Bernardo Bellotto

Bernardo Bellotto, was an Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities. He was the student and nephew of the famous Giovanni Antonio Canal Canaletto and sometimes used the latter's illustrious name, signing himself as Bernardo Canaletto. In Germany and Poland, Bellotto called himself by Canaletto. Bellotto's style was characterized by elaborate representation of architectural and natural vistas, by the specific quality of each place's lighting, it is plausible that Bellotto, other Venetian masters of vedute, may have used the camera obscura in order to achieve superior precision of urban views. Bellotto was born in Venice, the son of Lorenzo Antonio Bellotto and Fiorenza Canal, sister of the famous Canaletto, studied in his uncle's workshop. In 1742 he moved to Rome. In 1744 and 1745 he traveled northern Italy. Among others, he worked for Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy. From 1747 to 1758 he moved following an invitation from King August III of Poland.

He created their surroundings. Today these paintings preserve a memory of Dresden's former beauty, destroyed by bombing during World War II, his international reputation grew, in 1758 he accepted an invitation from Empress Maria Theresa to come to Vienna, where he painted views of the city's monuments. In 1761 Bellotto left Vienna for Munich, where he spent a year. In a letter to her cousin Maria Antonia of Bavaria, Empress Maria Theresia had praised Bellotto's artistic achievements at the Viennese court. Logically, he was commissioned works by the ruling family of Bavaria, he painted a panoramic view of Munich and two vedute of Nymphenburg Palace for the elector of Bavaria. At the end of 1761, Bellotto returned to Dresden; when King August III of Poland an Elector of Saxony, who lived in Dresden, died in 1763, Bellotto's work became less important in Dresden. As a consequence, he left Dresden to seek employment in Saint Petersburg at the court of Catherine II of Russia. On his way to Saint Petersburg, Bellotto accepted an invitation in 1764 from Poland's newly elected King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski to become his court painter in Warsaw from 1768.

Here he remained some 16 years, for the rest of his life, as court painter to the King, for whom he painted numerous views of the Polish capital and its environs for the Royal Castle in Warsaw, complement of the great historical paintings commissioned by Poniatowski from Marcello Bacciarelli. His initial commissions included painted decoration of the Ujazdów Castle between 1767–1770, of which a study of illusionistic vault is the only preserved example of profuse decoration lost in 1784 during the reconstruction of the castle into military barracks. In 1769 the painter and his son Lorenzo accomplished another large royal commission - fourteen views of Rome and papal, based on the collection of etchings by Giovanni Battista Piranesi entitled Vedute di Roma; the collection was dispersed in the early nineteenth century and today various paintings can be admired in different museums in Russia - The Roman Forum as seen from the Capitol to the south-east and Piazza della Rotonda with Pantheon, View of the Piazza Navona, View of S. Maria Maggiore and in private collections.

His paintings of Warsaw, 26 vedute painted between 1770-80 to embellish the so-called Panorama Room at the Royal Castle in Warsaw and relocated to Russia, were restored to the Polish Government in 1921 and were used in rebuilding the city after its near-complete destruction by German troops during World War II. Bellotto's early work bears strong features of his uncle's style, becoming more individual and distinguished in years with clear inspiration of Dutch landscape painting with massed clouds, cast shadows and rich foliage, his colouring is characterized by a steely grey. The last period of the artist's work is assessed as distinct from the earlier stages with emphasis on the immediacy of observation, striving for a generic treatment of staffage, ability to capture the atmosphere of the place and visible transformation of his painting which become more colorful with warmer tones. For the first time he undertook historical subjects including Election of Stanislaus Augustus for the King and Entry of Jerzy Ossoliński into Rome in 1633 commissioned by Józef Maksymilian Ossoliński.

Bellotto created a school of painting, continued and developed by Zygmunt Vogel and Marcin Zaleski. Bernardo Bellotto was buried in Capuchin Church at Miodowa Street, his younger brother was named Pietro Bellotto and after collaborating with Canaletto and his brother, moved to France, where he was known as le Sieur Canalety and Pietro Bellotti di Caneletty. The brother was referred to as Belloti, Beloty, or Bellottit; the Grand Canal in Venice Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon Dresden From the Right Bank of the Elbe Above the Augustus Bridge Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister Das kaiserliche Lustschloß Schönbrunn, Ehrenhofseite Kunsthistorisches Museum Beddington, Charles. Bernardo Bellotto and His Circle in Italy. Part I: Not Canaletto but Bellotto. Burlington Magazine 146, no. 1216: 665–674. "Belotto Bernardo, zwany Canaletto", Encyklopedia Polski, p. 42. STEPHANE LOIRE, HANNA MALACHOWICZ, KRZYSTOF POMIAN, ANDRZEJ ROTTERMUND. "Bernardo Bellotto, Un pittore veneziano a Varsavia". Book edited by Andrzej Rottermund, Dir

The Garden Conservancy

The Garden Conservancy is an American nonprofit organization dedicated to preserving exceptional gardens and landscapes. Founded in 1989, by Frank Cabot, the Conservancy has since helped a number of American gardens to develop preservation strategies, organizational structures, funding plans. In some cases, the Conservancy takes the lead in transitioning the garden to a sustainable, nonprofit status; the Garden Conservancy is headquartered in New York. During a visit to Ruth Bancroft's garden in Walnut Creek, Frank Cabot asked Bancroft what would happen to the garden after her death. Cabot's wife suggested the establishment of a nonprofit organization for garden preservation, the idea for the Conservancy was born. Cabot founded the organization in 1989; the first garden the Garden Conservancy opened to the public was the Ruth Bancroft Garden, which began tours in 1992 and became a nonprofit in 1994. Projects include: Alcatraz Island, San Francisco, California The Ruth Bancroft Garden, Walnut Creek, California The Chase Garden, Washington The Fells, the John Hay National Wildlife Refuge, New Hampshire Greenwood Gardens, Short Hills, New Jersey The John P. Humes Japanese Stroll Garden, Mill Neck, New York Montrose, North Carolina Peckerwood Garden, Texas Rocky Hills, Mount Kisco, New York George Schoellkopf’s garden, Connecticut Steepletop, New York Van Vleck House and Gardens, New Jersey Yew Dell Gardens, Kentucky Historic garden conservation Official website

Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie I was Crown Prince and Regent of the Ethiopian Empire from 1916 to 1928, King and Regent from 1928 to 1930, Emperor from 1930 to 1974. He is a defining figure in modern Ethiopian history, he was a member of the Solomonic dynasty who traced his lineage to Emperor Menelik I. Selassie's internationalist views led to Ethiopia becoming a charter member of the United Nations. At the League of Nations in 1936, he condemned Italy's use of chemical weapons against its people during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, he has been criticized by some historians for his suppression of rebellions among the landed aristocracy, which opposed his reforms. During his rule the Harari people were persecuted and many left the Harari Region, his regime was criticized by human rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch, as autocratic and illiberal. Among the Rastafari movement, whose followers are estimated to number between 700,000 and one million, Haile Selassie is revered as the returned messiah of the Bible, God incarnate.

Beginning in Jamaica in the 1930s, the Rastafari movement perceives Haile Selassie as a messianic figure who will lead a future golden age of eternal peace and prosperity. He was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian throughout his life; the 1973 famine in Ethiopia led to Selassie's removal from the throne. He was smothered to death on 27 August 1975 at age 83 following a coup d'état. Haile Selassie was known as a child as Lij Tafari Makonnen. Lij is translated as "child", serves to indicate that a youth is of noble blood, his given name, means "one, respected or feared". Like most Ethiopians, his personal name "Tafari" is followed by that of his father Makonnen and that of his grandfather Woldemikael, his Ge'ez name Haile Selassie was given to him at his infant baptism and adopted again as part of his regnal name in 1930. As Governor of Harar, he became known. Ras is a rank of nobility equivalent to Duke. In 1916, Empress Zewditu I appointed him to the position of Balemulu Silt'an Enderase. In 1928, she granted him the throne of Shewa, elevating his title to Negus or "King".

On 2 November 1930, after the death of Empress Zewditu, Tafari was crowned Negusa Nagast King of Kings, rendered in English as "Emperor". Upon his ascension, he took as his regnal name Haile Selassie I. Haile means in Ge'ez "Power of" and Selassie means trinity—therefore Haile Selassie translates to "Power of the Trinity". Haile Selassie's full title in office was "By the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of Kings of Ethiopia, Elect of God"; this title reflects Ethiopian dynastic traditions, which hold that all monarchs must trace their lineage to Menelik I, the offspring of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. To Ethiopians, Haile Selassie has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu Meri, Abba Tekel; the Rastafari movement employs many of these appellations referring to him as Jah, Jah Jah, Jah Rastafari. Haile Selassie's royal line descended from Sahle Selassie, he was born in the village of Ejersa Goro, in the Harar province of Ethiopia.

His mother was Woizero Yeshimebet Ali Abba Jifar, daughter of a ruling chief from Worre Ilu in Wollo province, Dejazmach Ali Abba Jifar. His maternal grandmother was of Gurage heritage. Tafari's father was Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael, the grandson of King Sahle Selassie and governor of Harar. Ras Makonnen served as a general in the First Italo–Ethiopian War, playing a key role at the Battle of Adwa; as such, Haile Selassie claimed direct descent from Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, King Solomon of ancient Israel. Ras Makonnen arranged for Tafari as well as his first cousin, Imru Haile Selassie, to receive instruction in Harar from Abba Samuel Wolde Kahin, an Ethiopian capuchin monk, from Dr. Vitalien, a surgeon from Guadeloupe. Tafari was named Dejazmach at the age of 13, on 1 November 1905. Shortly thereafter, his father Ras Makonnen died at Kulibi, in 1906. Tafari assumed the titular governorship of Selale in 1906, a realm of marginal importance, but one that enabled him to continue his studies. In 1907, he was appointed governor over part of the province of Sidamo.

It is alleged that during his late teens, Haile Selassie was married to Woizero Altayech, that from this union, his daughter Princess Romanework was born. Following the death of his brother Yelma in 1907, the governorate of Harar was left vacant, its administration was left to Menelik's loyal general, Dejazmach Balcha Safo. Balcha Safo's administration of Harar was ineffective, so during the last illness of Menelik II, the brief reign of Empress Taitu Bitul, Tafari was made governor of Harar in 1910 or 1911. On 3 August, he married Menen Asfaw of niece of the heir to the throne Lij Iyasu; the extent to which Tafari Makonnen contributed to the movement that would come to depose Lij Iyasu has been discussed extensively in Haile Selas