124 in Maratha, 100 in Santalaris and 46 in Aloda. However, in July 1974, following the first Turkish invasion of Cyprus, all men of fighting age were taken away as prisoners of war to internment camps in Famagusta and from there transferred to Limassol. On 20 July 1974, the men of the villages were sent to Limassol. Following this, according to testimonials cited by Sevgül Uludağ, EOKA-B men from the neighboring village of Peristeronopigi came, got drunk in the camp they established in the village coffeehouse, fired shots in the air, subsequently raped many women and young girls.

The rape included the boys and this continued till 14 August 1974. Upon the launch of the second invasion of the Turkish Army, they decided not to leave behind any witnesses and killed the entire population of the villages present at the time. In Maratha and Santalaris, 84-89 were killed; the imam of Maratha stated that there were 90 people in the village prior to the massacre, only six people were left. Elderly people and children were killed during the massacre. Only three people were able to escape from the massacre in Aloda; the inhabitants of the three villages were buried in mass graves with a bulldozer. The villagers of Maratha and Santalaris were buried in the same grave. Associated Press described the corpses as "so battered and decomposed that they crumbled to pieces when soldiers lifted them from the garbage with shovels". Milliyet reported that parts of the bodies had been chopped off and sharp tools, as well as machine guns had been used in the massacre. According to Greek Cypriot writer and researcher Tony Angastiniotis, at least one of the attackers used a mainland Greek accent, which suggested that he was a Greek officer.

The United Nations described the massacre as a crime against humanity, by saying "constituting a further crime against humanity committed by the Greek and Greek Cypriot gunmen." The massacre was reported including The Guardian and The Times. Rauf Denktaş put off a meeting with Greek Cypriots. List of massacres in Cyprus

Margarita Stolbizer

Margarita Stolbizer is an Argentine lawyer and prominent politician. Margarita Stolbizer was born in the western Buenos Aires suburb of Morón, in 1955, she enrolled at the Universidad de Morón and graduated in 1978, after which she taught at her alma mater's law school for four years. An avid volleyball player, she created her city's first women's volleyball team. Stolbizer was named to the National Council of Lawyers' Associations and, following elections in 1983, she was appointed Social Policy Director for the city of Morón. In 2015, she ran as a Progressive Party candidate for the Argentine presidency, she had been affiliated with the centrist Radical Civic Union − whose candidate, Raúl Alfonsín had been elected President in 1983 − since her days at the university and in 1985, she was elected to the Morón City Council on the UCR ticket. As such she gained prominence for her role in the investigation and impeachment of opposition Justicialist Party Mayor Juan Carlos Rousselot, in 1989, she was named staff counsel to the Infrastructure Contracts Investigations Committee of the Legislature of the Province of Buenos Aires, took part in ILO conferences on the subjects of labor rights and corruption, as well as the Human Rights Commission of the Latin American Parliament.

She supported Alfonsín's initiative to create an alliance with the center-left Frepaso and was elected to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, in 1997. She was named to numerous committees dealing with legal and constitutional rights, was named President of the Penal Legislation Committee. Close to both Alfonsín and Congressman Federico Storani, her influence grew after Fernando de la Rúa 1999 election to the presidency and Storani's appointment as Interior Minister, she was opposed, however, to the President's crisis decision to return Domingo Cavallo to the Economy Ministry, in March 2001. Cavallo had been first appointed to the post in 1991 by de la Rúa's predecessor and nemesis, Carlos Menem, was considered responsible by Stolbizer for the prevailing economic crisis. Stolbizer represented the Argentine Congress in the 2002 conference of Parliamentarians for Global Action in Stockholm, was named Vice President of their International Council, she was nominated by the UCR as a candidate for the office of Governor of Buenos Aires Province for the 2003 elections, though fallout from President de la Rúa's chaotic, December 2001 resignation helped relegate her to fourth place.

She developed increasing differences with the UCR's leadership and in 2005, unsuccessfully challenged former President Alfonsín for the post of head of the Buenos Aires Province delegation to the UCR Central Committee. The party's weakness ahead of the 2007 presidential election prompted the UCR to endorse a stronger candidate akin to their views, which combine social democratic policies with a longtime anti-Peronism. Stolbizer, by a leader in the UCR's congressional delegation, favored endorsing ARI candidate Elisa Carrió, though Alfonsín's preference for the center-left economist Roberto Lavagna prevailed; the dissension led to her break with the UCR, whereby she formed the Generation for a National Encounter, by which she ran again for Governor of Buenos Aires Province during the same 2007 elections. She fared better, with 17 % of the vote. Stolbizer continued her policy for fostering alliances with former rivals: in 2007, she led her GEN party into Carrió's Civic Coalition, which grew into the largest opposition to Néstor and Cristina Kirchner's ruling Front for Victory.

Her son, Nicolás Laprovíttola, is a professional basketball player for Real Madrid of the Liga ACB and the EuroLeague and for the Argentine national basketball team. Margarita Stolbizer's Flickr photostream: Images of the 2009 campaign GEN party website

Georgina Chang

Georgina Chang is a Singaporean who heads Mediacorp's The Celebrity Agency. She was a former radio personality, television broadcaster, newspaper columnist. Chang was the vice-president of Mediacorp's English Programming and the creative director of Singapore radio stations Lush 99.5FM and 987FM. Chang studied at CHIJ Katong Convent and Victoria Junior College before embarking on a career as a radio DJ for the first 24-hour music station in Singapore, she hosted Singapore's longest-running variety TV show as well as year-end countdown shows for the terrestrial television station now known as MediaCorp TV. She joined STAR television's Channel V in Hong Kong and was an anchor for the daily music news program, she joined NBC Asia for a year before returning to mediacorp, where she became the programming director for 98.7FM. Chang has written various columns and travel stories for the Today, The Star newspaper, Her World magazine, Men's Health, Silkwinds and 8 Days magazine. Chang was a tennis presenter and reporter on Star Sports, hosting ACE, a weekly tennis show.

She was the on-site presenter and reporter for the World Pool Championships and the on-site presenter for the Asian 9 Ball Tour. She left Star Sports in 2009 Chang returned to Mediacorp in 2009 and held the position of senior creative director for 987FM and Lush 99.5FM

Philippine Revolution

The Philippine Revolution, called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities of the Spanish East Indies, under the Spanish Empire. The Philippine Revolution began in August 1896, when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan, an anti-colonial secret organization; the Katipunan, led by Andrés Bonifacio, began to influence much of the Philippines. During a mass gathering in Caloocan, the leaders of the Katipunan organized themselves into a revolutionary government, named the newly established government "Haring Bayang Katagalugan", declared a nationwide armed revolution. Bonifacio called for an attack on the capital city of Manila; this attack failed. In particular, rebels in Cavite led by Mariano Álvarez and Emilio Aguinaldo won early major victories. A power struggle among the revolutionaries led to Bonifacio's death in 1897, with command shifting to Aguinaldo, who led the newly formed revolutionary government.

That year, the revolutionaries and the Spanish signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which temporarily reduced hostilities. Aguinaldo and other Filipino officers exiled themselves in the British colony of Hong Kong in southern China. However, the hostilities never ceased. On April 21, 1898, after the sinking of USS Maine in Havana Harbor and prior to its declaration of war on April 25, the United States launched a naval blockade of the Spanish colony island of Cuba, off its southern coast of the peninsula of Florida; this was the first military action of the Spanish–American War of 1898. On May 1, the U. S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron, under Commodore George Dewey, decisively defeated the Spanish Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay seizing control of Manila. On May 19, unofficially allied with the United States, returned to the Philippines and resumed attacks against the Spaniards. By June, the rebels had gained control of nearly all of the Philippines, with the exception of Manila. On June 12, Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence.

Although this signified the end date of the revolution, neither Spain nor the United States recognized Philippine independence. The Spanish rule of the Philippines ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1898, which ended the Spanish–American War. In the treaty, Spain ceded control of other territories to the United States. There was an uneasy peace around Manila, with the American forces controlling the city and the weaker Philippines forces surrounding them. On February 4, 1899, in the Battle of Manila, fighting broke out between the Filipino and American forces, beginning the Philippine–American War. Aguinaldo ordered "hat peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken and that the latter be treated as enemies". In June 1899, the nascent First Philippine Republic formally declared war against the United States; the Philippines would not become an internationally recognized independent state until 1946. The main influx of revolutionary ideas came at the start of the 19th century, when the Philippines was opened for world trade.

In 1809, the first English firms were established in Manila, followed by a royal decree in 1834 which opened the city to world trade. The Philippines had been governed from Mexico since 1565, with colonial administrative costs sustained by subsidies from the galleon trade. Increased competition with foreign traders brought the galleon trade to an end in 1815. After its recognition of Mexican independence in 1821, Spain was forced to govern the Philippines directly from Madrid and to find new sources of revenue to pay for the colonial administration. At this point, post-French Revolution ideas entered the country through literature, which resulted in the rise of an enlightened principalia class in the society; the 1868 Spanish Revolution brought the autocratic rule of Queen Isabella II to an end. The autocratic government was replaced by a liberal government led by General Francisco Serrano. In 1869, Serrano appointed Carlos María de la Torre as the 91st governor-general; the leadership of de la Torre introduced the idea of liberalism to the Philippines.

The election of Amadeo of Savoy to the throne of Spain led to the replacement of de la Torre in 1871. In 1872, the government of the succeeding governor-general, Rafael de Izquierdo, experienced the uprising of Filipino soldiers at the Fort San Felipe arsenal in Cavite el Viejo. Seven days after the mutiny, many people were tried. Three of these were secular priests: José Burgos, Mariano Gómez and friar Jacinto Zamora, who were hanged by Spanish authorities in Bagumbayan, their execution had a profound effect on many Filipinos. Many Filipinos who were arrested for possible rebellion were deported to Spanish penal colonies; some of them, managed to escape to Hong Kong, Singapore, London and some parts of Spain. These people met other exiles who had escaped from penal colonies. Bound together by common fate, they established an organization known as the Propaganda Movement; these émigrés used their writings to condemn Spanish abuses and seek reforms to the colonial government. José Rizal's novels, Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo, exposed Spanish abuses in socio-political and religious aspects.

The publication of his first novel brought the infamous agrarian conflict in