The quince is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae. It is a deciduous tree that bears a pome fruit, similar in appearance to a pear. Throughout history the cooked fruit has been used as food, but the tree is grown for its attractive pale pink blossoms. The tree grows 5 to 8 metres high and 4 to 6 metres wide, the fruit is 7 to 12 centimetres long and 6 to 9 centimetres across. The immature fruit is green with dense pubescence, most of which rubs off before maturity in late autumn when the fruit changes color to yellow with hard. The leaves are arranged, simple, 6–11 cm long, with an entire margin. The flowers, produced in spring after the leaves, are white or pink,5 cm across, the seeds contain nitriles, which are common in seeds of the rose family. In the stomach, enzymes or stomach acid or both cause some of the nitriles to be hydrolyzed and produce hydrogen cyanide, which is a volatile gas, the seeds are only likely to be toxic if a large quantity is eaten. Four other species included in the genus Cydonia are now treated in separate genera.
These are Pseudocydonia sinensis and the three flowering quinces of eastern Asia in the genus Chaenomeles, another unrelated fruit, the bael, is sometimes called the Bengal quince. It should not be confused with its relatives, the Chinese quince, Pseudocydonia sinensis, or the flowering quinces of genus Chaenomeles, the fruit was known to the Akkadians, who called it supurgillu, Arabic سفرجل al safarjal quinces. While quince is a shrub, it may develop fungal diseases in hot weather. Quince leaf blight, caused by fungus Diplocarpon mespili, presents a threat in wet summers, causing severe leaf spotting and early defoliation and it may affect other Rosaceae plants such as hawthorn and medlar, but is typically less damaging than on quince. Cedar-quince rust, caused by Gymnosporangium clavipes, requires two hosts to complete the lifecycle, one being a cedar and the other a rosacea. Appearing as red excrescence on various parts of the plant, it may affect quinces grown in vicinity of junipers, Quince is a hardy, drought-tolerant shrub which adapts to many soils of low to medium pH.
It tolerates both shade and sun, but sunlight is required in order to produce flowers and ensure fruit ripening. It is a tough plant that does not require much maintenance. Quince is cultivated on all continents in warm-temperate and temperate climates and it requires a cooler period of the year, with temperatures under 7 °C, to flower properly
Christian VIII of Denmark
Christian VIII was the King of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814. He was the eldest son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Denmark and Norway and his paternal grandparents were King Frederick V of Denmark and his second wife, Duchess Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Christian was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen, Christians upbringing was marked by a thorough and broad-spectrum education with exposure to artists and scientists who were linked to his fathers court. Christian inherited the talents of his highly gifted mother, and his amiability, Christian first married his cousin Duchess Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin at Ludwigslust on 21 June 1806. Charlotte Frederica was a daughter of Friedrich Franz I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and his first-born son was Christian Frederik, who was born and died at Schloss Plön on 8 April 1807. His second son became Frederick VII of Denmark, the marriage was dissolved by divorce in 1810 after Charlotte Frederica was accused of adultery.
Christian married his wife, Princess Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg at Augustenborg Palace on 22 May 1815. The couple was childless and lived in retirement as leaders of the literary. Christian had ten children, for whom he carefully provided. It is rumored that among these children included the fairy tale author Hans Christian Andersen. Christian did all he could personally to strengthen the bonds between the Norwegians and the house of Denmark. He was elected Regent of Norway by an assembly of notables on 16 February 1814, Christian next attempted to interest the great powers in Norways cause, but without success. Sweden refused Christians conditions and a military campaign ensued in which the Norwegian army was defeated by the forces of the Swedish crown prince Charles John. The brief war concluded with the Convention of Moss on 14 August 1814, by the terms of this treaty, King Christian Frederick transferred executive power to the Storting and returned to Denmark.
The Storting in its turn adopted the constitutional amendments necessary to allow for a union with Sweden. On 13 December 1839 he ascended the Danish throne as Christian VIII, the Liberal party had high hopes of “the giver of constitutions, ” but he disappointed his admirers by steadily rejecting every Liberal project. Administrative reform was the reform he would promise. In his attitude to the growing national unrest in the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein he often seemed hesitated and half-hearted
Azaleas /əˈzeɪliə/ are flowering shrubs in the genus Rhododendron, particularly the former sections Tsutsuji and Pentanthera. Azaleas bloom in spring, their flowers often lasting several weeks, shade tolerant, they prefer living near or under trees. They are part of the family Ericaceae, plant enthusiasts have selectively bred azaleas for hundreds of years. This human selection has produced over 10,000 different cultivars which are propagated by cuttings, Azalea seeds can be collected and germinated. Azaleas are generally slow-growing and do best in well-drained acidic soil, fertilizer needs are low, some species need regular pruning. Azaleas are native to several continents including Asia and North America and they are planted abundantly as ornamentals in the southeastern USA, southern Asia, and parts of southwest Europe. Magnolias owner John Grimke Drayton imported the plants for use in his estate garden from Philadelphia, with encouragement from Charles Sprague Sargent from Harvards Arnold Arboretum, Magnolia Gardens was opened to the public in 1871, following the American Civil War.
Magnolia is one of the oldest public gardens in America, since the late nineteenth century, in late March and early April, thousands visit to see the azaleas bloom in their full glory. R. occidentale flowers are larger than other azaleas and are white with a splotch of yellow. R. arborescens are native to the east coast of North America and can be found growing wild from Alabama to Pennsylvania in wooded, plants grow up to 20 feet high and flowers are white and fragrant. The Flame Azalea, R. Native to the regions of Pennsylvania to Georgia. Flowers do not smell but bloom in every shade from yellow to crimson red. Flowers bloom in the late spring, a good variety for drier soils and shady areas. Foliage turns bright yellow in the Fall, Azalea leafy gall can be particularly destructive to azalea leaves during the early spring. Hand picking infected leaves is the method of control. They can be subject to root rot in moist. In Chinese culture, the azalea is known as thinking of home bush and is immortalized in the poetry of Du Fu, the azalea is one of the symbols of the city of São Paulo, in Brazil.
In addition to being renowned for its beauty, the azalea is highly toxic—it contains andromedotoxins in both its leaves and nectar, including honey from the nectar
The genus is most closely related to Ligustrum, classified with it in Oleaceae tribus Oleeae subtribus Ligustrinae. Lilacs are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including copper underwing, scalloped oak and they are small trees, ranging in size from 2 to 10 metres tall, with stems up to 20 to 30 centimetres diameter. The leaves are opposite in arrangement, and their shape is simple and heart-shaped to broad lanceolate in most species, the usual flower colour is a shade of purple, but white, pale yellow and pink, and even a dark burgundy color are found. The flowers grow in panicles, and in several species have a strong fragrance. Flowering varies between mid spring to summer, depending on the species. The fruit is a dry, brown capsule, splitting in two at maturity to release the two winged seeds, the genus Syringa was first formally described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus and the description was published in Species Plantarum. The genus name Syringa is derived from Ancient Greek word syrinx meaning pipe or tube, the English common name lilac is from the French lilac via the Arabic ليلك from Persian نیلک meaning bluish.
Lilacs are popular shrubs in parks and gardens throughout the temperate zone, the term French lilac is often used to refer to modern double-flowered cultivars, thanks to the work of prolific breeder Victor Lemoine. Lilacs grow most successfully in well-drained soils, particularly based on chalk. They flower on old wood, and produce flowers if unpruned. If pruned, the plant responds by producing fast-growing young vegetative growth with no flowers, Lilac bushes can be prone to powdery mildew disease. The wood of lilac is close-grained, diffuse-porous, extremely hard, the sapwood is typically cream-coloured and the heartwood has various shades of brown and purple. Lilac wood has traditionally used for engraving, musical instruments. When drying, the wood has a tendency to be encurved as a twisted material, Lilacs are often considered to symbolize love. In Greece and Cyprus, the lilac is strongly associated with Easter time because it flowers around that time, in the poem When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloomd, by Walt Whitman, lilacs are a reference to Abraham Lincoln.
Syringa vulgaris is the flower of New Hampshire, because it is symbolic of that hardy character of the men and women of the Granite State. Several locations in North America hold annual Lilac Festivals, The Arnold Arboretum in Boston, the Arboretum shows off its collection of over 422 lilac plants, of 194 different varieties. Lilac Sunday is the day of the year when picnicking is allowed on the grounds of the Arboretum
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Brede House is a late 18th-century country house in Kongens Lyngby north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built for the owner of the adjacent Brede Works, it is now owned by the National Museum of Denmark, Brede House was built for Peter van Hemert, the owner of Brede Works. It is believed that the architect was Andreas Kirkerup while Interior Designer to the Danish Court, joseph Christian Lillie was entrusted with interior designs and probably furnishing the house. Peter van Hemert went bankrupt in 1805 and both his house and industrial plant were sold by auction, the National Museum acquired the house in 1959 and put it through a comprehensive restoration which was not completed until 1974. The Neoclassical house now serves as a house museum which showcases a typical upper-class home of the 1790s. The house is now furnished with period furniture based on the detailed inventory lists which were prepared for each room in connection with the 1805 auction. The park at Brede House is situated to the rear of the building, with Brede Works to the right and a terraced slope with fruit trees to the left as seen from the main building.
It was laid out in the English romantic style in connection with the construction of the house, the pavilion in Chinese style which is today seen in the garden is not native to the site but gifted to the National Museum in 1971. It may originally have stood in Frédéric de Conincks romantic garden at Dronninggård and it is likely that it was designed by Kirkerup since he is the architect behind several other pavilions in Chinese style from the time, including the one in Frederiksberg Gardens. A vegetable garden and nursery used to supply the household with fresh produce, a vegetable garden with original crops is still maintained at the far end of the park. It is situated next to the house and a small cluster of outbuildings and glasshouses, including the Grape House, the Tomato House, the Apple Celler, the Orangery
Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff
Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff was a German-Danish statesman and a member of the Bernstorff noble family of Mecklenburg. He was the son of Joachim Engelke Freiherr von Bernstorff, chamberlain to the Elector of Hanover and his grandfather, Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, had been one of the ablest ministers of George I and the head of the German Chancery. He was introduced into the Danish service by his relations, the brothers Plessen, in 1732, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court of Dresden, and from 1738 he represented Holstein at the Eternal Diet of Regensburg. From 1744 to 1750, he represented Denmark at Paris, whence he returned in 1754 to Denmark as Minister of Foreign Affairs, but his chief concern was foreign policy. In intimate connection with the Gottorp affair stood the question of the equilibrium of the north. A friendly alliance with a relatively weak Sweden was the point of Bernstorffs policy. Amidst all these perplexities Bernstorff proved himself a consummate statesman, the first difficult problem he had to face was the Seven Years War.
But the course of the war made this compact inoperative, the coolness and firmness of Bernstorff saved the situation. He protested that the king of Denmark was bound to defend Schleswig so long as there was a sword in Denmark and he rejected the insulting ultimatum of the Russian emperor. He placed the best French general of the day at the head of the well-equipped Danish army, but just as the Russian and Danish armies had come within striking distance, the tidings reached Copenhagen that Peter III had been overthrown by his consort, Catherine II. For his part in this treaty Bernstorff was created count and it is remarkable, that though Bernstorff ruled Denmark for twenty years he never learnt the Danish language. This treaty proved to be a mistake on Denmarks part. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Bernstorff, Johann Hartwig Ernst. Poul Vedel, Den ældre Grev Bernstorffs ministerium, Correspondence ministirielle du Comte J. H. E. Bernstorff, ed.
Vedel, Aage Friis, Bernstorfferne og Danmark
Prince Valdemar of Denmark
Prince Valdemar of Denmark, GCTE was a member of the Danish Royal Family, the third son and youngest child of Christian IX of Denmark and his wife Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Prince Valdemar was born on 27 October 1858 at Bernstorff Palace in Gentofte north of Copenhagen and his father was Prince Christian of Denmark, King Christian IX. His mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel and he was baptised on 21 December 1858. That November, his parents succeeded to the throne of Denmark following the death of King Frederick VII, Prince Valdemar received his early education from tutors. In the summer of 1874, he accompanied his father during his visit to Iceland for the millennium celebrations, after his confirmation in 1874, as was customary for princes at that time, he started a military education and entered the naval college. In 1879, he was sub-lieutenant and in 1880 lieutenant, in the following years, he participated in several naval expeditions. Feeling abandoned by his father on this occasion, George would describe to his fiancée the profound attachment he developed for his uncle from that day forward and he married Princess Marie dOrleans on 20 October 1885 in a civil ceremony in Paris.
They had a ceremony on 22 October 1885 at the Château dEu. Among the most notable attendants were Valdemars mother Queen Louise of Denmark, the Prince and Princess of Wales, the wedding was believed by one source to have been politically arranged, and in France, it was believed that the Count of Paris was personally responsible for the match. However, the source claimed that there was every reason to believe that a genuine love match. At the time of their marriage, it was decided that any sons would be brought up in Valdemars Lutheran faith, while any daughters would be raised as Catholics, the faith of their mother. The couples four sons were consequently Lutherans, while their daughter, Margaret was raised a Catholic. Valdemar had a naval career, but things could have been much different for the prince. He was offered two European thrones, those of Bulgaria and Norway, but declined due to international pressures. He was the first president of the Seamens Association of 1856 and he died on 14 January 1939 in the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen and was buried in Roskilde Cathedral.
He was the last surviving child of Christian IX, Prince Viggo of Denmark, created Count of Rosenborg, married Eleonora Green, and had no children Princess Margaret of Denmark, married Prince René of Bourbon-Parma. Her daughter Anne was the wife of Michael, former King of Romania, the Last Courts of Europe, A Royal Family Album 1860-1914. London, J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd, Prince Valdemar at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Amalienborg Palace
Liriodendron /ˌlaɪriəˈdɛndrən, ˌlɪr-, -ioʊ-/ is a genus of two species of characteristically large deciduous trees in the magnolia family. These trees are known by the common name tulip tree or tuliptree for their large flowers superficially resembling tulips. The Latin Liriodendron actually means lily tree, the tree is called canoewood, saddle-leaf tree, and white wood. Two species of Liriodendron are known to exist, Liriodendron tulipifera is native to eastern North America, while Liriodendron chinense is native to China and Vietnam. Both species often grow to great size, sometimes exceeding 50 m in height, the American species is commonly used horticulturally, and hybrids have been produced between these two allopatrically distributed species. Various extinct species of Liriodendron have been described from the fossil record, Liriodendron trees are easily recognized by their leaves, which are distinctive, having four lobes in most cases and a cross-cut notched or straight apex. Leaf size varies from 8–22 cm long and 6–25 cm wide, the tulip tree is often a large tree, 18–50 m high and 60–120 cm in diameter.
The tulip tree grows to a height of 70–190 and a spread of around 40 at maturity and its trunk is usually columnar, with a long, branch-free bole forming a compact, rather than open, conical crown of slender branches. It has deep roots that spread widely, leaves are slightly larger in L. chinense, compared to L. tulipifera, but with considerable overlap between the species, the petiole is 4–18 cm long. Leaves on young trees tend to be more deeply lobed and larger in size than those on mature trees, in autumn, the leaves turn yellow, or brown and yellow. Both species grow rapidly in rich, moist soils of temperate climates and they hybridize easily, and the progeny often grow faster than either parent]. Flowers are 3–10 cm in diameter and have nine tepals — three green sepals and six inner petals which are yellow-green with an orange flare at the base. They start forming after around 15 years and are similar to a tulip in shape. Flowers of L. tulipifera have a faint cucumber odor, the stamens and pistils are arranged spirally around a central spike or gynaecium, the stamens fall off, and the pistils become the samaras.
The fruit is an aggregate of samaras 4–9 cm long, each of which has a roughly tetrahedral seed with one edge attached to the central conical spike. Appalachian cove forests often contain several tulip trees of height and girth not seen in species of eastern hardwoods. In the Appalachian cove forests, trees 150 to 165 ft in height are common, more Liriodendron over 170 ft in height have been measured by the Eastern Native Tree Society than for any other eastern species. The current tallest tulip tree on record has reached 191.9 ft, the tulip tree is rivaled in eastern forests only by white pine, loblolly pine, and eastern hemlock