Switzerland in the Roman era
The territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. The Celtic tribes of the area were subjugated by successive Roman campaigns aimed at control of the strategic routes from Italy across the Alps to the Rhine and into Gaul, most by Julius Caesar's defeat of the largest tribal group, the Helvetii, in 58 BC. Under the Pax Romana, the area was smoothly integrated into the prospering Empire, its population assimilated into the wider Gallo-Roman culture by the 2nd century AD, as the Romans enlisted the native aristocracy to engage in local government, built a network of roads connecting their newly established colonial cities and divided up the area among the Roman provinces. Roman civilization began to retreat from Swiss territory when it became a border region again after the Crisis of the Third Century.
Roman control weakened after 401 AD, but did not disappear until the mid-5th century after which the area began to be occupied by Germanic peoples. The Swiss plateau, within the natural borders of the Alps to the South and East, Lake Geneva and the Rhône to the west and the Rhine to the north, was recognized as a contiguous territory by Julius Caesar; this area had been dominated by the La Tène culture since the 5th century BC, settled by a Celtic population, of which the Helvetii were the most numerous, but which included the Rauraci in north-west Switzerland centered on Basel, the Allobroges around Geneva. South of the Swiss plateau were the Nantuates and Veragri in the Valais, the Lepontii in the Ticino, while the Raetians controlled the Grisons as well as large areas around it; the first part of what is now Switzerland to fall to Rome was the southern Ticino, annexed after the Roman victory over the Insubres in 222 BC. The territory of the Allobroges around Geneva came under Roman sway by 121 BC and was incorporated into the province of Gallia Narbonensis prior to the Gallic Wars.
In around 110 BC, two Helvetic tribes under Divico – the Tigurini and the Tougeni, sometimes identified with the Teutons – joined the wandering Germanic Cimbri on a march to the West. In the course of the Cimbrian War they defeated a Roman force under Lucius Cassius Longinus at the Battle of Burdigala in 107 BC, but after the Roman victory over the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC, the Tigurini returned to settle in the Swiss Plateau. In 61 BC, the Helvetii, led by Orgetorix, decided to leave their lands and move to the West, burning their settlements behind them – twelve oppida, according to Caesar, some 400 villages, they were decisively beaten by Caesar in the Battle of Bibracte in 58 BC. After their surrender, Caesar sent the Helvetii home, according them the status of foederati or Roman allies, but not yet subjugating them to Roman sovereignty. Caesar's policy aimed at controlling the territory west of the Jura and Rhine, as well as at blocking the potential incursion routes from the East along the Jura.
The Raetians, described as savage warriors by Strabo, continued to launch incursions into the Swiss Plateau and had to be contained. To that end, Caesar charged the Helvetii and the Rauraci with defending their territory and established two colonies of veterans – one, the Colonia Julia Equestris on the shores of Lake Geneva and the other through Lucius Munatius Plancus in northwestern Switzerland, preceding the larger Augusta Raurica founded by Augustus in around 6 AD. Caesar's attempt to open the Great St Bernard Pass for Roman traffic failed in 57 BC due to strong opposition by the local Veragri. Concerted and successful efforts to gain control over the Alpine region were undertaken by his successor, Augustus, as the rapid development of Lugdunum made the establishment of a safe and direct route from Gaul to Italy a priority. In 25 BC, an army under Aulus Terentius Varro Murena wiped out the Salassi in the Aosta Valley. At some time between 25 and 7 BC – either following the Aosta campaign or, more in the course of the conquest of Raetia in 15 BC – a campaign subjugated the Celtic tribes of the Valais and opened the Great St Bernard Pass.
That conquest was a consequence of the Augustan imperative of securing the Imperial borders. To control the Alps as the shield of northern Italy, Rome needed to control both flanks of the mountain range, thus it had to extend its power to the Rhine and Danube, thereby opening a direct route to Germania and all of Central Europe. The last obstacle in this path were the Raetians. After a first expedition against them by Publius Silius Nerva in 16 BC, a more thorough campaign by Drusus and the emperor Tiberius brought Raetia – and thereby all of Switzerland – under Roman control; the tropaeum alpium, built by Augustus in 7 BC to celebrate his conquest of the Alps, lists among the defeated peoples the tribes of Raetia and of the Valais, but not the Helvetii. It appears that they were absorbed peacefully into the Empire during the first century AD, except for their part in the conflicts of the Year of the Four Emperors, AD 69; the history of Switzerland under Roman rule was, from the Augustan period up until 260 AD, a time of exceptional peace and prosperity.
The Pax Romana was made possible by the protection of well-defended and distant Imperial borders and a peaceful and smooth Romanization of the local population. The Romans urbanized the territory with numerous settlements and built a network of high-quality Roman roads connecting them, allowing for the integration of Helvetia into the imperial economy. While the Roman presence was always strong in the Alps
Imperial immediacy was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular principalities, individuals such as the Imperial knights, were declared free from the authority of any local lord and placed under the direct authority of the Emperor, of the institutions of the Empire such as the Diet, the Imperial Chamber of Justice and the Aulic Council. The granting of immediacy began in the Early Middle Ages, for the immediate bishops and cities the main beneficiaries of that status, immediacy could be exacting and meant being subjected to the fiscal and hospitality demands of their overlord, the Emperor. However, with the gradual exit of the Emperor from the centre stage from the mid-13th century onwards, holders of imperial immediacy found themselves vested with considerable rights and powers exercised by the emperor; as confirmed by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the possession of imperial immediacy came with a particular form of territorial authority known as territorial superiority.
In today's terms, it would be understood as a limited form of sovereignty. Several immediate estates held the privilege of attending meetings of the Reichstag in person, including an individual vote: the seven Prince-electors designated by the Golden Bull of 1356 the other Princes of the Holy Roman Empire secular: Dukes, Landgraves et al. ecclesiastical: Prince-Bishops, Prince-Abbots and Prince-Provosts. They formed the Imperial Estates, together with 100 immediate counts, 40 Imperial prelates and 50 Imperial Cities who only enjoyed a collective vote. Further immediate estates not represented in the Reichstag were the Imperial Knights as well as several abbeys and minor localities, the remains of those territories which in the High Middle Ages had been under the direct authority of the Emperor and since had been given in pledge to the princes. At the same time, there were classes of "princes" with titular immediacy to the Emperor but who exercised such privileges if at all. For example, the Bishops of Chiemsee and Seckau were subordinate to the prince-bishop of Salzburg, but were formally princes of the Empire.
Additional advantages might include the rights to collect taxes and tolls, to hold a market, to mint coins, to bear arms, to conduct legal proceedings. The last of these might include the so-called Blutgericht through which capital punishment could be administered; these rights varied according to the legal patents granted by the emperor. As pointed out by Jonathan Israel in 1528 the Dutch province of Overijssel tried to arrange its submission to Emperor Charles V in his capacity as Holy Roman Emperor rather than as his being the Duke of Burgundy. If successful, that would have evoked Imperial immediacy and would have put Overijssel in a stronger negotiating position, for example given the province the ability to appeal to the Imperial Diet in any debate with Charles. For that reason, the Emperor rejected and blocked Overijssel's attempt. Disadvantages might include direct intervention by imperial commissions, as happened in several of the south-western cities after the Schmalkaldic War, the potential restriction or outright loss of held legal patents.
Immediate rights might be lost if the Emperor and/or the Imperial Diet could not defend them against external aggression, as occurred in the French Revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The Treaty of Lunéville in 1801 required the emperor to renounce all claims to the portions of the Holy Roman Empire west of the Rhine. At the last meeting of the Imperial Diet in 1802–03 called the German Mediatisation, most of the free imperial cities and the ecclesiastic states lost their imperial immediacy and were absorbed by several dynastic states; the practical application of the rights of immediacy was complex. Such contemporaries as Goethe and Fichte called the Empire a monstrosity. Voltaire wrote of the Empire as something neither Holy nor Roman, nor an Empire, in comparison to the British Empire, saw its German counterpart as an abysmal failure that reached its pinnacle of success in the early Middle Ages and declined thereafter. Prussian historian Heinrich von Treitschke described it in the 19th century as having become "a chaotic mess of rotted imperial forms and unfinished territories".
For nearly a century after the publication of James Bryce's monumental work The Holy Roman Empire, this view prevailed among most English-speaking historians of the Early Modern period, contributed to the development of the Sonderweg theory of the German past. A revisionist view popular in Germany but adopted elsewhere argued that "though not powerful politically or militarily, was extraordinarily diverse and free by the standards of Europe at the time". Pointing out that people like Goethe meant "monster" as a compliment in modern understanding, The Economist has called the Empire "a great place to live... a union with which its subjects identified, whose loss distressed them greatly" and praised its cultural and religious diversity, saying that it "allowed a degree of liberty and diversity, unimaginable in the neighbouring kingdoms" and that "ordinary folk, including women, had
Lauterbrunnen is a village and a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. The municipality comprises the major Lauterbrunnen Valley, the Soustal, the Sefinental, the upper Lauterbrunnen Valley with Untersteinberg including several glaciers, such as the Tschingelfirn and the Rottalgletscher, many Alpine meadows and peaks, such as Schilthorn, Schwarzmönch, Silberhorn, the villages Lauterbrunnen, Wengen, Mürren, Gimmelwald and Isenfluh, several hamlets; the population of the village Lauterbrunnen is less than that of Wengen, but larger than that of the others. Lauterbrunnen was first mentioned in 1240 as "in claro fonte", a Romance language place name meaning "clear spring". By 1253 it was known to German speakers as Liuterbrunnon which by 1268 had the alternate spelling of Luterbrunnen. While the meaning of brunnen is undoubtedly spring or fountain, there is some dispute about the meaning of lauter: Some translate it as clear, clean or bright while others translate it as "many" or "louder".
A local explanation is that the name Lauterbrunnen means "many springs" using a modern meaning of the word lauter in German: however this could be an example of a folk etymology. Lauterbrunnen is first mentioned in 1240 as in claro fonte. In 1304 it was mentioned as Luterbrunnen; the oldest trace of a settlement in the area is a single Roman coin, discovered in the Blumental. When the Lauterbrunnen Valley first appears in the historic record, during the 13th century, it was owned by the Freiherr of Wädenswil. In 1240 the Freiherr of Wädenswil sold the Sefinen Valley to Interlaken Monastery. Over the following century, the Monastery and other local lords began to expand their power in the Lauterbrunnen and neighboring valleys. However, around 1300, the Lord of Turn began to settle his Walser speaking people in the nearby Lötschen Valley and into the highlands of the Lauterbrunnen Valley. By 1346, the Walser villages of Lauterbrunnen, Gimmelwald, Mürren and Trachsellauenen all had village governments and a certain amount of independence from the Monastery.
Three years much of the Bernese Oberland unsuccessfully rose up against Monastery. When the Monastery suppressed the rebellion, the Walser villages bore the brunt of the Monastery's wrath. By the 15th century, the villages of the valley were part of the large parish of Gsteig bei Interlaken. In 1487-88 the villagers in Lauterbrunnen built a filial church of the parish. In 1506, the parish appointed a full-time priest for Lauterbrunnen. In 1528, the city of Bern adopted the new faith of the Protestant Reformation and began imposing it on the Bernese Oberland. Lauterbrunnen joined many other villages and the Monastery in an unsuccessful rebellion against the new faith. After Bern imposed its will on the Oberland, they secularized the Monastery and annexed all the Monastery lands. Lauterbrunnen became the center of a new Reformed parish. Mines were built in the Trachsellauenen area in the upper valley beginning in the late 16th century. An iron smelter was built in Zweilütschinen in 1715 to process the iron ore from Trachsellauenen.
However most of the money from the mines went to the noble landowners. The villagers remained poor. In the 17th and 18th centuries the poverty was so widespread that many of the villagers joined mercenary regiments or emigrated. A majority of the emigrants moved to the Carolinas in the United States. Beginning in the late 18th century, foreign mountain climbers began to use Lauterbrunnen as a starting point for their expeditions into the nearby Alps; the climbers stayed in the village rectory. However, as Lauterbrunnen's fame grew and with the completion of a road from Interlaken in 1834 and the 1890 Bernese Oberland Railway, more hotels were needed for tourists; as new hotels were built, other tourist infrastructure was built in the village. They built cable cars to Mürren in 1891 and to Wengen in 1893, but the most significant piece of infrastructure was the Jungfrau railway, built in 1912. The Jungfrau rack railway runs 9 km from Kleine Scheidegg to the highest railway station in Europe at Jungfraujoch.
The railway runs entirely within a tunnel built into the Eiger and Mönch mountains and contains two stations in the middle of the tunnel, where passengers can disembark to observe the neighboring mountains through windows built into the mountainside. In 1909 the English brothers Walter and Arnold Lunn popularized skiing and bobsledding at Lauterbrunnen; these winter sports provided a whole new group of winter tourists and converted the summer tourist industry into a year-round business. The tourist economy of Lauterbrunnen was devastated due to World War I and II and the Great Depression. However, following the end of World War II, tourism rebounded. Many new vacation homes and chalets were built along with chair lifts and a heliport. On 1 January 1973 the former municipality of Isenfluh merged into the municipality of Lauterbrunnen. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Interlaken-Oberhasli.
Lauterbrunnen lies at the bottom of a U-shaped valley that extends south and south-westwards from the village to meet the 8 kilometers Lauterbrunnen Wall. The Lauterbrunnen Valley is one of the deepest in the Alpine chain when compared with the height of the mountains that rise directly on either side, it is a true cleft more than one kilometre in width, between limestones precipices, sometimes quite
Kandersteg is a municipality in the Frutigen-Niedersimmental administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is located along the valley of the River Kander, west of the Jungfrau massif, it is noted for its spectacular mountain sylvan alpine landscapes. Tourism is a significant part of its economic life today, it offers outdoor activities year-round, with hiking trails and mountain climbing as well as downhill and cross-country skiing. Kandersteg is first mentioned, together with Kandergrund, in 1352 as der Kandergrund. Prehistorically the area was settled. However, several late-neolithic or early Bronze Age bows have been found on the Lötschberg glaciers and a Bronze Age needle was found in the Golitschenalp. From the Roman era a bridge and part of a road were discovered in the village; until 1909 Kandersteg was politically and religiously part of Kandergrund. In 1511 the parish built a chapel in Kandersteg, which survived the iconoclasm of the Protestant Reformation in 1530, it became a filial church of the parish in Kandergrund between 1840 and 1860 and in 1910 became the parish church of the Kandersteg parish.
A Roman Catholic church was built in 1927. Traditionally the local economy relied on seasonal alpine herding and farming and supporting trade over the alpine passes. In the 17th and 18th centuries sulfur mining began in the Oeschinenalp. A match factory opened in the village in the 19th century to take advantage of the sulfur. Beginning around 1850, the municipality grew into a tourist destination. Between 1855 and 1890 five hotels opened and by 1913 there were 19 hotels; the population grew during construction of the Lötschberg Tunnel and the Lötschberg railway line between 1906 and 1913. The new railroad line and tunnel allowed increasing numbers of tourists to visit Kandersteg. A chair lift to Oeschinen Lake opened in 1948, followed by a cable car to the valley floor in 1951. A ski jump was built in 1979; the Kandersteg International Scout Centre opened in 1923. Kandersteg is located on the northern side of the Bernese Alps at an altitude of 1,200 meters above sea level at the foot of the Lötschen and Gemmi Passes.
The village, with 1200 inhabitants, lies in the upper Kander Valley. The municipality extends over a territory encompassing the valleys of Oeschinen, it includes the villages of Gastern. Kandersteg is surrounded by high mountains; the Balmhorn, bordering the canton of Valais to the south, is the highest in the valley. The Gross Lohner is the highest summit between the Kander Valley and the valley of Adelboden on the west; the Bunderchrinde Pass connects Kandersteg to Adelboden, whilst the Hohtürli Pass on the east connects Kandersteg to Griesalp in the Kiental valley. Neither pass carries a road, but both form part of the Alpine Pass Route, a long-distance hiking trail across Switzerland between Sargans and Montreux that passes through the village; the largest lake in the valley is lake Oeschinen. It is located at 1,578 m east at the foot of the Blüemlisalp massif; the Gastern Valley is an closed off valley. At the upper end of the valley lies the Kander Glacier, the source of the 44 km long Kander river.
The Gastern Valley is on the way to the 2,700 m high Lötschen Pass. Part of the municipality is located within the Jungfrau-Aletsch area, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001 and extended in 2007; the area comprises the Gastern Valley. Kandersteg has an area of 134.33 km2. Of this area, 17.84 km2 or 13.3% is used for agricultural purposes, while 15.86 km2 or 11.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.33 km2 or 1.0% is settled, 2.5 km2 or 1.9% is either rivers or lakes and 96.96 km2 or 72.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings make up 0.4% and transportation infrastructure make up 0.4%. Of the forested land, 8.8% of the total land area is forested and 1.3% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 1.2% is pastures and 12.0% is used for alpine pastures. Of the water in the municipality, 1.0 % is in lakes and 0.9 % streams. Of the unproductive areas, 10.4% is unproductive vegetation, 43.1% is too rocky for vegetation and 18.6% of the land is covered by glaciers.
The municipality is located in the upper most section of the Kander river valley, along with parts of the Gastern and Oeschinen valleys and part of the Blümlisalp mountain. It consists of the Bäuert of Kandersteg, which includes the village of Kandersteg and the Bäuert of Gastern. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Frutigen-Niedersimmental; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure a Foot-bridge in pale Or and in chief Argent an Eagle displayed Sable. Kandersteg has a population of 1,301; as of 2010, 17.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 4.3%. Migration accounted for 9.7%, while births and deaths accounted for -4.5%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Portuguese is the second most common and English is the third. There are 12 people; as of 2008, the population was 51.7 % female.
The population was made up of 486 Swiss men (39.5% of the populati
The Niederhorn is a peak of the Emmental Alps in the Bernese Oberland near Beatenberg. It is the peak farthest west in the Güggis ridge. From its summit you can see the entire Bernese Alps. An aerial cable car to the summit was completed in 1946 with a restaurant and children's playground at the top. Today the summit can be reached by the Seilbahnen Beatenberg-Niederhorn, a more modern gondola lift that runs from the village of Beatenberg, where it connects with the Thunersee–Beatenberg Bahn, a funicular with connections to the shipping services on Lake Thun. A 89 metres high steel lattice antenna tower was built near the restaurant in 1975, it broadcasts FM television. List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Neiderhorn web site Niederhorn on Hikr
Lenk im Simmental
Lenk im Simmental is a municipality in the Obersimmental-Saanen administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Lenk is first mentioned in 1370 as An der Leng; the oldest traces of a settlement in the area come from neolithic artifacts that have been found scattered around the municipality. During the Bronze Age Burgbühl and Bürstehubel were both fortified. Under the Romans the area was on along a major North-South road that passed over the Rawil and Kaltwasser Passes, they built a small shrine at the Iffigsee and a road and lime kiln at Iffigenalp. By the Middle Ages the Bronze Age fortifications were reoccupied and the area was split between the Herrschaft of Mannenberg and the estates of the Freiherr von Raron; the lands passed through several owners and by 1502 Bern ruled over the lands of the modern municipality. The municipality split from the neighboring St. Stephan in 1504-1505. In 1522 it achieved its sovereignty in the canton of Bern; the village church was built in 1505.
The church became a parish church in 1513. In 1528, the city of Bern accepted the new faith of the Protestant Reformation. Lenk, along with much of the Oberland resisted the new faith but was forced to accept it in the same year. In the following year, Lenk had to protect itself against the Catholic Valais; the conflicts over religion closed the Rawil Pass into Valais for a time. However, the Pass remained an important trade route until the construction of the Lötschberg railway line in 1913. In 1878 much of the village was destroyed in a fire; the parish church rebuilt three years in 1881. In the mid 19th century tourists began to come to Lenk to see the natural attractions and to bathe in the mineral springs. A medicinal spa opened in 1843 and expanded into a grand hotel by 1900. In 1969 the old hotel was replaced with a indoor pool. Today tourism is the main industry in Lenk. A number of second homes and vacation chalets were built outside the old village center. Lenk has an area of 122.96 km2. As of 2012, a total of 44.82 km2 or 36.4% is used for agricultural purposes, while 28.32 km2 or 23.0% is forested.
The rest of the municipality is 2.4 km2 or 2.0% is settled, 1.12 km2 or 0.9% is either rivers or lakes and 46.38 km2 or 37.7% is unproductive land. During the same year and buildings made up 1.1% and transportation infrastructure made up 0.7%. A total of 17.7% of the total land area is forested and 3.6% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 7.9% is pasturage and 28.5% is used for alpine pastures. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2 % is in lakes and 0.7 % streams. Of the unproductive areas, 5.8% is unproductive vegetation, 23.4% is too rocky for vegetation and 8.5% of the land is covered by glaciers. It lies in the Simmental valley of the Bernese Oberland. Lenk lies 100 km from Montreux. Lenk is the highest municipality in Simmental; the municipal area includes many mountains, the highest of, the Wildstrubel. Somewhat below the Wildstrubel, by the Siebenbrunnen comes the Simme River, which gives Simmental its name. A number of creeks flow into the Simme, the Iffig Creek and the Iffigfall are attractions for hikers.
The large municipality includes the cooperative farms of Aegerten and Brand as well as the villages of Lenk, Ober- and Pöschenried. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Obersimmental-Saanen; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per fess Vert a Semi-Plate issuant from the Chief from which are flowing towards base seven streams of the same and Gules a Sword and a Distaff both of the second in Saltire. The seven streams represent. Lenk has a population of 2,336; as of 2011, 14.5% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last year the population has changed at a rate of 2.1%. Migration accounted for 1.5%, while births and deaths accounted for 0.2%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Serbo-Croatian is the second most common and Portuguese is the third. There are 14 people who speak 5 people who speak Romansh; as of 2008, the population was 50.5 % female.
The population was made up of 166 non-Swiss men. There were 133 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 1,177 or about 50.4% were born in Lenk and lived there in 2000. There were 613 or 26.2% who were born in the same canton, while 238 or 10.2% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 216 or 9.2% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2011, children and teenagers make up 18.4% of the population, while adults make up 62.2% and seniors make up 19.4%. As of 2000, there were 953 people who never married in the municipality. There were 66 individuals who are divorced; as of 2010, there were 348 households that consist of only one person and 70 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 876 apartments were permanently occupied, while 1,514 apartments were seasonally occupied and 111 apartments were empty; the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the