Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. He was a wealthy landowner of Irish ancestry. Although he was the second Supreme Director of Chile, he is considered one of Chile's founding fathers, as he was the first holder of this title to head a independent Chilean state. Bernardo O'Higgins, a member of the O'Higgins family, was born in the Chilean city of Chillán in 1778, the illegitimate son of Ambrosio O'Higgins, 1st Marquis of Osorno, a Spanish officer born in County Sligo, who became governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru, his mother was a prominent local. O'Higgins spent his early years with his mother's family in central-southern Chile and was never acknowledged by his father, he lived with the Albano family, who were his father's commercial partners, in Talca. At age 15, O'Higgins was sent to Lima by his father, he had a distant relationship with Ambrosio, who supported him financially and was concerned with his education, but the two never met in person.
At the time of his son's birth, Ambrosio was only a junior military officer. Two years Isabel married Don Félix Rodríguez, a friend of her father. O'Higgins used his mother's surname until the death of his father in 1801. Bernardo's father became Viceroy of Peru. There, studying history and the arts, O'Higgins became acquainted with American ideas of independence and developed a sense of nationalist pride, he met Francisco de Miranda, a Venezuelan idealist and believer in independence, joined a Masonic Lodge established by Miranda, dedicated to achieving the independence of Latin America. In 1798 O'Higgins went to Spain from Great Britain, his return to the Americas delayed by the French Revolutionary Wars, his father died in 1801, leaving O'Higgins a large piece of land, the Hacienda Las Canteras, near the Chilean city of Los Ángeles. O'Higgins returned to Chile in 1802, adopted his biological father's surname, began life as a gentleman farmer. In 1806, he was appointed to the cabildo as the representative of Laja.
In 1808 Napoleon took control of Spain. In Chile, the commercial and political elite decided to form an autonomous government to rule in the name of the imprisoned king Ferdinand VII. On 18 September 1810, O'Higgins joined the revolt against the now French dominated Spanish government; the criollo leaders in Chile did not support Joseph Bonaparte's rule in Spain, a limited self-government under the Government Junta of Chile was created, with the aim of restoring the legitimate Spanish throne. This date is now recognized as Chile's Independence Day. O'Higgins was a close friend of Juan Martínez de Rozas, an old friend of his father, one of the more radical leaders. O'Higgins recommended that a national congress be created, was elected a deputy to the first National Congress of Chile in 1811 as a representative of the Laja district. Tensions between the royalist and pro-independence factions, to which O'Higgins remained attached as a junior member, continued to grow; the anti-Royalist camp in Chile was split along lines of patronage and personality, by political beliefs, by geography.
The Carrera family had seized power several times in different coups, supported a Chilean nationalism, as opposed to the broader Latin American focus of the Lautaro Lodge grouping, which included O'Higgins and the Argentine José de San Martín. José Miguel Carrera, the most prominent member of the Carrera family, enjoyed a power base in Santiago; as a result, O'Higgins was to find himself in political and military competition with Carrera—although early on, O'Higgins was nowhere near as prominent as his rival. De Rozas appointed O'Higgins to a minor military position in 1812 because of his illegitimate origins, poor health, or lack of military training. Much of O'Higgins' early military knowledge stemmed from Juan Mackenna, an immigrant of Irish descent and a former client of Ambrosio's, whose advice centered on the use of cavalry. In 1813, when the Spanish government made its first attempt to reconquer Chile—sending an expedition led by Brigadier Antonio Pareja—Carrera, as a former national leader and now Commander in Chief of the Army, was by far the more prominent figure of the two, a natural choice to lead the military resistance.
O'Higgins was back on his estates in Laja, having retired from the Army the previous year due to poor health, when news came of the invasion. O'Higgins mobilised his local militia and marched to Concepcion, before moving on to Talca, meeting up with Carrera, to take command of the new army. Carrera sent O'Higgins to cut the Spanish off at Linares; the unsuccessful Siege of Chillan followed, where O'Higgins produced a brave, but unspectacular, performance. O'Higgins continued to campaign against the royalists, fighting with a reckless courage that would make him famous. In October, fighting at the Battle of El Roble under Carrera, O'Higgins took effective comma
Jackie Robinson Day is a traditional event which occurs annually on April 15 in Major League Baseball and honoring the day Jackie Robinson made his major league debut. Celebrated at MLB ballparks, on that one day, all players and managers on both teams, the umpires, wear Robinson's uniform number, 42. April 15 was Opening Day in 1947, Robinson's first season in the major leagues. Initiated for the first time on April 15, 2004, the festivity is a result of Robinson's memorable career, best known for becoming the first black major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947, his debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers ended 80 years of baseball segregation known as the baseball color line, or color barrier. Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. Shea Stadium was one of the prominent venues hosting the event, having commemorated the retirement of Robinson's number 42 jersey in 1997. Bob DuPuy, the President and Chief Operating Officer of Major League Baseball, described Jackie Robinson Day as a significance "not only for baseball, but for our country in general."
Baseball players of Black African descent were excluded from Major League Baseball until 1947. On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson made his major league debut for the Brooklyn Dodgers at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26,623 spectators, more than 14,000 of whom were black. By the late 1950s, the percentage of black players on Major League teams matched or exceeded that of the general population. In 1997, MLB retired 42, across all major league teams. After baseball, Robinson became involved working for the NAACP, campaigning for civil rights. Robinson worked with the Governor of New York, Nelson Rockefeller. In March 2004, Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig announced that Major League Baseball would honor Robinson on April 15 as "Jackie Robinson Day", he made the announcement with the daughter of Jackie Robinson. The first Jackie Robinson Day was on April 15, 2004; that day was a start to an annual tradition throughout Major League Baseball and an inspirational reminder about what happened on that day fifty-seven years earlier when Jackie Robinson became a Major League Baseball player.
The day would be the first official league-wide Jackie Robinson Day, having festivities taking place at all 13 ballparks where Major League games were scheduled to be played."I have stated that baseball's proudest moment and its most powerful social statement came on April 15, 1947 when Jackie Robinson first set foot on a Major League Baseball field", said Selig. "On that day, Jackie brought down the color barrier and ushered in the era in which baseball became the true national pastime. Fifty years after that historic event, in April 1997, I was proud to join Rachel Robinson and President Bill Clinton at Shea Stadium to honor Jackie by retiring his uniform number 42 in perpetuity. By establishing April 15 as'Jackie Robinson Day' throughout Major League Baseball, we are further ensuring that the incredible contributions and sacrifices he made — for baseball and society — will not be forgotten."It began that Thursday morning with Sharon Robinson, ringing the ceremonial Opening Bell at the New York Stock Exchange.
Rachel Robinson, officials from the Major League Baseball foundation, officials of the Jackie Robinson Foundation took part in the special ceremony honoring Jackie Robinson. Festivities took place in the 13 ballparks; the balls had a "42" logo on each of them for the games that day. Jackie Robinson Foundation scholars threw out the ceremonial first pitch prior to each game. "I'm happy my son is in Boston today, we're happy that the scholars and family are at different clubs and look forward to expanding the celebration as the years go on", Robinson said. "And continuing to come up with creative ways to reach out to the African-American community and bring them into this wonderful game of baseball that we all love." April 15, 2005, was the 58th anniversary of Jackie Robinson's major league debut. Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig declared that every April 15 would be designated as Jackie Robinson Day and it would be celebrated each year throughout Major League Baseball; every ballpark in Major League Baseball in the United States celebrated Jackie Robinson Day, unlike in 2004 when it was only celebrated in 13 ballparks.
Each ballpark showed a video tribute to Robinson, many brought out Jackie Robinson Foundation scholars onto the field before the games. In Cincinnati, Ken Griffey Jr. spoke of how much every African-American baseball player owes Robinson, chosen by manager Branch Rickey to break the color line because of Robinson's inner courage and ability to keep his temper in check. April 15, 2006, was the 59th anniversary of Jackie Robinson's major league debut. Rachel Robinson attended the ceremony, having former Negro Leagues players Robert Scott and Armando Vazquez attending the ceremony, his widow celebrated at Shea Stadium. After a video tribute on the scoreboard of Shea Stadium of Jackie Robinson, Rachel Robinson walked to the pitcher's mound before the New York Mets hosted the Milwaukee Brewers, along with Bob DuPuy, baseball's chief operating officer, New York Mets manager Willie Randolph. "I've got a picture of Jackie in my office, so I think about that every day," Randolph said. "I'm just happy to be a part of this day."
A large blue and white circle with "42" on it was put over home plate representing the colors of Jackie Robinson's uniform with the Dodgers as a major leaguer. April 15, 2007, was the 60th anniversary of Jackie Robinson's major league
Marcos Giffoni de Melo Gomes is a Brazilian professional racing driver. He drives in the Stock Car Brasil, where he won the 2015 championship. Marcos is the son of four-time Stock Car champion Paulo Gomes and brother of the racing driver Pedro Gomes. On July 5, 2009 he won the fifth round of the season at Interlagos by Action Power, winning their fourth win in the category. At dawn on July 6, soon after the victory at Interlagos, the truck of Action Power team had an accident on the Highway Régis Bittencourt, destroying all the equipment including the car of Marcos Gomes. On occurred, the team announced that he was out of the season. Gomes joined RCM Motorsport for the rest of the season, but the team stayed with the Action Power name. In 2012, Gomes was suspended for six months. † - ineligible for points. * Season still in progress1 Ineligible for series points Marcos Gomes career summary at DriverDB.com