United States Military Academy
It sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River,50 miles north of New York City. It is one of the four U. S. military service academies, the entire central campus is a national landmark and home to scores of historic sites and monuments. The majority of the campuss Norman-style buildings are constructed from gray, the campus is a popular tourist destination complete with a large visitor center and the oldest museum in the United States Army. Candidates for admission must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a member of Congress or Delegate/Resident Commissioner in the case of Washington, puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands. Other nomination sources include the President and Vice President of the United States, students are officers-in-training and are referred to as cadets or collectively as the United States Corps of Cadets. Tuition for cadets is fully funded by the Army in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation, approximately 1,300 cadets enter the Academy each July, with about 1,000 cadets graduating.
Cadets are required to adhere to the Cadet Honor Code, which states that a cadet will not lie, steal, the academy bases a cadets leadership experience as a development of all three pillars of performance, academics and military. Most graduates are commissioned as lieutenants in the Army. Foreign cadets are commissioned into the armies of their home countries, since 1959, cadets have been eligible to cross-commission, or request a commission in one of the other armed services, provided that they meet that services eligibility standards. Every year, a small number of cadets do this. The academys traditions have influenced other institutions because of its age and it was the first American college to have an accredited civil-engineering program and the first to have class rings, and its technical curriculum was a model for engineering schools. West Points student body has a rank structure and lexicon. All cadets reside on campus and dine together en masse on weekdays for breakfast, the academy fields fifteen mens and nine womens National Collegiate Athletic Association sports teams.
Cadets compete in one sport every fall and spring season at the intramural and its football team was a national power in the early and mid-20th century, winning three national championships. The Continental Army first occupied West Point, New York, on 27 January 1778, between 1778 and 1780, the Polish engineer and military hero Tadeusz Kościuszko oversaw the construction of the garrison defenses. While the fortifications at West Point were known as Fort Arnold during the war, as commander, Benedict Arnold committed his act of treason, after Arnold betrayed the patriot cause, the Army changed the name of the fortifications at West Point, New York, to Fort Clinton. With the peace after the American Revolutionary War, various ordnance, Cadets underwent training in artillery and engineering studies at the garrison since 1794. In 1801, shortly after his inauguration as president, Thomas Jefferson directed that plans be set in motion to establish at West Point the United States Military Academy and he selected Jonathan Williams to serve as its first superintendent
Falls Church, Virginia
Falls Church is an independent city in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,332, the estimated population in 2015 was 13,892. Falls Church is included in the Washington metropolitan area, Falls Church has the lowest level of poverty of any independent city or county in the United States. Taking its name from The Falls Church, an 18th-century Anglican parish, in 1948, it was incorporated as the City of Falls Church, an independent city with county-level governance status. It is referred to as Falls Church City, for statistical purposes, the U. S. Department of Commerces Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Falls Church with Fairfax City and Fairfax County. It was part of the Anacostan chiefdom, centered on the lower Anacostia River near present-day Washington, the Anacostans were organized under the Piscataway paramount chiefdom that was not part of the Powhatan alliance, which by the 1630s claimed to have had thirteen successive rulers. Either the Tauxenent or Doegs had shifted politically from Powhatans alliance to Iroquois alliances, the earliest known settlement within the current city limits of Falls Church was on the south side of present-day N.
Washington Street at its intersection with Columbia Street. Just east of Falls Church, on Wilson Boulevard, is Powhatan Springs, todays Broad Street and Great Falls Street follow long-established trade and communication routes. In the late 17th century, especially after Bacons Rebellion in 1676, According to local tradition 1699 was inscribed on one of the chimneys of the Big Chimneys house and tavern. That 1699 inscription is often taken to be the first European settlement in the immediate vicinity, the house site is now Big Chimneys Park on West Annandale Road north of South Maple. By 1757, the building was referred to as The Falls Church, George Mason became a vestryman in 1748, as did his neighbor George Washington in 1763. Before designing the Fairfax County Courthouse James Wren designed a church in the city in 1769 to replace the wooden one. Also in 1769 the new Falls Church became the seat of the newly formed Fairfax Parish with the portion of the former parish nearer Masons and Washingtons residences becoming Pohick Church.
However, following the Revolution, the Commonwealth of Virginia disestablished the Anglican Church as a government monopoly with tax support, many ministers left due to British loyalties. Remaining ministers formed the Episcopal Church, in 1789, The Falls Church was abandoned, and the Wren-designed building was re-occupied by an Episcopal congregation in 1836 which continues to this day. Nearly a decade in 1843, Episcopalians founded Truro Church in Fairfax City, methodism came to the area in 1776 with religious services held at Church Hill, a home about a mile east of the Falls Church near Seven Corners. A chapel known as Adams Chapel or Fairfax Chapel had been built on became Oakwood Cemetery by 1779. The Methodist chapel was replaced by a structure in 1819
5th Infantry Division (United States)
It was disbanded and deactivated on 24 November 1992. The entire division had arrived in France by 1 May 1918, the 5th Division was the eighth of forty-two American divisions to arrive on the Western Front. The 5th Division trained with French Army units from 1 to 14 June 1918, the first soldiers of the unit to be killed in action died on 14 June of that year. Among the divisions first casualties was Captain Mark W. Clark, commanding the 3rd Battalion, 11th Infantry Regiment, on 12 September, the unit was part of a major attack that reduced the salient at St. Mihiel. The division fought in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, the largest battle fought by the American Expeditionary Force in World War I, the war ended soon after, on November 11,1918. The division served in the Army of Occupation, being based in Belgium and Esch-sur-Alzette, the division returned to the United States through the New York Port of Embarkation at Hoboken, New Jersey on 21 July 1919 and was stationed at Camp Gordon, Georgia until October 1920.
After that date, it was stationed at Camp Jackson, South Carolina, on 4 October 1921 the 5th Division was inactivated except for the 10th Infantry Brigade and its supporting elements. That December the division relocated to Fort Custer, from where it participated in the Tennessee maneuvers. The division went next to Camp Joseph T. Robinson, Arkansas, as the winter passed the division was brought up to strength and fully equipped for forward deployment into a war zone. During April 1942, the 5th Division received its overseas orders, upon arrival in England the 5th Division was stationed at Tidworth Barracks, Wiltshire in South West England, before moving to Northern Ireland. The division prepared for the assault on Metz,7 September, in mid-September a bridgehead was secured across the Moselle, south of Metz, at Dornot and Arnaville after two attempts. The first attempt at Dornot by the 11th Infantry Regiment failed, german-held Fort Driant played a role in repulsing this crossing. A second crossing by the 10th Infantry Regiment at Arnaville was successful, the division continued operations against Metz,16 September to 16 October 1944, returned to the assault on 9 November.
The division crossed the German border,4 December, captured Lauterbach on the 5th, in February and March, the division drove across and northeast of the Sauer, where it smashed through the Siegfried Line and took part in the Allied invasion of Germany. The 5th ID crossed the Rhine River on the night of 22 March 1945, after capturing some 19,000 German soldiers, the division continued to Frankfurt-am-Main and policing the town and its environs, 27–29 March. In April the 5th ID, now commanded by Major General Albert E. However, the 1950s saw the division in West Germany as part of the US contribution to NATO though the division returned to the United States. In September 1965, the 2nd Brigade, 5th Infantry Division was moved, minus personnel, to Fort Carson, the remaining personnel at Fort Devens formed the basis of the 196th Infantry Brigade. By 1968 the division was stationed at Fort Carson, Colorado, 1st Brigade, 5th Infantry Division was dispatched to Vietnam after the Tet Offensive to replace a U. S.
Marine Corps unit
19th Infantry Regiment (United States)
Assigned 1918-07-29 to the 18th Division Relieved 1919-02-14 from assignment to the 18th Division Took part in quelling the 1921 miners rebellion at the Battle of Blair Mountain in Logan, WV. This was the largest labor battle in US history and took three regiments to halt. The 19th Infantry took the role, traveling up the Spruce Fork River to Blair, WV. Once the 19th arrived, the miners, many of whom were fresh from WWI, surrendered peaceably. Assigned 1922-10-17 to the Hawaiian Division, and stationed at Schofield Barracks, divisional assignment changed on 1941-08-26 from the Hawaiian Division to the 24th Infantry Division. Deployed forward from Hawaii on 1943-07-30, Regiment arrived in Australia on 1943-08-08, Regiment moved to Goodenough Island on 1944-01-26. Regiment assaulted Tanahmerah Bay, New Guinea on 1944-04-22, Regiment departed Humboldt Bay, New Guinea in stages between 1944-10-07 and 1944-10-12, and Assaulted Leyte Island in the Philippines on 1944-10-20. Regiment attached to the US 6th Army from 1944-11-20, Regiment assaulted Mindoro, Philippines on 1944-12-15.
The Army attachment was changed from the 6th US Army to the 8th US Army on 1945-01-01, Regiment was relieved from attachment to 8th Army on 1945-02-01 Regiment assaulted Romblon Island on 1945-03-11 and Simara Island on 1945-03-12, and Malabang, Mindanao on 1945-04-17. Regiment was at Davao, Mindanao on 1945-08-20, Regiment arrived in Japan for Occupation Duty on 1945-10-22, where they were active through 1946. Constituted 1861-05-03 in the Regular Army as the 2d Battalion, 19th Infantry, organized 1863-03-31 at Fort Wayne, Michigan. Reorganized and redesignated 1866-10-01 as the 28th Infantry Regiment, consolidated 1869-03-15 with the 19th Infantry and consolidated unit designated as the 19th Infantry Regiment. Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as the 3d Battalion, 19th Infantry Regiment
It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war. As the war continued, the actions of the Viet Cong decreased as the role. U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, in the course of the war, the U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam and they viewed the conflict as a colonial war and a continuation of the First Indochina War against forces from France and on the United States. The U. S. government viewed its involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam and this was part the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was French Indochina, U. S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and again in 1962.
Regular U. S. combat units were deployed beginning in 1965, despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U. S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture, the war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973, the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 240, 000–300,000 Cambodians,20, 000–62,000 Laotians, and 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict. Various names have applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English and it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict.
As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ. It is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam, France began its conquest of Indochina in the late 1850s, and completed pacification by 1893. The 1884 Treaty of Huế formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the seven decades
Distinguished Service Cross (United States)
The Distinguished Service Cross is equivalent to the Navy Cross, the Air Force Cross, and the Coast Guard Cross. The Distinguished Service Cross was first awarded during World War I, in addition, a number of awards were made for actions before World War I. Others were belated recognition of actions in the Philippines, on the Mexican Border, the Distinguished Service Cross is only awarded for actions in combat, while the Distinguished Service Medal has no such restriction. A cross of bronze,2 inches in height and 1 13⁄16 inches in width with an eagle on the center, on the reverse side, the center of the cross is circled by a wreath with a space for engraving the name of the recipient. The act or acts of heroism must have been so notable and have involved risk of life so extraordinary as to set the individual apart from his or her comrades, the following are authorized components of the Distinguished Service Cross, Decoration, MIL-D-3943/4. NSN 8455-00-246-3827 for individual replacement medal, additional awards of the Armys Distinguished Service Cross are denoted with oak leaf clusters.
The Distinguished Service Cross was established by President Woodrow Wilson on January 2,1918, the request for establishment of the medal was forwarded from the Secretary of War to the President in a letter dated December 28,1917. The Act of Congress establishing this award, dated July 9,1918, is contained in 10 U. S. C, the establishment of the Distinguished Service Cross was promulgated in War Department General Order No. The Distinguished Service Cross was originally designed by J. Andre Smith, the Distinguished Service Cross was first cast and manufactured by the United States Mint at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The die was cast from the design prepared by Captain Aymar E. Embury II. Upon examination of the first medals struck at the Mint, it was considered advisable to make minor changes to add to the beauty. Due to the importance of the element involved in furnishing the decorations to General Pershing. These medals were furnished with the provision that these crosses be replaced when the supply of the design was accomplished. 10 U. S. C.
§3991 provides for a 10% increase in retired pay for enlisted personnel who have retired more than 20 years of service if they have been awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. Order of precedence and wear of decorations is contained in Army Regulation 670-1, Policy for awards, approving authority and issue of decorations is contained in AR 600-8-22. During World War I,6,309 awards of the Distinguished Service Cross were made to 6,185 recipients, several dozen Army soldiers, as well as eight Marines and two French Army officers, received two Distinguished Service Crosses. A handful, mostly aviators, were decorated three or more times, fellow aviators Douglas Campbell, of the 94th, and Frank ODriscoll Monk Hunter of the 103rd Aero Squadron each received five. Another 94th aviator, Reed McKinley Chambers, was awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses, Edward Peck Curtis, of the 95th Aero Squadron received the Distinguished Service Cross as a First Lieutenant
The Air Medal is a military decoration of the United States military. The medal was created in 1942 and is awarded for achievement while participating in aerial flight. The Air Medal was established by Executive Order 9158, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Air Medal was awarded retroactive to 8 September 1939. The original award criteria set by an Army Policy Letter was for one award of the Air Medal. per each naval vessel or three aircraft in flight confirmed destroyed. Per twenty-five operational flights during which exposure to fire is probable. Per one-hundred operational flights during which exposure to fire is not expected. These criteria were altered by the commanding generals of each numbered Air Force to fit the conditions of their theater of operations. The Distinguished Flying Cross would usually be awarded for roughly twice to five times the requirements of the Air Medal, on 5 August 1943 score card awards for completing a set number of operational flights were officially abolished by a Headquarters Army Air Forces Awards Board memorandum.
This was due to the embarrassment when airmen who had received the Air Medal for score carding five missions or more being removed from flying duties for lack of moral fibre. Commanders could still issue the awards on those grounds, but the recipient must perform exceptional or meritorious service as well, during World War II the medals award criteria varied widely depending on the theater of operations, the aircraft flown, and the missions accomplished. In Europe the airspace was considered completely controlled by the enemy, elsewhere in the Pacific and CBI the pilots and crews flew mostly over uncontrolled or contested airspace for long hours and lighter air defenses were encountered, so much higher criteria were used. The Air Medal may be awarded to either single acts of merit or gallantry in combat or for meritorious service in a combat zone. These individuals must make a contribution to the operational land combat mission or to the mission of the aircraft in flight. Examples would be transport performing supporting Dustoff Medevac or resupply operations, Awards will not be made to individuals who use air transportation solely for the purpose of moving from point to point in a combat zone.
The Army may award the Air Medal for peacetime service, the Air Force does not award the Air Medal for peace-time sustained operational activities and flights. Non-combat meritorious service is instead awarded the Aerial Achievement Medal, instituted in 1988, the Air Force uses the aircraft sortie designation as a tool, but uses Oak Leaf Clusters rather than Strike / Flight Numerals to indicate additional awards. A members individual flight management records will list the sorties that are eligible for the award and these sorties are designated Combat, Combat Support, or Operational. Only the first sortie of the day counts, armed aircraft crews require ten sorties for each award, while all others require twenty sorties
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party, three NATO members are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and are officially nuclear-weapon states. NATOs headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons. NATO is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe, an additional 22 countries participate in NATOs Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total, Members defence spending is supposed to amount to 2% of GDP.
The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. N. The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, France, the treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Unions Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to counter the power of the USSR and to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. In 1948 European leaders met with U. S. defense and diplomatic officials at the Pentagon, marshalls orders, exploring a framework for a new and unprecedented association. Talks for a new military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty and it included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland. The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in.
Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous, and some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, the creation of NATO can be seen as the primary institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation. The members agreed that an attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. The treaty does not require members to respond with military action against an aggressor, although obliged to respond, they maintain the freedom to choose the method by which they do so. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels, which states that the response will be military in nature. It is nonetheless assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily, the treaty was clarified to include both the members territory and their vessels, forces or aircraft above the Tropic of Cancer, including some Overseas departments of France. The creation of NATO brought about some standardization of allied military terminology and technology, the roughly 1300 Standardization Agreements codified many of the common practices that NATO has achieved
Fairview is a city in Brown County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 260 and it was named for its scenic setting. Fairview is located at 39°50′24″N 95°43′39″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.37 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 260 people,130 households, the population density was 702.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 146 housing units at a density of 394.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93. 8% White,1. 9% African American,0. 4% Native American, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 8% of the population. 39. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.69. The median age in the city was 51.3 years. 17. 3% of residents were under the age of 18,5. 3% were between the ages of 18 and 24,16. 1% were from 25 to 44,36. 1% were from 45 to 64, and 25% were 65 years of age or older.
The gender makeup of the city was 49. 6% male and 50. 4% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 271 people,132 households, and 71 families residing in the city. The population density was 912.0 people per square mile, there were 149 housing units at an average density of 501.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95. 20% White,3. 32% African American, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 11% of the population. 45. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 27. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population was out with 20. 7% under the age of 18,4. 8% from 18 to 24,24. 4% from 25 to 44,24. 7% from 45 to 64. The median age was 45 years, for every 100 females there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males, the median income for a household in the city was $31,250, and the median income for a family was $51,607. Males had an income of $33,333 versus $17,917 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $22,789
United States Army War College
The United States Army War College is a U. S. Army educational institution in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500-acre campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks. It provides graduate-level instruction to senior officers and civilians to prepare them for senior leadership assignments. Each year, a number of Army colonels and lieutenant colonels are considered by a board for admission, approximately 800 students attend at any one time, half in a two-year-long distance learning program, and the other half in an on-campus, full-time resident program lasting ten months. Upon completion, the college grants its graduates a masters degree in Strategic Studies, Army applicants must have already completed the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College, the required Professional Military Education for officers in the rank of major. Majors with the specialty of Function Area 59, formerly Strategic Plans and Policy, attend their qualification course, the Basic Strategic Arts Program, at the college. The Army War College is one of the three senior service colleges of the U. S.
Department of Defense, joined by the Naval War College for the U. S. Navy, the Army War College is a split-functional institution. While a great deal of emphasis is placed on research, students are instructed in leadership, strategy. Established from the learned in the Spanish–American War, the College was founded by Secretary of War, Elihu Root. Washington Barracks—now called Fort Lesley J. McNair—in Washington, D. C. was chosen as the site, theodore Roosevelt attended the Masonic laying of the cornerstone of Roosevelt Hall on 21 February 1903. The first president of the Army War College was Major General Samuel B. M. Young in July 1902, the College remained at Washington Barracks until the 1940s, when it was closed due to World War II. It reopened in 1950 at Fort Leavenworth, and moved one year to its present location, the Basic Strategic Art Program is one of the academic programs taught at the U. S. Army War College. FA59 officers have deployed to combat since the onset of the Global War on Terror in 2001, since then, graduates of this program served in key positions in Iraq, all combatant commands, and at the Pentagon.
The Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute is located at the War College, the institutes mission is to serve as the U. S. S. S. Army heraldic entitlements for the War College What Is the War College, a May 2004 article from Slate
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments, both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union, on that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83, Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation, twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UNs military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter, in September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, at this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951, after these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, was never a stalemate, North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in combat for the first time in history. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed, the agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners.
However, no treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which are deadly, continue to the present, in the U. S. the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a police action as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. In South Korea, the war is referred to as 625 or the 6–2–5 Upheaval. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War or alternatively the Chosǒn War. In China, the war is called the War to Resist U. S