Bernardo de Gálvez

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Bernardo de Gálvez
Bernardo de Gálvez.png
61st Viceroy of New Spain
In office
17 June 1785 – 30 November 1786
Monarch Charles III
Preceded by Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo
Succeeded by Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta
5th Spanish Governor of Louisiana
In office
1777–1783
Monarch Charles III
Preceded by Luis de Unzaga
Succeeded by Esteban Rodríguez Miró
Personal details
Born Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid
(1746-07-25)25 July 1746
Macharaviaya, Málaga, Spain
Died 30 November 1786(1786-11-30) (aged 40)
Tacubaya, Kingdom of Mexico, New Spain
Nationality Spanish
Military service
Allegiance Spain Spain
Service/branch Spanish Army
Years of service 1762–1786
Rank Captain General
Marshal
Battles/wars

American Revolutionary War

Invasion of Algiers

Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez (Macharaviaya, Málaga, Spain 25 July 1746 – 30 November 1786) was a Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Spanish Louisiana and Cuba, and later as Viceroy of New Spain.

Gálvez aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against Britain in the Revolutionary War, defeating the British at the Siege of Pensacola (1781) and reconquering Florida for Spain. He spent the last two years of his life as Viceroy of New Spain, succeeding his father Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo, the city of Galveston, Texas, was named after him.

Gálvez is one of only eight people to be awarded honorary United States citizenship.[1]

Origins and military career[edit]

Bernardo de Gálvez was born in Macharaviaya, a mountain village in the province of Málaga, Spain, on 25 July 1746.[2][3][4][5] He studied military sciences at the Academia de Ávila and at the age of 16 participated in the Spanish invasion of Portugal, which stalled after the Spanish had captured Almeida. Following the conflict he was promoted to infantry lieutenant,[6] he arrived in Mexico, which was then part of New Spain, in 1769.[7][8] As a captain, he fought the Apaches, with his Opata Indian allies.[9][10] He received many wounds, several of them serious;[11] in 1770, he was promoted to commandant of arms of Nueva Vizcaya and Sonora, northern provinces of New Spain.[12]

In 1772, Gálvez returned to Spain in the company of his uncle, José de Gálvez. Later, he was sent to Pau, France, where he served with the Royal Cantabria regiment,[13] an elite Franco-Spanish unit, for three years. There, he learned to speak French, which served him well when he became governor of Louisiana, he was transferred to Seville in 1775, and then he participated in Alejandro O'Reilly's disastrous expedition to Algiers. Gálvez himself was seriously wounded in the line of duty when Spanish forces assaulted the fortress that guarded the city;[14][15] he was later appointed a professor at the military academy of Ávila and promoted to lieutenant colonel. He was made colonel in 1776.[11]

Spanish governor of Louisiana[edit]

On 1 January 1777, Bernardo de Gálvez became the new governor of the formerly French province of Louisiana,[11][16] the vast territory that later became the object of the Louisiana Purchase, it had been ceded by France to Spain in 1763, ostensibly as compensation for the loss of Florida to Britain, when Spain was urged late in the Seven Years' War to enter into battle on the French side. In 1779, he was promoted to brigadier.[17]

In November of 1777, Gálvez married Marie Félicité de Saint-Maxent d'Estrehan, the Creole daughter of Gilbert Antoine de Saint-Maxent and young widow of Jean-Baptiste d'Estrehan's son. This marriage to the daughter of a Frenchman and the Creole Elizabeth La Roche[18][19] won Gálvez the favor of the local Creole population,[20][21] they had three children, Miguel, Matilde, and Guadalupe.[22]

Gálvez practiced an anti-British policy as governor, taking measures against British smuggling and promoting trade with France,[23][24] he damaged British interests in the region and kept it open for supplies to reach George Washington's Army.[25][26][27] He founded Galvez Town in 1779,[26] promoted the colonization of Nueva Iberia, and established free trade with Cuba and Yucatán.[28] Galvez Street in New Orleans is named for him.

American Revolutionary War[edit]

Painting of Gálvez at the Siege of Pensacola by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau

In December 1776, King Charles III of Spain decided that covert assistance to the Anglo-American rebels in their revolution against Britain would be strategically useful, but Spain did not enter into a formal alliance with the nascent republic they had declared;[29] in 1777, José de Gálvez, newly appointed as minister of the Council of the Indies, sent his nephew, Bernardo de Gálvez, to New Orleans as governor of Luisiana with instructions to secure the friendship of the United States.[30] On 20 February 1777, the Spanish king's ministers in Madrid secretly instructed Gálvez to sell the Americans desperately needed supplies,[24] the British had blockaded the colonial ports of the thirteen colonies, and consequently the route from New Orleans up the Mississippi River was an effective alternative. Gálvez worked with Oliver Pollock, an American patriot, to ship gunpowder, muskets, uniforms, medicine, and other supplies to the American rebels.[31]

Although Spain had not yet joined the American cause, when an American raiding expedition led by James Willing showed up in New Orleans with booty and several captured British ships taken as prizes, Gálvez refused to turn the Americans over to the British.[32][31][33] In 1779, Spanish forces commanded by Gálvez seized the province of West Florida, later known as the Florida Parishes, from the British.[34] Spain's motive was the chance both to recover territories lost to the British, particularly Florida, and to remove the ongoing British threat.[35][36][37]

Norteamerica, 1792, Jaillot-Elwe, Spanish Florida's borders after Bernardo Gálvez's military actions, which appear to include Spanish Louisiana and Spanish Texas, as well.

On 21 June 1779, Spain formally declared war on Great Britain.[38][39][40] On 25 June, a letter from London, marked secret and confidential, went to General John Campbell at Pensacola from King George III and Lord George Germain.[41] Campbell was instructed that it was the object of greatest importance to organize an attack upon New Orleans.[42] If Campbell thought it was possible to reduce the Spanish fort at New Orleans, he was ordered to make preparations immediately, these included securing from Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Parker as many fighting ships as the fleet at Jamaica could spare,[43] gathering all forces in the province that could be assembled, recruiting as many loyal Indians as the Superintendent could provide,[44] and drawing on His Majesty's Treasury through the Lords Commissioners to pay expenses.[45] As an unfortunate twist of fate for Campbell, upon which his whole career was decided, the secret communication fell into the hands of Gálvez, after reading the communication from King George III and Germain, Gálvez, Governor of Louisiana, swiftly and secretly organized Louisiana and New Orleans for war.[46]

Gálvez carried out a masterful military campaign and defeated the British colonial forces at Manchac, Baton Rouge, and Natchez in 1779.[47][48] The Battle of Baton Rouge, on 21 September 1779, freed the lower Mississippi Valley of British forces and relieved the threat to the capital of Louisiana, New Orleans. In March, 1780, he recaptured Mobile from the British at the Battle of Fort Charlotte.[49][50]

Spanish troops storm the British positions at the Siege of Pensacola (1781)

Gálvez's most important military victory over the British forces occurred 8 May 1781, when he attacked and took by land and by sea Pensacola, the British (and formerly, Spanish) capital of West Florida from General John Campbell of Strachur.[51][52] The loss of Mobile and Pensacola left the British with no bases along the Gulf coast;[53] in 1782, forces under Gálvez's overall command captured the British naval base at Nassau on New Providence Island in the Bahamas. He was angry that the operation had proceeded against his orders to cancel, and ordered the arrest and imprisonment of Francisco de Miranda, aide-de-camp of Juan Manuel Cajigal, the commander of the expedition. Miranda later ascribed this action on the part of Gálvez to jealousy of Cajigal's success.[54][55]

Gálvez received many honors from Spain for his military victories against the British, including promotion to lieutenant general and field marshal,[56] governor and captain general of Louisiana and Florida (now separated from Cuba), the command of the Spanish expeditionary army in America, and the titles of viscount of Gálveztown and count of Gálvez.[57]

The American Revolutionary War ended while Gálvez was preparing a new campaign to take Jamaica, the importance of Gálvez's campaign from the American perspective was that he denied the British the opportunity of encircling the American rebels from the south, and kept open a vital conduit for supplies. Gálvez also assisted the American revolutionaries with supplies and soldiers, much of it through Oliver Pollock,[58] from whom he received military intelligence concerning the British in West Florida.[59][60] Gálvez found it convenient for France and Spain to advance the cause of the American revolutionaries; his military success led to the inclusion of provisions in the Peace of Paris (1783) that officially returned Florida, now divided into two provinces, East and West Florida, to Spain. The treaty recognized the political independence of the former British colonies to the north, and its signing ended their war with the British.[61][62]

Viceroy of New Spain[edit]

In 1783, Bernardo de Gálvez was raised to the rank of count, promoted to lieutenant-general of the army, and appointed governor and captain-general of Cuba,[63] he returned to the Indies in October of the following year to assume his new office. Shortly after he arrived in Havana, his father, Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo (then the viceroy of New Spain), died in November, and Bernardo de Gálvez was appointed to fill the position,[64] he arrived in Vera Cruz, on 21 May 1785,[65] and made his formal entry into Mexico City in June.

During his administration two great calamities occurred: the freeze of September 1785, which led to famine in 1786,[66] and a typhus epidemic that killed 300,000 people the same year,[67] during the famine, Gálvez donated 12,000 pesos of his inheritance and 100,000 pesos he raised from other sources to buy maize and beans for the populace.[68] He also implemented policies to increase future agricultural production.

In 1785, Gálvez initiated construction of Chapultepec Castle[69][70][71] He also ordered the construction of the towers of the cathedral and paving of the streets, as well as the installation of street lights in Mexico City,[72] he continued work on the highway to Acapulco,[73][74][68] and took measures to reduce the abuse of Indian labor on the project. He dedicated 16% of the income from the lottery and other games of chance to charity.

Gálvez helped advance science in the colony by sponsoring the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Spain, led by Martín Sessé y Lacasta. This expedition of botanists and naturalists resulted in a comprehensive catalog, a collaborative work published in Spain as the Flora Mexicana, which catalogued the diverse species of plants, birds, and fish found in New Spain.[75]

On one occasion, when the viceroy was riding on horseback to meet with the Audiencia (according to his own report), he encountered a party of soldiers escorting three criminals to the gallows, he suspended the hanging, and later had the criminals freed.[73][7][76]

After the typhus epidemic of 1786 had abated in early autumn, Bernardo de Gálvez apparently became one of its last victims,[77] and was confined to his bed, on 8 November 1786, he turned over all his governmental duties except the captain generalship to the Audiencia.[78] He died 30 November 1786, in Tacubaya (now part of Mexico City), at age 40. Gálvez was buried next to his father in the church of San Fernando in the city proper.[79][80]

Bernardo de Gálvez left some writings, including Ordenanzas para el Teatro de Comedias de México[81] and Instrución para el Buen Gobierno de las Provincias Internas de la Nueva España (Instructions for Governing the Interior Provinces of New Spain, 1786),[82] the latter of which remained in effect until the colonial period ended.[83] In his "Instructions", Gálvez advocated a policy of selling the Indians rifles and trade goods to make them dependent on the Spanish government,[84] and sanctioned war against the Apache if these inducements failed to pacify them.[85][86]

Legacy[edit]

Statue of Bernardo de Galvez in Spanish Plaza, Mobile, Alabama.

Galveston, Texas, Galveston Bay, Galveston County, Galvez, Louisiana, and St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana were, among other places, named after him. The Louisiana parishes of East Feliciana and West Feliciana (originally a single parish) were said to have been named for his wife Marie Felicite de Saint-Maxent d'Estrehan.[87]

The Cabildo, a branch of the Louisiana State Museum located on Jackson Square in New Orleans, has a portrait of General Gálvez accompanied by a display of biographical information. Spanish Plaza, in the Central Business District of the city, has an equestrian statue of Gálvez adjacent to the New Orleans World Trade Center.[88] There is also a Galvez Street in New Orleans.[89] Mobile, Alabama, also has a Spanish Plaza with a statue of Gálvez.[90]

In Baton Rouge, Louisiana, (present-day state capital), Galvez Plaza is laid out next to City Hall and used frequently as a site for municipal events.[91] Also, the 13-story Galvez Building is part of the state government's administrative office-building complex in the Capitol Park section of downtown Baton Rouge.

In 1911 in Galveston, the Hotel Galvez was built and named after him; Avenue P, where the hotel is located, is known as Bernardo de Galvez Avenue. The hotel was added to the National Register of Historic Places on 4 April 1979.

On December 16, 2014, the United States Congress conferred honorary citizenship on Gálvez, citing him as a "hero of the Revolutionary War who risked his life for the freedom of the United States people and provided supplies, intelligence, and strong military support to the war effort."[92]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bridget Bowman (29 December 2014). "Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid's Very Good Year". Roll Call. The Economist Group. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  2. ^ José Antonio Calderón Quijano (1968). Los Virreyes de nueva España en el reinado de Carlos III.: Martín de Mayorga (1779-1783), por J. J. Real Díaz y A. M. Heredia Herrera. Matías de Gálvez (1783-1784), por M. Rodríguez del Valle y A. Conejo Díez de la Cortina. Bernardo de Gálvez (1785-1786), por Ma. del Carmen Galbis Díez. Alonso Núnez de Haro, 1787, por A. Rubio Gil. Escuela Gráfica Salesiana. p. 327. 
  3. ^ David J. Weber (1992). The Spanish Frontier in North America. Yale University Press. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-300-05917-5. 
  4. ^ Luis Navarro García (1964). Don José de Gálvez y la Comandancia General de las Provincias Internas del norte de Nueva España. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. p. 143. 
  5. ^ José Miguel Morales Folguera (1985). "I. Antecedentes, causas y modalidades de la nueva expansión colonial española hacia norteamérica en el siglo xviii". Urbanismo hispanoamericano en el sudeste de los EE.UU. (Luisiana y Florida). La obra del malagueño Bernardo de Gálvez y Gallardo (1746-1789). Andalucia y America en el siglo XVIII: actas de las IV Jornadas de Andalucia y America (Universidad de Santa María de la Rábida, marzo, 1984) (in Spanish). Seville: Editorial CSIC - CSIC Press. p. 122. ISBN 84-00-06091-1. 
  6. ^ José Rodulfo Boeta (1977). Bernardo de Gálvez. Publicaciones Españolas. p. 42. 
  7. ^ a b John Walton Caughey (1934). Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana, 1776-1783. University of California Press. p. 62. 
  8. ^ René Chartrand (20 March 2013). American War of Independence Commanders. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-4728-0300-9. 
  9. ^ Kieran McCarty (1994). "Bernardo de Galvez on the Apache Frontier: The Education of a Future Viceroy". Journal of the Southwest. 36 (2): 127. 
  10. ^ Pekka Hämäläinen (2008). The Comanche Empire. Yale University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-300-15117-6. 
  11. ^ a b c Light Townsend Cummins (2006). "The Gálvez Family and Spanish Participation In the Independence of the United States of America" (pdf). Revista complutense de historia de América. Facultad de Geografía e Historia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 32: 187. ISSN 1132-8312. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  12. ^ Max L. Moorhead (1991). The Presidio: Bastion of the Spanish Borderlands. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8061-2317-2. 
  13. ^ Eduardo Garrigues (9 February 2016). El que tenga valor que me siga: En vida de Bernardo de Gálvez (in Spanish). La Esfera de los Libros. p. 301. ISBN 978-84-9060-614-8. 
  14. ^ José Rodulfo Boeta (1977). Bernardo de Gálvez. Publicaciones Españolas. p. 46. 
  15. ^ José Montero de Pedro (2000). The Spanish in New Orleans and Louisiana. Pelican Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-4556-1227-7. 
  16. ^ Michael Klein. "Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase – Louisiana under Spanish Rule" (PDF). loc.gov/collections. United States Library of Congress. p. 40. Retrieved 9 June 2017. 
  17. ^ Thomas E. Chávez (11 April 2002). Spain and the Independence of the United States: An Intrinsic Gift. UNM Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-8263-2795-6. 
  18. ^ Madame Calderón de la Barca (Frances Erskine Inglis) (1959). La vida en Mexico durante una residencia de dos afios en ese pais. Porrúa. p. 44. 
  19. ^ Sanders, Mary Elizabeth (2002). "II". St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, Heirship Series Vol. II: Selected Annotated Abstracts of Marriage Book 1, 1811-1829. Pelican Publishing. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-4556-1234-5. 
  20. ^ Virginia Parks; Pensacola Historical Society (1 April 1981). Siege! Spain and Britain: Battle of Pensacola, March 9-May 8, 1781. Pensacola Historical Society. p. 24. 
  21. ^ Larrie D. Ferreiro (2016). Brothers at Arms: American Independence and the Men of France and Spain Who Saved It. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-101-87524-7. 
  22. ^ Dictionary of Louisiana Biography (2008). "ST. MAXENT, Marie Félicité (Felicítas)". www.lahistory.org. Louisiana Historical Association. Archived from the original on July 16, 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  23. ^ Paul E. Hoffman (1 January 2004). The Louisiana Purchase and Its Peoples: Perspectives from the New Orleans Conference. Louisiana Historical Association and Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Louisiana at Lafayette. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-887366-51-9. 
  24. ^ a b William R. Nester (2004). The Frontier War for American Independence. Stackpole Books. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8117-0077-1. 
  25. ^ "Caughey 1934, p. 250"
  26. ^ a b Louisiana Review. Conseil pour le développement du français en Louisiane. 1975. p. 68. 
  27. ^ David Narrett (5 March 2015). Adventurism and Empire: The Struggle for Mastery in the Louisiana-Florida Borderlands, 1762-1803. UNC Press Books. pp. 78–82, 101. ISBN 978-1-4696-1834-0. 
  28. ^ Fernando Benítez (7 October 2014). De la Conquista a la Independencia (in Spanish). Ediciones Era. p. 566. ISBN 978-607-445-280-8. Estableció el libre tráfico de Nueva Orleáns con Cuba y Yucatán y fomentó la colonización de Nueva Iberia." (English): "He established New Orleans' free trade with Cuba and Yucatán and promoted the colonization of New Iberia. 
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  42. ^ George C. Osborn (April 1949). "Major-General John Campbell in British West Florida". Florida Historical Quartrerly. XXVII (4): 335. Retrieved 11 June 2017. Again, in November 1780, Germain informed Campbell that it was "the King’s Wish" that Governor Dalling, Vice-Admiral Parker and he collaborate in an attack on New Orleans. General Campbell was to do all in his power to render the attack successful. 
  43. ^ Virginia Parks (1 April 1981). Siege! Spain and Britain: Battle of Pensacola, March 9-May 8, 1781. Pensacola Historical Society. p. 34. 
  44. ^ Robert Marshall Utley; Wilcomb E. Washburn (1985). Indian Wars. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 109–. ISBN 0-618-15464-7. 
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  67. ^ David W. Stahle; Edward R. Cook; Dorian J. Burnette; Jose Villanueva; Julian Cerano; Jordan N. Burns; Daniel Griffin; Benjamin I. Cook; Rodolfo Acuna; Max C.A. Torbenson; Paul Sjezner; Ian M. Howard (1 October 2016). "The Mexican Drought Atlas: Tree-ring reconstructions of the soil moisture balance during the late pre-Hispanic, colonial, and modern eras". Quaternary Science Reviews. 149: 43. The worst famine of the colonial era in Mexico occurred in 1786, and is referred to as El Ano de Hambre the year of hunger (Florescano and Swan, 1995; Therrell, 2005). Two to three years of drought and an early fall frost in 1785 again appear to have led to crop failure and famine in 1786 (Therrell, 2005; Therrell et al., 2006). An estimated 300,000 people died during El Ano de Hambre due to both famine and an outbreak of epidemic typhus in 1785–1787 (Cooper, 1965; Burns et al., 2014). The MXDA indicates that drought conditions were most serious during the two-year period from 1785 to 1786 when drought extended over most of Mexico, most severely over central and northeastern Mexico 
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  85. ^ William B. Griffen (1 September 1998). Apaches at War and Peace: The Janos Presidio, 1750-1858. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-8061-3084-2. 
  86. ^ Roberto Mario Salmón (1991). Indian Revolts in Northern New Spain: A Synthesis of Resistance, 1680-1786. University Press of America. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-8191-7983-8. 
  87. ^ Lawrence N. Powell (13 April 2012). The Accidental City. Harvard University Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-674-06544-4. 
  88. ^ Robert Jeanfreau (14 March 2012). The Story Behind the Stone. Pelican Publishing Company, Inc. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-4556-1519-3. 
  89. ^ Sally Asher (18 March 2014). Hope & New Orleans: A History of Crescent City Street Names. Arcadia Publishing. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-62584-509-2. 
  90. ^ Robert B. Kane (August 2, 2016). "Bernardo de Gálvez". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University. Archived from the original on June 25, 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017. 
  91. ^ David K. Gleason (1991). Baton Rouge: Photographs and Text. Louisiana State University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8071-1715-6. 
  92. ^ "H.J.Res.105 - Conferring honorary citizenship of the United States on Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez.". Congress.gov. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Caughey, John Walton (1998). Bernardo de Gálvez in Louisiana 1776-1783, Gretna: Pelican Publishing Company.
  • Chávez, Thomas E. (2002). Spain and the Independence of the United States: An Intrinsic Gift, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Gálvez, Bernardo de (1967) [1786]. Instructions for Governing the Interior Provinces of New Spain, 1786. New York: Arno Press.
  • Mitchell, Barbara (Autumn 2010). "America's Spanish Savior: Bernardo de Gálvez marches to rescue the colonies". MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History: 98–104. 
  • Thonhoff, Robert H. (2000). The Texas Connection With The American Revolution. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. ISBN 1-57168-418-2. 
  • Woodward, Ralph Lee Jr. Tribute to Don Bernardo de Gálvez. Baton Rouge : Historic New Orleans Collection, 1979.
  • (in Spanish) "Gálvez, Bernardo de," Enciclopedia de México, v. 6. Mexico City: 1987.
  • (in Spanish) García Puron, Manuel (1984). México y sus gobernantes, v. 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua.
  • (in Spanish) Orozco L., Fernando (1988). Fechas Históricas de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, ISBN 968-38-0046-7.
  • (in Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando (1985). Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
Luis de Unzaga
Spanish Governor of Louisiana
1777 – 1785
Succeeded by
Esteban Rodríguez Miró
Preceded by
Matías de Gálvez y Gallardo
Viceroy of New Spain
1785 – 1786
Succeeded by
Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta