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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2018 has been estimated at more than 423 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.

Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.

All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.

Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associated

Skyway Light

The Skyway Light is a German paramotor, designed and produced by Skyway Products of Ettenheim for powered paragliding. Now out of production, when it was available the aircraft was supplied ready-to-fly; the aircraft was designed to comply with the US FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles rules as well as European regulations. It features a paraglider-style wing, single-place accommodation and a single 19 hp Skyway T170 engine in pusher configuration with a 2.8:1 ratio reduction drive and a 110 cm diameter three-bladed compsite propeller. The fuel tank capacity is 11 litres; the aircraft is built from a combination of bolted aluminium and composite material, with the engine mount and fuel tank made from composites. As is the case with all paramotors, take-off and landing is accomplished by foot. Inflight steering is accomplished via handles that actuate the canopy brakes, creating yaw. Data from BertrandGeneral characteristics Crew: one Empty weight: 17.5 kg Fuel capacity: 11 litres Powerplant: 1 × Skyway T170 single cylinder, two-stroke, air-cooled aircraft engine, with a 2.8:1 reduction drive, 14 kW Propellers: 3-bladed composite, ground adjustable, 1.10 m diameter

Franco the Great

Franco the Great is a street artist in Manhattan, New York. He earned his notoriety by painting storefront security gates in West Harlem neighborhoods. Many original pieces can be found today on 125th Street those surrounding the Apollo Theater. Security gate murals can only be viewed when stores are closed and gates are shut. Franco's murals have helped to make Harlem into an international tourist destination. Franco's work can be found inside businesses across New York state, as well as in other countries, including France, Switzerland, Canada, Brazil, the Caribbean Islands and several other African countries. Franco is a native of Panama and is fluent in Portuguese and English. At the age of three, Franco sustained serious head injuries. After emerging from a one-month coma, he found it difficult to socialize and make friends. In an isolated state, he began drawing and cartooning as a way to pass the time, playing with imaginary characters. Not long after, with the encouragement of a local Catholic priest, he went on to study performance as a stage magician.

Franco studied with an artist named Danzig for four years in his youth. Danzig trained him to perform in front of large crowds, he encouraged Franco to move in an entrepreneurial direction, supporting his dream to move to New York and sell his skills as an artist and magician. In 1958, Franco moved to New York and began working starting with connections he garnered in the Spanish community. In 1968, as a reaction to the riots after Martin Luther King's assassination, storeowners in Harlem added corrugate steel gates to their storefronts. Franco the Great saw these gates as canvases to call for positive change, he began working on Sundays, a day where most stores are closed, as a time to create positivity-promoting and African-American themed murals on the gates. Since Franco has painted over two hundred gates, from the East to the West side of 125th Street, beyond. Many of the security gate murals have since been repainted grey. In 2008, new zoning laws required storeowners to install "see-through" gates, which required storeowners to de-install Franco's works.

Aside from the gates still in use today, twenty five gates have been saved and put away into storage. Supporters of the "Save the Gates" Campaign hope to have the gates relocated and preserved in Triboro Plaza. In 2011, the Harlem Community Development Corporation was reported to be working on a plan to preserve Franco's gates and have them framed and on permanent display between 1st and 2nd avenues, creating an outdoor gallery. Framing the gates would cost an estimated $250,000. In December 2014, developer Forest City Ratner announced plans to showcase the remaining gates in East River Plaza, as an homage to the Harlem of the past. Http://www.francothegreat.com/biography/index.html http://untappedcities.com/2014/01/21/art-on-the-gates-of-125th-street-in-harlem-by-franco-the-great/ http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/uptown/harlem-famous-murals-find-new-home-article-1.2042337