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Chile

Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper and lithium. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands. Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile.

After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the same era, Chile lost most of its claims in Patagonia when it ceded the eastern majority of the region to Argentina in exchange for the latter's neutrality in the War of the Pacific. In 1888, Chile annexed Easter Island, thus joining the Imperial Powers. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing Marxist government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.

The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. It has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Pacific Alliance, joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 2010. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.

Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.

Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that

Cushman House (Arlington, Massachusetts)

The Cushman House is a historic house at 104 Bartlett Avenue in Arlington, Massachusetts. Built in the mid-1880s and moved to its present location in 1896, it is a well-preserved but realized example of Queen Anne architecture, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. The Cushman House stands in a residential neighborhood on the south side of Arlington Center, on the east side of Bartlett Avenue midway between Gray and Woodland Streets, it is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, with a cross-gabled roof and an exterior of wooden clapboards and shingles. It is T-shaped, with its entry porch located in the crook of the T, with turned posts and brackets forming arches supporting the porch roof; the siding at the upper levels is standard wooden shingles, scallop-cut rows, giving variety to the surface. The house was built in 1884-1885 as a rental property by Thomas and John Gray, on the former Fowle estate, was located facing Jason Street; the house was purchased and moved in 1896 by Mr. and Mrs Gardner Cushman, who built their Colonial Revival mansion on that land.

In 1897, Fannie Cushman sold this house to George and Annie Wentworth, who lived there some twenty years. It is one of Arlington's best-preserved examples of a modest Queen Anne house, a style more seen than the more elaborate Queen Anne houses found on Pleasant Street. National Register of Historic Places listings in Arlington, Massachusetts

Igor Bobrin

Igor Anatolyevich Bobrin is a Russian former competitive figure skater who represented the Soviet Union. He is the 1981 European champion, the 1981 World bronze medalist, a four-time Soviet national champion. Bobrin placed 6th at the 1980 Winter Olympics. During his competitive career, Bobrin was known for being a creative free skater, he invented an unusual horizontal-twisting jump sometimes called a "log jump" or "Bobrinover". At one of his first international competitions, the 1972 Winter Universiade, a contemporary review noted that the pros were puzzled by the jump, described as "somewhat like an Arabian cartwheel, only performed going straight ahead", he was coached since 1980 by Yuri Ovchinnikov. Following his competitive career, Bobrin created his own ice theater, he skates with Moscow Stars On Ice and works as a coach and choreographer. He choreographed Anton Sikharulidze's competitive Chaplin program. In 2011–2012, Bobrin appeared on the panel of judges for the television show "Cup of Professionals" on Russian television Channel One.

Bobrin was first married to Natalia Ovchinnikova, with whom he has a son, born in 1977. In 1983 he married the future Olympic champion in Natalia Bestemianova. Skatabase: 1980s Olympics Moscow Stars On Ice