During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was erroneously believed that there were "canals" on the planet Mars. These were a network of long straight lines in the equatorial regions from 60° north to 60° south latitude on Mars, observed by astronomers using early low-resolution telescopes without photography, they were first described by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli during the opposition of 1877, confirmed by observers. Schiaparelli called these canali, translated into English as "canals"; the Irish astronomer Charles E. Burton made some of the earliest drawings of straight-line features on Mars, although his drawings did not match Schiaparelli's. Around the turn of the century there was speculation that they were engineering works, irrigation canals constructed by a civilization of intelligent aliens indigenous to Mars. By the early 20th century, improved astronomical observations revealed the "canals" to be an optical illusion, modern high-resolution mapping of the Martian surface by spacecraft shows no such features.
The Italian word canale can mean "canal", "channel", "duct" or "gully". The first person to use the word canale in connection with Mars was Angelo Secchi in 1858, although he did not see any straight lines and applied the term to large features —for example, he used the name "Canale Atlantico" for what came to be called Syrtis Major Planum, it is not odd that the idea of Martian canals was so accepted by many. At this time in the late 19th century, astronomical observations were made without photography. Astronomers had to stare for hours through their telescopes, waiting for a moment of still air when the image was clear, draw a picture of what they had seen, they saw some lighter or darker albedo features and believed that they were seeing oceans and continents. They believed that Mars had a substantial atmosphere, they knew that the rotation period of Mars was the same as Earth's, they knew that Mars' axial tilt was almost the same as Earth's, which meant it had seasons in the astronomical and meteorological sense.
They could see Mars' polar ice caps shrinking and growing with these changing seasons. It was only when they interpreted changes in surface features as being due to the seasonal growth of plants that life was hypothesized by them. By the late 1920s, however, it was known that Mars is dry and has a low atmospheric pressure. In 1889, American astronomer Charles A. Young reported that Schiaparelli's canal discovery of 1877 had been confirmed in 1881, though new canals had appeared where there had not been any before, prompting "very important and perplexing" questions as to their origin. During the favourable opposition of 1892, W. H. Pickering observed numerous small circular black spots occurring at every intersection or starting-point of the "canals". Many of these had been seen by Schiaparelli as larger dark patches, were termed seas or lakes, they were soon detected by other observers by Lowell. During the oppositions of 1892 and 1894, seasonal color changes were reported; as the polar snows melted the adjacent seas appeared to overflow and spread out as far as the tropics, were seen to assume a distinctly green colour.
At this time it began to be doubted. Under the best conditions, these supposed'seas' were seen to lose all trace of uniformity, their appearance being that of a mountainous country, broken by ridges and canyons, seen from a great elevation; these doubts soon became certainties, it is now universally agreed that Mars possesses no permanent bodies of surface water. During the 1894 opposition, the idea that Schiaparelli's canali were irrigation canals made by intelligent beings was first hinted at, adopted as the only intelligible explanation, by American astronomer Percival Lowell and a few others; the visible seasonal melting of Mars polar icecaps fueled speculation that an advanced alien race indigenous to Mars built canals to transport the water to drier equatorial regions. Newspaper and magazine articles about Martian canals and "Martians" captured the public imagination. Lowell published his views in three books: Mars and Its Canals, Mars As the Abode of Life, he remained a strong proponent for the rest of his life of the idea that the canals were built for irrigation by an intelligent civilization, going much further than Schiaparelli, who for his part considered much of the detail on Lowell's drawings to be imaginary.
Some observers drew maps in which dozens if not hundreds of canals were shown with an elaborate nomenclature for all of them. Some observers saw a phenomenon; the late 19th century was a time of construction of giant infrastructure projects of all kinds, canal building. For instance, the Suez Canal was completed in 1869, the abortive French attempt to build the Panama Canal began in 1880, it is understandable that 19th century people who accepted the idea of a Mars inhabited by a civilization might interpret the canal features as giant engineering works. Other observers disputed the notion of canals; the observer E. E. Barnard did not see them. In 1903, Joseph Edward Evans and Edward Maunder conducted visual experiments using schoolboy volunteers that demonstrated how the canals could arise as an optical illusion; this is because when a poor-quality telesc
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki and Białystok region of Poland and some border areas of Russia and Ukraine. The term is sometimes used to cover all Orthodox Jews who follow a "Lithuanian" style of life and learning, whatever their ethnic background; the area where Lithuanian Jews lived is referred to in Yiddish as ליטע Lite, hence the Hebrew term Lita'im. Lithuania was home to a large and influential Jewish community that either fled the country or were murdered during The Holocaust in Lithuania. Before World War II, the Lithuanian Jewish population was some 160,000, about 7% of the total population. Vilnius had a Jewish community of nearly 100,000, about 45% of the city's total population. There were over 10 yeshivas in Vilnius alone. About 2,000 Jews were counted in Lithuania during the 2005 census. Quoting the research done by H. G. Adler into Poland during World War II called Theresienstadt 1941–1945, there were "80,000 Jews conscripted into Poland's independent army prior to the German invasion who identified themselves as Lithuanian Jews".
Using different sources Holocaust researchers claim there were between 60,000 and 65,000 Jewish soldiers in Poland's independent army who identified themselves as Lithuanian Jews. The Yiddish adjective ליטוויש Litvish means "Lithuanian": the noun for a Lithuanian Jew is Litvak; the term Litvak itself originates from Litwak, a Polish term denoting "a man from Lithuania", which however went out of use before the 19th century, only to be revived around 1880 in the narrower meaning of "a Lithuanian Jew". The "Lithuania" meant here is the territory of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Of the main Yiddish dialects in Europe, the Litvishe Yiddish dialect was spoken by Jews in Lithuania, Latvia and northeastern Poland, including Suwałki, Łomża, Białystok. However, following the dispute between the Hasidim and the Misnagdim, in which the Lithuanian academies were the heartland of opposition to Hasidism, "Lithuanian" came to have the connotation of Misnagdic Judaism and to be used for all Jews who follow the traditions of the great Lithuanian yeshivot whether or not their ancestors came from Lithuania.
In modern Israel, Lita'im is used for all Haredi Jews who are not Hasidim. Other expressions used for this purpose are Misnagdim. Both the words Litvishe and Lita'im are somewhat misleading, because there are Hasidic Jews from greater Lithuania and lots of Lithuanian Jews who are not Haredim; the term Misnagdim on the other hand is somewhat outdated, because the opposition between the two groups has lost much of its relevance. Yeshivishe is problematic because Hasidim now make use of yeshivot as much as the Litvishe Jews; the characteristically "Lithuanian" approach to Judaism was marked by a concentration on intellectual Talmud study. Lithuania became the heartland of the traditionalist opposition to Hasidism. Though outnumbered and named "misnagdim" by the Hasidim, the Lithuanian traditionalists believed that their standard Rabbinic Judaism predated Hasidism and was Judaism in its original and authentic form. Differences between the groups grew to the extent that in popular perception "Lithuanian" and "misnagged" became interchangeable terms.
However, a sizable minority of Lithuanian Jews belong to Hasidic groups, including Chabad, Slonim and Koidanov. With the spread of the Enlightenment, many Lithuanian Jews became devotees of the Haskala movement in Eastern Europe pressing for better integration into European society, today, many leading academics and philosophers are of Lithuanian Jewish descent; the most famous Lithuanian institution of Jewish learning was Volozhin yeshiva, the model for most yeshivas. Twentieth century "Lithuanian" yeshivas include Ponevezh, Mir and Slabodka, which bear the names of their Lithuanian forebears. American "offspring" of the Lithuanian yeshiva movement include Yeshiva Rabbi Chaim Berlin, Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, Yeshivas Rabbeinu Yisrael Meir HaKohen, Beth Medrash Govoha, as well as numerous other yeshivas founded by students of Lakewood's founder, Rabbi Aharon Kotler. In theoretical Talmud study, the leading Lithuanian authorities were Chaim Soloveitchik and the Brisker school.
In practical halakha, the Lithuanians traditionally followed the Aruch HaShulchan, though today, the "Lithuanian" yeshivas prefer the Mishnah Berurah, regarded as both more analytic and more accessible. In the 19th century, the Orthodox Ashkenazi residents of the Holy Land, broadly speaking, were divided into Hasidim and Perushim, who were Lithuanian Jews influenced by the Vilna Gaon. For this reason, in modern-day Israeli Haredi parlance the terms Litvak or Litvisher, or in Hebrew Litaim, are used loosely to include any non-Hasidic Ashkenazi Haredi individual or institution. Another reason for this broadening of the term is the fact that many of the leading Israeli Haredi yeshivas are successor bodies to the famous yeshivot of Lithuania, though their present-day members may or may not be descended from Lithuanian Jewry. In reality, both the ethnic make-up and the religious traditions of the misnagged communities are much more diverse. Customs of Lithuanian non-Hasidic Jews consist of: Wearing of tefillin during non-sabbath d
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts. It serves as the sport's most complete library, in addition to promoting and preserving the history of basketball. Dedicated to Canadian-American physician and inventor of the sport James Naismith, it was opened and inducted its first class in 1959; as of the induction of the Class of 2018, the Hall has formally inducted 389 individuals. The Naismith Hall of Fame was established in 1959 by Lee Williams, a former athletic director at Colby College. In the 1960s, the Basketball Hall of Fame struggled to raise enough money for the construction of its first facility. However, during the following half-decade the necessary amount was raised, the building opened on Feb. 17, 1968, less than one month after the National Basketball Association played its 18th All-Star Game. The Basketball Hall of Fame's Board named four inductees in its first year.
In addition to honoring those who contributed to basketball, the Hall of Fame sought to make contributions of its own. In 1979, the Hall of Fame sponsored a pre-season college basketball exhibition; this Tip-Off Classic has been the start to the college basketball season since, although it does not always take place in Springfield, Massachusetts it returns every few years. In the 17 years that the original Basketball Hall of Fame operated at Springfield College, it drew more than 630,000 visitors; the popularity of the Basketball Hall of Fame necessitated that a new facility be constructed, in 1985, an $11 million facility was built beside the scenic Connecticut River in Springfield. As the new hall opened, it recognized women for the first time, with inductees such as Senda Berenson Abbott, who first introduced basketball to women at Smith College. During the years following its construction, the Basketball Hall of Fame's second facility drew far more visitors than anticipated, due in large part to the increasing popularity of the game but to the scenic location beside the river and the second Hall's interesting modern architecture.
In 2002, the Basketball Hall of Fame moved again—albeit 100 yards south along Springfield's riverfront—into a $47 million facility designed by renowned architects Gwathmey Siegel & Associates. The building's architecture features a metallic silver, basketball-shaped sphere flanked by two symmetrical rhombuses; the dome is illuminated at night and features 80,000 square foot, including numerous restaurants and an extensive gift shop. The second Basketball Hall of Fame was not torn down but rather converted into an LA Fitness health clubs; the current Basketball Hall of Fame features Center Court, a full-sized basketball court on which visitors can play. Inside the building there are a game gallery, many interactive exhibits, several theaters, an honor ring of inductees. A large theater for ceremonies seats up to 300; the honorees inducted in 2002 included the Harlem Globetrotters and Magic Johnson, a five-time NBA champion, three-time NBA finals MVP and Olympic gold medalist. As of 2011, the current Basketball Hall of Fame has exceeded attendance expectations, with basketball fans traveling to the Hall of Fame from all over the world.
Despite the new facility's success, a logistical problem remains for the Basketball Hall of Fame and the City of Springfield. The two entities are separated by the Interstate 91 elevated highway—one of the eastern United States' busiest highways—which inhibits foot-traffic and other interaction between the Basketball Hall of Fame and Springfield's lively Metro Center. Both the Hall and Springfield have made public statements about cooperating further so as to facilitate more business and recreational growth for both. Urban planners at universities such as UMass Amherst have called for the I-91 to be moved, or to be re-configured so as to be pedestrian-friendly to Hall of Fame visitors. In 2010, the Urban Land Institute announced a plan to make the walk between Springfield's Metro Center and the Hall of Fame easier. In contrast to the Pro Football and the National Baseball Halls of Fame, Springfield honors international and American professionals, as well as American and international amateurs, making it arguably the most comprehensive Hall of Fame among major sports.
From 2011 to 2015 seven committees were, as of 2016 six committees are employed to both screen and elect candidates. Four of the committees screen prospective candidates: North American Screening Committee Women's Screening Committee International Screening Committee Veterans Screening Committee, with "Veterans" defined as individuals whose careers ended at least 35 years before they are considered for election. Since 2011, the Veterans and International Committees vote to directly induct one candidate for each induction class. Three committees were formed in 2011 to directly elect one candidate for each induction class: American Basketball Association Committee - This committee was permanently disbanded in 2015 because it had fulfilled its purpose over the previous five years. Contributor Direct Election Committee Other committees may choose to elect contributors. For example, the 2014 class included two contributors. Early African-American Pioneers of the Game CommitteeIndividuals who receive at least seven votes from the North American Screening Committee or five votes from one of the other screening committees in a given year are eligible to advance to an Honors Committee, composed of 12 members plus rotating groups of 12 specialists (one group for
The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be ethnic, historical, or cultural; the heritage of the French people is of Celtic and Germanic origin, descending from the ancient and medieval populations of Gauls, Ligures, Iberians, Franks and Norsemen. France has long been a patchwork of local customs and regional differences, while most French people still speak the French language as their mother tongue, languages like Norman, Catalan, Corsican, French Flemish, Lorraine Franconian and Breton remain spoken in their respective regions. Arabic is widely spoken, arguably the largest minority language in France as of the 21st century. Modern French society is a melting pot. From the middle of the 19th century, it experienced a high rate of inward migration consisting of Arab-Berbers, Sub-Saharan Africans and other peoples from Africa, the Middle East and East Asia, the government, defining France as an inclusive nation with universal values, advocated assimilation through which immigrants were expected to adhere to French values and cultural norms.
Nowadays, while the government has let newcomers retain their distinctive cultures since the mid-1980s and requires from them a mere integration, French citizens still equate their nationality with citizenship as does French law. In addition to mainland France, French people and people of French descent can be found internationally, in overseas departments and territories of France such as the French West Indies, in foreign countries with significant French-speaking population groups or not, such as Switzerland, the United States, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of one's origin, race, or religion. According to its principles, France has devoted itself to the destiny of a proposition nation, a generic territory where people are bounded only by the French language and the assumed willingness to live together, as defined by Ernest Renan's "plébiscite de tous les jours" on the willingness to live together, in Renan's 1882 essay "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?").
The debate concerning the integration of this view with the principles underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France and succeeded in doing so. Indeed, the country has long valued its openness and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries; the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as an inclusive nation with universal values, France has always valued and advocated assimilation. However, the success of such assimilation has been called into question. There is increasing dissatisfaction with, within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves; the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration.
French people are the descendants of Gauls and Romans, western European Celtic and Italic peoples, as well as Bretons, Aquitanians and Germanic people arriving at the beginning of the Frankish Empire such as the Franks, the Visigoths, the Suebi, the Saxons, the Allemanni and the Burgundians, Germanic groups such as the Vikings, who settled in Normandy and to a lesser extent in Brittany in the 9th century. The name "France" etymologically derives from the territory of the Franks; the Franks were a Germanic tribe. In the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes, their ancestors were Celts who came from Central Europe in the 7th century BCE, non-Celtic peoples including the Ligures, Aquitanians in Aquitaine. Some in the northern and eastern areas, may have had Germanic admixture. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58–51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar. Over the next six centuries, the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture.
In the late Roman era, in addition to colonists from elsewhere in the Empire and Gaulish natives, Gallia became home to some in-migrating populations of Germanic and Scythian origin, such as Alans. The Gaulish language is thought to have survived into the 6th century in France, despite considerable Romanizat
Jeffrey Leon Bridges is an American actor and producer. He comes from a prominent acting family and appeared on the television series Sea Hunt, with his father, Lloyd Bridges and brother, Beau Bridges, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Otis "Bad" Blake in the 2009 film Crazy Heart, earned Academy Award nominations for his roles in The Last Picture Show and Lightfoot, The Contender, True Grit, Hell or High Water. His other films include Tron, Jagged Edge, The Fabulous Baker Boys, The Fisher King, The Big Lebowski, Iron Man, Tron: Legacy, The Giver. Jeffrey Leon Bridges was born on December 1949, in Los Angeles, California, he is actress and writer Dorothy Bridges. His older brother Beau Bridges is an actor, he has a younger sister Lucinda, had another brother named Garrett who died of sudden infant death syndrome in 1948. His maternal grandfather was an immigrant from Liverpool in England. Bridges and his siblings were raised in the Holmby Hills section of Los Angeles, he shared a close relationship with his brother Beau, who acted as a surrogate father when their father was working.
He graduated from University High School in 1967. At age 17, he toured with his father in a stage production of Anniversary Waltz moved to New York City where he studied acting at the Herbert Berghof Studio, he served seven years in the United States Coast Guard Reserve. Bridges made his first screen appearance at the age of two years in The Company She Keeps in 1951. In his youth and brother Beau made occasional appearances on their father's show Sea Hunt and the CBS anthology series, The Lloyd Bridges Show. In 1969, he played Cal Baker, a Jobs Corps crew member, in the TV series Lassie episode "Success Story". In 1971, he played the lead role Mike in the TV movie In Search of America, his first major role came in the 1971 film The Last Picture Show, for which he garnered a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He co-starred in the 1972 critically acclaimed neo-noir boxing film Fat City, directed by John Huston. In 1973 he starred as Junior Jackson in the film The Last American Hero based on the true story of NASCAR driver Junior Johnson.
He was nominated again for Best Supporting Actor for his performance opposite Clint Eastwood in the 1974 film Thunderbolt and Lightfoot. In 1976, he starred as the protagonist Jack Prescott in the first remake of King Kong, opposite Jessica Lange; this film was a commercial success, earning $90 million worldwide, more than triple its $23 million budget, winning an Academy Award for special effects. One of his better-known roles was in the 1982 science fiction film Tron, in which he played Kevin Flynn, a video game programmer; the same year, he starred in Kiss Me Goodbye, an American romantic comedy film directed by Robert Mulligan that starred Sally Field. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for playing the alien in Starman, he was acclaimed for his roles in the thriller Against All Odds and the crime drama Jagged Edge. His role in Fearless is thought by some critics to be one of his best performances. One critic dubbed it a masterpiece. In 1994, he starred as Lt. Jimmy Dove in the action film Blown Away, opposite Tommy Lee Jones and Forest Whitaker.
His real life father Lloyd Bridges featured in the film, playing the uncle of Bridges' character. The film managed to recoup $30 million of its $50 million budget at the box office, it was up against another explosive-themed film, released a few weeks before Bridges' film. On July 11, 1994, Bridges received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the motion picture industry; the star is located at 7065 Hollywood Boulevard. In 1998, he starred as what is arguably his most famous role, The Dude, in the Coen brothers' film The Big Lebowski. In 2000, he received his fourth Academy Award nomination, for his role in The Contender, he starred in the 2005 Terry Gilliam film Tideland, his second with the director. He shaved his trademark mane of hair to play the role of Obadiah Stane in the 2008 Marvel comic book adaptation Iron Man. In July 2008, at the San Diego Comic-Con International, he appeared in a teaser for Tron: Legacy, shot as concept footage for director Joseph Kosinski.
Bridges is one of the youngest actors to be nominated for an Academy Award, one of the oldest to win. Crazy Heart won him the Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Drama, the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role. Bridges received his sixth Academy Award nomination for his role in True Grit, a collaboration with the Coen brothers in which he starred alongside Matt Damon, Josh Brolin, Barry Pepper, Hailee Steinfeld. Both the film and Bridges' performance as Rooster Cogburn, were critically praised. Bridges lost to Colin Firth, whom he had beaten for the Oscar in the same category the previous year. In 2016, Bridges appeared in the film Hell or High Water, for which he received his seventh Academy Award nomination. Referring to his career as an actor and his passion for music, Bridges says, "I d
Egyptians are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic. Egyptian identity is tied to geography; the population of Egypt is concentrated in the lower Nile Valley, the small strip of cultivable land stretching from the First Cataract to the Mediterranean and enclosed by desert both to the east and to the west. This unique geography has been the basis of the development of Egyptian society since antiquity; the daily language of the Egyptians is the local variety of Arabic, known as Egyptian Arabic or Masri. Additionally, a sizable minority of Egyptians living in Upper Egypt speak Sa'idi Arabic. Egyptians are predominantly adherents of Sunni Islam with a Shia minority and a significant proportion who follow native Sufi orders. A considerable percentage of Egyptians are Coptic Christians who belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, whose liturgical language, Coptic, is the most recent stage of the ancient Egyptian language and is still used in prayers along with Egyptian Arabic.
Egyptians receive or have received several names: Egyptians, from Greek Αἰγύπτιοι, from Αἴγυπτος, Aiguptos "Egypt". The Greek name is derived from Late Egyptian Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hat-ka-Ptah, meaning "home of the ka of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo provided a folk etymology according to which Αἴγυπτος had evolved as a compound from Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως Aegaeou huptiōs, meaning "below the Aegean". In English, the noun "Egyptians" appears in the 14th century, in Wycliff's Bible, as Egipcions. Copts a derivative of the Greek word Αἰγύπτιος, that appeared under Muslim rule that overtooked the Roman rule in Egypt, to refer to the Egyptian locals and to separate them from the Arabs rulers. Coptic was the language of the state and people but got replaced by Arabic after the Muslim conquest, Islam became the dominant religion centuries after the Muslim conquest in Egypt due to centuries of conversion from Christianity to Islam due to the higher rate of tax on Christians despite a tax all Egyptians had to pay, the modern term became associated with Egyptian Christianity and Coptic Christians who are members of the Coptic Orthodox Church or Coptic Catholic Church, though references to native Muslims as Copts are attested until the Mamluk period.
Masryeen, the modern Egyptian name, which comes from the ancient Semitic name for Egypt and connoted "civilization" or "metropolis". Classical Arabic Miṣr is directly cognate with the Biblical Hebrew Mitsráyīm, meaning "the two straits", a reference to the predynastic separation of Upper and Lower Egypt. Edward William Lane writing in the 1820s, said that Egyptians called themselves El-Maṣreyyīn'the Egyptians', Ewlad Maṣr'the Children of Egypt' and Ahl Maṣr'the People of Egypt', he added that the Turks "stigmatized" the Egyptians with the name Ahl-Far'ūn or the'People of the Pharaoh'. / rmṯ n Km.t, the native Egyptian name of the people of the Nile Valley, literally'People of Kemet'. In antiquity, it was shortened to Rmṯ or "the people"; the name is vocalized as rem/en/kī/mi ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ in the Coptic stage of the language, meaning "Egyptian". There are an estimated 92.1 million Egyptians. Most are native to Egypt. 84–90% of the population of Egypt are Muslim adherents and 10–15% are Christian adherents according to estimates.
The majority live near the banks of the Nile River. Close to half of the Egyptian people today are urban. A large influx of fellahin into urban cities, rapid urbanization of many rural areas since the early 20th century, have shifted the balance between the number of urban and rural citizens. Egyptians form smaller minorities in neighboring countries, North America and Australia. Egyptians tend to be provincial, meaning their attachment extends not only to Egypt but to the specific provinces and villages from which they hail. Therefore, return migrants, such as temporary workers abroad, come back to their region of origin in Egypt. According to the International Organization for Migration, an estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad and contribute to the development of their country through remittances, circulation of human and social capital, as well as investment. 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries and the remaining 30% are living in Europe and North America. Their characteristic rootedness as Egyptians explained as the result of centuries as a farming people clinging to the banks of the Nile, is reflected in sights and atmosphere that are meaningful to all Egyptians.
Dominating the intangible pull of Egypt is the present Nile, more than a constant backdrop. Its varying colors and changing water levels signal the coming and going of the Nile flood that sets the rhythm of farming in a rainless country and holds the attention of all Egyptians. No Egyptian is far from his river and, except for t