Beaujolais is a historical province and a wine-producing region in France. It is located north of Lyon, covers parts of the north of the Rhône département and parts of the south of the Saône-et-Loire département; the region is known internationally for its long tradition of winemaking, more for the enormously popular Beaujolais nouveau. See History of France The historical capital of the province is Beaujeu and the economic capital of the area is Villefranche-sur-Saône; the Beaujolais Region is located south of Burgundy and its climate is warmer. Because of the difference in region, the Pinot Noir grape grown in Burgundy would not do well here; the best soils are granite. All the wine produced in the region is red wine from the Gamay grape, of which the heavily-marketed Beaujolais Nouveau is the most famous, the village crus the most prized. Wine French wine
County of Flanders
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries. From 862 onwards the Counts of Flanders were one of the original twelve peers of the Kingdom of France. For centuries their estates around the cities of Ghent and Ypres formed one of the most affluent regions in Europe. Up to 1477, the area under French suzerainty was located west of the Scheldt River and was called "Royal Flanders". Aside from this the Counts of Flanders from the 11th century on held land east of the river as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, an area called "Imperial Flanders". Part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1384, the county was removed from French to Imperial control after the Peace of Madrid in 1526 and the Peace of Ladies in 1529. In 1795 the remaining territory within the Austrian Netherlands was incorporated by the French First Republic and passed to the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815; the former County of Flanders, except for French Flanders, is the only part of the medieval French kingdom, not part of modern-day France.
Flanders and Flemish are derived from the Frisian *flāndra and *flāmisk, the roots of which are Germanic *flaumaz meaning "overflow, flooding". The coastal area of Flanders was flooded twice per day from the 3rd century to the 8th century by the North Sea at the time when the coast was visited by Frisian traders and largely inhabited by Frisians; the Flemish people are first mentioned in the biography of the Vita sancti Eligii. This work was written before 684, but only known since 725; this work mentions the "Flanderenses", who lived in "Flandris." The geography of the historic County of Flanders only overlaps with present-day region of Flanders in Belgium, though there it extends beyond West Flanders and East Flanders. Some of the historic county is now part of France and the Netherlands; the land covered by the county is spread out over: Belgium: two of the five Flemish provinces: West-Flanders and East-Flanders part of the Flemish province of Antwerp: the land of Bornem part of the Walloon province of Hainaut: Tournaisis and the region around Moeskroen France: French Flanders the French westcorner: the region around Dunkirk and Bailleul, an area where Flemish used to be the main language Walloon Flanders, where the Picard language related to French, was spoken.
Artois: removed from Flanders in 1191 and created as independent county in 1237 Netherlands: Zeelandic Flanders, a region between Belgium and the Western Scheldt in the southern part of the modern province of Zeeland, which from 1581 formed part of the Generality Lands under control of the Dutch Republic. The arms of the County of Flanders were created by Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. In the story about the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the arms and its corresponding battlecry Vlaendr'n den leeuw plays a crucial role in the forming of a Flemish consciousness, popularised in recent times by the book De Leeuw van Vlaanderen by Hendrik Conscience; as a result, the arms of the county live on as arms of the Flemish Community. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy Land, where in 1177 he conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth; the simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it.
In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions appeared in the arms of Brabant, Holland and other territories, it is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well-known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop; the future county of Flanders had been inhabited since prehistory. During the Iron Age the Kemmelberg formed an important Celtic settlement. During the times of Julius Caesar, the inhabitants were part of the Belgae, a collective name for all Celtic and Germanic tribes in the north of Gallia. For Flanders in specific these were the Morini, the Nervii and the Atrebates. Julius Caesar conquered the area around 54 BC and the population was romanised from the 1st to the 3rd century; the Roman road that connected Cologne with Boulogne-sur-Mer was used as a defense perimeter.
In the south the Gallo-Romanic population was able to maintain itself, while the north became a no-mans land that suffered from regular floods from the North Sea. In the coastal and Scheldt areas Saxon tribes appeared. For the Romans, Saxon was a general term, included Angles, Saxons and Erules; the coastal defense around Boulogne and Oudenburg, the Litus Saxonicum, remained functional until about 420. These forts were manned by Saxon soldiers. From their base land Toxandria the Salian Franks further expanded into the Roman empire; the first incursion into the lands of the Atrebates was turned away in 448 at Vicus Helena. But after the murder of the Roman general Flavius Aëtius in 454 and Roman emperor Valentinianus III in 455, the Salic Franks encounterd hardly any resistance. From Duisburg, king Chlodio conquered Cambrai and Tournai, he reached the Somme. After his death two Salic kingdoms
Provinces of France
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were equivalent to the historic counties of England, they came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, taxation systems, etc. and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris. During the early years of the French Revolution, in an attempt to centralize the administration of the whole country, to remove the influence of the French nobility over the country, the entirety of the province system was abolished and replaced by the system of departments in use today. In some cases, several modern regions or departments share names with the historic provinces, their borders may cover the same territory.
The list below shows the major provinces of France at the time of their dissolution during the French Revolution. Capital cities are shown in parentheses. Bold indicates a city, the seat of a judicial and quasi-legislative body called either a parlement or a conseil souverain. In some cases, this body met in a different city from the capital. Île-de-France Berry Orléanais Normandy Languedoc Lyonnais Dauphiné Champagne Aunis Saintonge Poitou Guyenne and Gascony Burgundy Picardy Anjou Provence Angoumois Bourbonnais Marche Brittany Maine Touraine Limousin Foix Auvergne Béarn Alsace Artois Roussillon Flanders and Hainaut Franche-Comté Lorraine.
Limousin is a former administrative region of France. On 1 January 2016, it became part of the new region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, it comprised three departments: Corrèze, Haute-Vienne. Situated in the south central French Massif Central, Limousin had 742,770 inhabitants spread out on nearly 17,000 km², making it the least populated region of metropolitan France. Forming part of the southwest of the country, Limousin is bordered by the regions of Centre-Val de Loire to the north, Poitou-Charentes and Aquitaine to the west, Midi-Pyrénées to the south and Auvergne to the east. Limousin is part of the larger Occitania region; the modern region of Limousin is composed of two historical French provinces: Limousin: the department of Corrèze in its entirety and the central and southeastern part of Haute-Vienne. The entire old province of Limousin is contained within the modern Limousin. Marche: most of the department of Creuse and the north of Haute-Vienne; the old province of Marche is entirely contained within the modern region of Limousin, with only a small part of Marche now belonging to the region of Centre.
Beside these two main provinces, Limousin is composed of small parts of other former provinces: Angoumois: extreme south-west of Haute-Vienne Poitou: extreme west of Haute-Vienne Auvergne: extreme east of Creuse Berry: extreme north of CreuseToday the province of Limousin is the most populous part of the Limousin region. Limoges, the historical capital and largest city of the province of Limousin, is the capital of the Limousin administrative region. With a rising population of just under 750,000, Limousin is the second-least populous region in Metropolitan France after Corsica; the population of Limousin is aging and, until 1999, was declining. The department of Creuse has the oldest population of any in France. Between 1999 and 2004 the population of Limousin increased reversing a decline for the first time in decades. Brive-la-Gaillarde Guéret Limoges Panazol Saint-Junien Tulle Ussel Limousin is an rural region. Famed for some of the best beef farming in the world, herds of Limousin cattle—a distinctive chestnut red—are a common sight in the region.
The region is a major timber producing area. Due to its rural locality, it is famed for its groves of French Oak, so prized for its distinct characters and flavors in wine fermentation that vintner Rémy Martin has exclusive rights to its oak groves, it is a partnership, over 100 years old. The regional capital, was once an industrial power base, world-renowned for its porcelain and still a leader and innovator in electric equipment factories. However, large factories are now few in number. Limousin is the poorest region in Metropolitan France; some of the rivers belonging to the Loire basin run through the north and east of the region, waterways belonging to that of the Dordogne through the south. The region is crossed by three major rivers: the Dordogne and the Charente; the region is well known for offering first-rate fishing. The Limousin region is entirely an upland area; the lowest land is in the northwest of the region and the highest land is in the southeast. However, the greater part of the region is above 350 m.
Limousin is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its name is derived from the name of a Celtic tribe, the Lemovices which capital was in Saint-Denis-des-Murs and which main sanctuary was found in Tintignac, a site which became a major site for the Celtics studies thanks to unique objects which were found such as the carnyces, unique in the whole Celtic world. Aimar V of Limoges was a notable ruler of the region; until the 1970s, Occitan was the primary language of rural areas. There remain several different Occitan dialects in use in Limousin, although their use is declining; these are: Limousin dialect Auvergnat dialect in the East/North-East Languedocien in the Southern fringe of Corrèze in the North, the Crescent transition area between Occitan and French is sometimes considered as a separate dialect called Marchois. Pâté aux pommes de terre is one of the specialties of Limousin, as well as of the neighbouring department of Allier. Clafoutis is a local dessert. Due to its rural character, Limousin has maintained a strong tradition of traditional music, with ancient instruments such as the bagpipe and hurdy-gurdy remaining popular.
Festival 1001 Notes, music festival in Haute-Vienne, August Festival de La Vezere, music festival in Corrèze July–August Festival du Haut Limousin, music festival in Haute-Vienne, July–August La Borie en Limousin, foundation of music in Haute-Vienne Limousin, a breed of beef cattle bred in the Limousin region and recognisable by their chestnut red coloring. Limousin, the Occitan dialect of the region. TER Limousin Limousin: the “château d'eau” - Official French website Limousin regional council website, with a presentation video in English. Art in the Limousin region History and Geography
The Bituriges were a tribe of Celtic Gaul with its capital at Bourges, whose territory corresponds to the former province of Berry. Their name meant "kings of the world" or "kings/masters of hitting/forging/smithing". Early in the 1st century BCE, they had been one of the main Gallic tribes in terms of druids and their political influence, but they soon declined in power as the druids were an important target for Julius Caesar in his conquest of Gaul. What is more, the fact that Avaricum was the only Celtic city that Vercingetorix did not burn, contrary to his scorched earth strategy, upon the approach of Caesar's legions is another proof of the political importance of the Bituriges; the town was to be buried by the Roman legions. Besides Avaricum or Mediolanum on the road from Paris and Orléans to Arvernum, Argentomagus, Déols or Levroux on the road from Toulouse to Paris were other oppidums of the Bituriges; this is one of several tribes which seem to have split, with the Bituriges Cubi lived near Bourges/Berry and the Bituriges Vivisci near Burdigala.
They joined Bellovesus' migrations towards Italy, together with the Aedui, Arverni, Aulerci and Senones. A passage from Livy, "summa imperii penes Biturges", meaning "all the power in the hands of the Bituriges", has become the motto of the city of Bourges. List of peoples of Gaul Saint-Benoît-du-Sault
Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a commune in the Indre department in central France. It is a medieval village, perched in a curve on a rocky butte overlooking the Portefeuille River in the former province of Berry. In 1988, it was named one of "the most beautiful villages of France." Located in the area of Gaul settled by a powerful Celtic tribe, the Bituriges, "Kings of the World", powerful until their defeat against Julius Caesar at Bourges, part of Roman Aquitania. Two dolmens near to Saint-Benoît-du-Sault attest to the ancientness of human presence, if not of the Bituriges. Ten centuries in 974, some benedictine monks of Sacierges-Saint-Martin took refuge on a granite spur, where they founded a priory: Salis, future Saint-Benoît-du-Sault. From the 10th to the 17th century, the history of the priory and the new village is made up of resistance to the possessive desires of feudal neighbours, such as the Limoges and de Brosse family; the town was surrounded by a double line of ramparts. The first, the most ancient, protected the priory, the church and the fort, the second established in the 15th century, encircled the commercial part.
Its maze of narrow cobbled streets remains popular with sightseers. Of architectural significance: Belfry. 14th-century portal. 14th-century Roman Priory. The medieval city in general. Castle of Brosse People associated with Saint-Benoît-du-Sault: Hervé Faye, astronomer François-Timoléon de Choisy and author Communes of the Indre department INSEE Les origines de la vicomté de Brosse et de la prévôté de Saint Benoît du Sault, by Roland Aubert. Imprimerie Sodimass S. A Le Pont-Chrétien-Chabenet 2005 Recherches archéologiques dans la région de Saint-Benoît du-Sault, by E. de Beaufort. Sur les Miracles de Saint-Benoît du Sault, by Adrevald, Adelaire and André 878-1050. Saint-Benoît-du-Sault in pictures Saint-Benoît-du-Sault seen by Willy Ronis
Anjou is a historical province of France straddling the lower Loire River. Its capital was Angers and it was coextensive with the diocese of Angers, it bordered Brittany to Maine to the north, Touraine to the east and Poitou to the south. The adjectival form of Anjou is Angevin, inhabitants of Anjou are known as Angevins. During the Middle Ages, the County of Anjou, ruled by the Counts of Anjou, was a prominent fief of the French crown; the region takes its name from the Celtic tribe of the Andecavi, which submitted to Roman rule following the Gallic Wars. Under the Romans, the chief fortified settlement of the Andecavi became the city of Juliomagus, the future Angers; the territory of the Andecavi was organized as a civitas. Under the Franks, the city of Juliomagus became Angers. Under the Merovingians, the history of Anjou is obscure, it is not recorded as a county until the time of the Carolingians. In the late ninth and early tenth centuries the viscounts usurped comital authority and made Anjou an autonomous hereditary principality.
The first dynasty of counts of Anjou, the House of Ingelger, ruled continuously down to 1205. In 1131, Count Fulk V became the King of Jerusalem; the territories ruled by Henry and his successors, which stretched from Ireland to the Pyrenees, are called the Angevin Empire. This empire was broken up by the French king Philip II, who confiscated the dynasty's French lands, including Anjou in 1205; the county of Anjou was united to the royal domain between 1205 and 1246, when it was turned into an apanage for the king's brother, Charles I of Anjou. This second Angevin dynasty, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, established itself on the throne of Naples and Hungary. Anjou itself was united to the royal domain again in 1328, but was detached in 1360 as the Duchy of Anjou for the king's son, Louis I of Anjou; the third Angevin dynasty, a branch of the House of Valois ruled for a time the Kingdom of Naples. The dukes had the same autonomy as the earlier counts, but the duchy was administered in the same fashion as the royal domain and the royal government exercised the ducal power while the dukes were away.
When the Valois line failed and Anjou was incorporated into the royal domain again in 1480, there was little change on the ground. Anjou remained a province of crown until the French Revolution. Under the kingdom of France, Anjou was identical with the diocese of Angers, bound on the north by Maine, on the east by Touraine, on the south by Poitou and the Mauges, the west by the countship of Nantes or the duchy of Brittany, it occupied the greater part of. On the north, it further included Candé, Bazouges, Le Lude. Anjou's political origin is traced to the ancient Gallic state of the Andes. After the conquest by Julius Caesar, the area was organized around the Roman civitas of the Andecavi; the Roman civitas was afterward preserved as an administrative district under the Franks with the name first of pagus—then of comitatus or countship—of Anjou. At the beginning of the reign of Charles the Bald, the integrity of Anjou was menaced by a twofold danger: from Brittany to the west and from Normandy to the north.
Lambert, a former count of Nantes, devastated Anjou in concert with duke of Brittany. By the end of the year 851, he had succeeded in occupying all the western part as far as the Mayenne; the principality which he thus carved out for himself was occupied on his death by Erispoé, duke of Brittany. By him, it was handed down to his successors, in whose hands it remained until the beginning of the 10th century; the Normans raided the country continuously as well. A brave man was needed to defend it; the chroniclers of Anjou named a "Tertullus" as the first count, elevated from obscurity by Charles the Bald. A figure by that name seems to have been the father of the count Ingelger but his dynasty seems to have been preceded by Robert the Strong, given Anjou by Charles the Bald around 861. Robert met his death in 866 in a battle at Brissarthe against the Normans. Hugh the Abbot succeeded him in the countship of Anjou as in most of his other duties. Odo acceded to the throne of France in 888, but he seems to have delegated the country between the Maine and the Mayenne to Ingelger as a viscount or count around 870 owing to the connections of his wife Adelais of Amboise.
Their son Fulk the Red succeeded to his father's holdings in 888, is mentioned as a viscount after 898, seems to have been granted or usurped the title of count by the second quarter of the 10th century. His descendants continued to bear that rank for three centuries, he was succeeded by his son Fulk II the Good, author of the proverb that an unlettered king is a wise ass, in 938. He was succeeded in turn by his son Geoffrey I Grisegonelle around 958. Geoffrey inaugurated a policy of expansion, having as its objects the extension of the boundaries of the ancient countship and the reconquest of those parts of it, annexed by other states.