Dustin Lee Hoffman is an American actor and director. Hoffman has been called one of the greatest actors of all time, he is known for his versatile portrayals of antiheroes and vulnerable characters. He is the recipient of various accolades including two Academy Awards, six Golden Globe Awards, four BAFTAs, three Drama Desk Awards and, two Emmy Awards. Hoffman received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1999 and the Kennedy Center Honors Award in 2012. Hoffman first drew critical praise for starring in the play, Eh?, for which he won a Theatre World Award and a Drama Desk Award. His breakthrough film role was as Benjamin Braddock in critically iconic The Graduate. Since that time, Hoffman's career has been focused on the cinema, with sporadic returns to television and to the stage. Hoffman's films include Midnight Cowboy, Little Big Man, Lenny, Marathon Man, All the President's Men, Kramer vs. Kramer, Rain Man and Wag the Dog, he made his directorial debut with Quartet. Hoffman was born on August 8, 1937, in Los Angeles, the second son of Lillian and Harry Hoffman.
His father worked as a prop supervisor at Columbia Pictures before becoming a furniture salesman. Hoffman was named after stage and silent screen actor Dustin Farnum, his elder brother, Ronald, is a economist. Hoffman is Jewish, from an Ashkenazi Jewish family of immigrants from Kiev, Russian Empire, Iași, Romania, his upbringing was nonreligious, he has said, "I don't have any memory of celebrating holidays growing up that were Jewish," and that he had "realized" he was Jewish at around the age of 10. Hoffman graduated from Los Angeles High School in 1955 and enrolled at Santa Monica College with the intention of studying medicine, he left after a year to join the Pasadena Playhouse, although when he told his family about his career goal, his Aunt Pearl warned him, "You can't be an actor. You are not good-looking enough." He took classes at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City. Hoffman hoped to become a classical pianist, having studied piano during much of his youth and in college. While at Santa Monica College, he took an acting class, which he assumed would be easy, "caught the acting bug."
He recalls: "I just was not gifted in music. I did not have an ear." Now an aspiring actor, he spent the next ten years doing odd jobs, being unemployed, struggling to get any available acting roles. He composed a song called "Shooting the Breeze," and Bette Midler wrote the words, his first acting role was at the Pasadena Playhouse, alongside future Academy Award–winner Gene Hackman. After two years there, Hackman headed with Hoffman soon following. Hoffman and Robert Duvall lived together in the 1960s, all three of them focused on finding acting jobs. Hackman remembers, "The idea that any of us would do well in films didn't occur to us. We just wanted to work." During this period, Hoffman got occasional television bit parts, including commercials but, needing income, he left acting to teach. In 1960 Hoffman was cast in a role in an off-Broadway production and followed with a walk-on role in a Broadway production in 1961. Hoffman studied at Actors Studio and became a dedicated method actor. Sidney W. Pink, a producer and 3D-movie pioneer, discovered him in one of his off-Broadway roles and cast him in Madigan's Millions.
Through the early and mid-1960s, Hoffman made appearances in television shows and movies, including Naked City, The Defenders and Hallmark Hall of Fame. His first critical success was in the play Eh?, by Henry Livings, which had its U. S. premiere at the Circle in the Square Downtown on October 16, 1966. Hoffman made his film debut in The Tiger Makes Out alongside Eli Wallach. In 1967 after wrapping up principal filming on The Tiger Makes Out, Hoffman flew from New York City to Fargo, North Dakota, where he directed productions of William Gibson's Two for the Seesaw and William Saroyan's The Time of Your Life for the Fargo-Moorhead Community Theatre; the $1,000 he received for the eight-week contract was all he had to hold him over until the funds from the movie materialized. In 1966 director Mike Nichols auditioned Hoffman for a lead role in the Broadway musical The Apple Tree but rejected him because he could not sing well enough and gave Alan Alda the part, but Nichols was so impressed with Hoffman's overall audition he cast him as the male lead in the movie The Graduate.
Hoffman played the character of Benjamin Braddock, who returns to his wealthy parents' home in California after graduating from college. Confused about what to do with his life, he is seduced into having an affair with Mrs. Robinson, an alcoholic and a neurotic, the wife of his father's law partner; this was Hoffman's first major role, he received an Academy Award nomination for it but lost to Rod Steiger in In the Heat of the Night. Although Life magazine joked that "if Dustin Hoffman's face were his fortune, he'd be committed to a life of poverty", The Graduate was a gigantic box-office hit for Embassy Pictures, making Hoffman a major new star at the same time; the film received near-unanimous good reviews. Time magazine called Hoffman "a symbol of youth" who represented "a new breed of actors." The film's screenwriter, Buck Henry, notes that Hoffman's character made conventional good looks no longer necessary on screen: A whole generation changed its idea of what guys should look like....
I think Dustin's physical being brought a sort of social and visual change, in the same way people first thought of Bogart. They called him ugly. Hoffman biographer Je
David Drew Pinsky known as Dr. Drew, is an American celebrity doctor, an internist, addiction medicine specialist, media personality, he hosted the nationally syndicated radio talk show Loveline from the show's inception in 1984 until its end in 2016. On television, he hosts the talk show Dr. Drew On Call on HLN, hosted the daytime series Lifechangers on The CW. In addition, he serves as producer and starred in the VH1 show Celebrity Rehab with Dr. Drew, its spinoffs Sex Rehab with Dr. Drew, Celebrity Rehab Presents Sober House and hosts podcasts on the Adam Carolla podcast network. Pinsky is a former medical director for the Department of Chemical Dependency Services at Las Encinas Hospital in Pasadena, staff member at Huntington Memorial Hospital, a private practitioner. Pinsky was born to a Jewish family in California, his father, Morton Pinsky, was a physician. His mother, Helene Stanton, was a singer and actress who came from a "highly Victorian upper-middle-class family in Philadelphia".
Pinsky attended Polytechnic School. He majored in biology at Amherst College, graduating in 1980, earned his M. D. at the University of Southern California School of Medicine in 1984. He served his residency in internal medicine at USC County Hospital and became chief resident at Huntington Memorial Hospital in Pasadena, moved into private practice; as The New York Times described it in February 2008, Pinsky's dual career in medicine and the mass media has required him to "navigat a precarious balance of professionalism and salaciousness." In 1984, while still a medical student, Pinsky started appearing in "Ask a Surgeon", a segment of a Sunday night KROQ-FM show hosted by Jim "Poorman" Trenton and "Swedish" Egil Aalvik. "Ask the Surgeon" soon combined with "Loveline", another Sunday night segment, into a show of its own, co-hosted by Trenton and Pinsky. Loveline went national in 1995, the television version launched on MTV the following year, hosted by Pinsky and Adam Carolla; the exposure on both radio and television made Pinsky the "Gen-X answer to Dr. Ruth Westheimer, with an AIDS-era, pro-safe-sex message."
The MTV show ran for four years, while the radio show continued until April 2016 with cohost Mike Catherwood. On November 27, 2007, Pinsky began Dr. Drew Live, another nationally syndicated talk radio show where he focused on a wider range of health issues, it originated from KGIL in Los Angeles airing weekdays from 11:00 am to 1:00 pm PT The show was canceled in December 2008. On January 5, 2015, Pinsky launched a new weekday program, "Dr. Drew Midday Live with Mike Catherwood," on KABC in Los Angeles. On April 21, 2016, Pinsky announced Loveline would wrap up on April 28, 2016. Adam Carolla re-joined him as co-host for the final show. Pinsky's first television appearance was as a contestant on Wheel of Fortune in 1984, though he did not win, he served as "health and human relations expert" on the first season of the U. S. TV series Big Brother in 2000, he has hosted several shorter educational television series, starting with Strictly Sex with Dr. Drew, which ran for 10 episodes on the Discovery Health Channel, followed by Strictly Dr. Drew which addressed everyday health issues.
He hosted the MTV series Sex...with Mom and Dad. In 2008, Pinsky starred in Celebrity Rehab with Dr. Drew, a reality television show which involves celebrities in a drug rehabilitation facility; the show was filmed with Pinsky serving as the resident medical expert. The series premiered January 10, 2008 on VH-1, has been renewed for multiple seasons. A follow-up show to Celebrity Rehab with many of the same celebrities was Sober House, which began its first season in January 2009, included celebrities from the first two seasons of Celebrity Rehab continuing their recovery in a sober living facility. In November 2009, Pinsky starred in a spinoff of Celebrity Rehab, Sex Rehab with Dr. Drew, which depicted celebrities being treated for sexual addiction over the course of three weeks at the Pasadena Recovery Center. Pinsky makes guest appearances on various news programs where he gives his observations on the relationship between controlled substances and high-profile individuals, he has given his views on the deaths of people such as Anna Nicole Smith, Heath Ledger and Michael Jackson, arguing that their fates should set examples of the seriousness of misusing drugs.
Pinsky has acted in several TV appearances, Space Ghost Coast to Coast, Dawson's Creek, Family Guy. The Adam Carolla Project, Robot Chicken, My Gym Partner's a Monkey, Code Monkeys. Pinsky appeared in the films New York Minute and Wild Hogs. In early 2011, Pinsky began hosting his own show, Dr. Drew On Call on HLN that focuses on news involving health and addiction topics. On August 26, 2016, HLN and Pinsky announced that the show's last episode would be September 22 of that year. In 1999, Pinsky co-founded an Internet-based community and advice site for teenagers called DrDrew.com with Curtis Giesen. Among their early backers was Garage.com. DrDrew.com soon ran out of funding, the company was sold to Sherwood Partners Inc. a corporate restructuring firm, which sold the remnants to DrKoop.com in November 2000. Pinsky re-acquired the site circa 2013 and began using for general information about his books, radio and TV shows, as well as hosting his independent podcast, The Dr. Drew Podcast. In September 2012, Pinsky announced on The Adam Carolla Show that he will be doing a podcast on the Carolla Digital network.
In 2003, Pinsky authored Cracked: Putting Broken Lives Together Again, recounti
Steven Allan Spielberg is an American filmmaker. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the New Hollywood era and one of the most popular directors and producers in film history. Spielberg started in Hollywood directing television and several minor theatrical releases, he became a household name as the director of Jaws, critically and commercially successful and is considered the first summer blockbuster. His subsequent releases focused on science fiction and adventure films, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, the Indiana Jones series, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park are seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood escapist filmmaking. Spielberg transitioned into addressing serious issues in his work with The Color Purple, Empire of the Sun, Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan, he has adhered to this practice during the 21st century, with Munich, Bridge of Spies, The Post. He co-founded Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks Studios, where he has served as a producer for several successful films, including the Gremlins, Back to the Future, Men in Black, the Transformers series.
He transitioned into producing several games within the video-game industry. Spielberg is one of the American film industry's most critically successful filmmakers, with praise for his directing talent and versatility, he has won the Academy Award for Best Director twice; some of his movies are among the highest-grossing movies of all-time, while his total work makes him the highest-grossing film director in history. His net worth is estimated to be more than $3 billion. Spielberg was born on December 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, his mother, was a restaurateur and concert pianist, his father, Arnold Spielberg, was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. His family was Orthodox Jewish. Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Jewish Ukrainian immigrants who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s. In 1950, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey, when his father took a job with RCA. Three years the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times." Spielberg said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses, it was horrible." At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains. Throughout his early teens, after entering high school, Spielberg continued to make amateur 8 mm "adventure" films. In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera.
He said yes, I got an idea to do a Western. I got my merit badge; that was how it all started." At age 13, while living in Phoenix, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere... using a cast composed of other high school friends. That motivated him to make 15 more amateur 8 mm films; some of the films he cited as early influences that he grew up watching include the Godzilla kaiju film King of the Monsters, which he called "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was happening", as well as titles such as Captains Courageous and Lawrence of Arabia. In 1963, at age 16, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would inspire Close Encounters; the film was made for $500, most of which came from his father, was shown in a local cinema for one evening, which earned back its cost. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix for three years, his family next moved to Saratoga, where he graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965.
He attained the rank of Eagle Scout. His parents divorced while he was still in school, soon after he graduated Spielberg moved to Los Angeles, staying with his father, his long-term goal was to become a film director. His three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. In Los Angeles, he applied to the University of Southern California's film school, but was turned down because of his "C" grade average, he applied and was admitted to California State University, Long Beach, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. While still a student, he was offered a small unpaid intern job at Universal Studios with the editing department, he was given the opportunity to make a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm, Amblin', which he wrote and directed. Studio vice president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the film, which had won a number of awards, offered Spielberg a seven-year directing contract, it made him the youngest director to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio.
He subsequently dropped out of college to begin pro
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time, he was known for his unorthodox lifestyle, residing in a private amusement park he called Neverland Ranch, becoming the focus of tabloid scrutiny. Jackson's contributions to music and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades; the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, in the early 1980s, became a dominant figure in popular music, his music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool.
Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Bad was the first album to produce five US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, he continued to innovate throughout the 1990s with videos such as "Black or White" and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized complicated dance techniques such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artist of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide, his other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory rank among the world's best-selling. He won hundreds of awards, has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, is the only pop or rock artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, his other achievements include Guinness world records, 15 Grammy Awards, 26 American Music Awards, 13 number-one US singles. Jackson was the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.
In the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy due to his changing appearance and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation and was settled out of court for $25 million in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol and benzodiazepine given to him by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson's fans around the world expressed their grief, his public memorial service was broadcast live. In 2019, the documentary Leaving Neverland detailed renewed allegations of child sexual abuse and led to an international backlash against Jackson. Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958, he was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street.
His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson, played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, worked part-time at Sears. His father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U. S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income, his father's great-grandfather, July "Jack" Gale, was a Native American medicine man and US Army scout. Michael grew up with five brothers. A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth. Joe acknowledged that he whipped Michael, he recalled that Joe sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes. Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.
In an interview with Oprah Winfrey in 1993, Jackson said that his youth had been lonely and isolating. In 1964, Michael and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by their father which included Jackie and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. In 1965, Michael began sharing lead vocals with Jermaine, the group's name was changed to the Jackson 5; the following year, the group won a talent show. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest; the Jackson 5 performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, at local auditoriums a
Thomas Cruise is an American actor and producer. Known for his work in action films for which he performs risky stunts, he has received several accolades for more dramatic work, including three Golden Globe Awards and nominations for three Academy Awards. One of the best-paid actors in the world, his films have earned over $3.9 billion in North America, making him one of the highest-grossing actors of all time. Cruise began acting in the early 1980s and made his breakthrough with leading roles in the comedy Risky Business and the action drama Top Gun. Critical acclaim came with his roles in the dramas The Color of Money, Rain Man, Born on the Fourth of July. For portraying Ron Kovic in the latter, he won a Golden Globe Award and received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor; as a leading Hollywood star in the 1990s, Cruise starred in several commercially successful films, including the drama A Few Good Men, the thriller The Firm, the horror Interview with the Vampire, the romance Jerry Maguire, for which he won another Golden Globe and received his second Oscar nomination.
His performance as a motivational speaker in the 1999 drama Magnolia, earned him a third Golden Globe and a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. As an action star, Cruise has played Ethan Hunt in six films of the Mission: Impossible film series from 1996 to 2018, he continued to feature in several science fiction and action films, including Vanilla Sky, Minority Report, The Last Samurai, War of the Worlds and Day, Jack Reacher and Edge of Tomorrow. Cruise has been married three times, to actresses Mimi Rogers, Nicole Kidman, Katie Holmes, has three children, two of which were adopted during his marriage to Kidman and the other a biological daughter with Holmes. Cruise is an outspoken advocate for the Church of Scientology and its associated social programs, credits it with helping him overcome dyslexia. In the 2000s, he sparked controversy with his Church-affiliated criticisms of psychiatry and anti-depressant drugs, his efforts to promote Scientology as a religion in Europe, a leaked video interview of him promoting Scientology.
Cruise was born in Syracuse, New York, the son of Mary Lee, a special education teacher, Thomas Cruise Mapother III, an electrical engineer, both from Louisville, Kentucky. He has three sisters: Lee Anne and Cass, they are of English and Irish ancestry. One of Cruise's paternal 3x great-grandfathers, Patrick Russell Cruise, was born in north County Dublin in 1799, they settled in New York. They had a daughter, Mary Paulina Russell Cruise, whose son Thomas Cruise Mapother was Cruise's great-grandfather. A cousin, William Mapother, is an actor. Cruise grew up in near poverty, had a Catholic upbringing; the family was dominated by his abusive father, whom Cruise has described as "a merchant of chaos." Cruise has said that he was beaten by his father, whom he has called a "bully and coward." He stated, "He was the kind of person. It was a great lesson in my life—how he'd lull you in, make you feel safe and bang! For me, it was like,'There's something wrong with this guy. Don't trust him. Be careful around him.'"Cruise spent part of his childhood in Canada.
His family moved to Beacon Hill, Ottawa, in late 1971 so that Cruise's father could take a position as a defense consultant with the Canadian Armed Forces. There, Cruise attended the newly opened Robert Hopkins Public School for much of grade four and grade five. In grade four, Cruise first became involved under the tutelage of George Steinburg. Cruise and six other boys put on an improvised play to music called IT at the Carleton Elementary School drama festival. Drama organizer Val Wright, in the audience that night, reflected, "The movement and improvisation were excellent, it was a classic ensemble piece." Cruise enjoyed sports at the school and played floor hockey, though he was known more for his aggression than his talent. In sixth grade, Cruise went to Henry Munro Middle School in Ottawa, Canada. However, in the spring of that year, Cruise's mother left his father, taking Cruise and his sisters back to the United States, his father died of cancer in 1984. Cruise attended a Franciscan seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio, on a church scholarship and aspired to become a Catholic priest, before his interest in acting.
In his senior year, he played football for the varsity team as a linebacker, but he was cut from the squad after getting caught drinking beer before a game. In total, Cruise attended 15 schools in 14 years, including stints in at least two suburban New Jersey towns, including Glen Ridge. Cruise first appeared in a bit part in the 1981 film Endless Love, followed by a major supporting role as a crazed military academy student in Taps that year. In 1983, Cruise was part of the ensemble cast of The Outsiders; that same year he appeared in All the Right Moves and Risky Business, described as "A Generation X classic, a career-maker for Tom Cruise", which, along with 1986's Top Gun, cemented his status as a superstar. Cruise played the male lead in the Ridley Scott film Legend, released in 1985. Cruise followed up Top Gun with The Color of Money, which came out the same year, which paired him with Paul Newman. 1988 saw him star in Cocktail. That yea
James Francis Cameron is a Canadian filmmaker, environmentalist and philanthropist who lives in the United States. After working in special effects, he found major success after directing and writing the science fiction action film The Terminator, he became a popular Hollywood director and was hired to write and direct Aliens. He found further critical acclaim for his use of special effects in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. After his film True Lies, Cameron took on his biggest film at the time, which earned him Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director and Best Film Editing. After Titanic, Cameron began a project that took 10 years to make: his science-fiction epic Avatar, in particular a landmark for 3D technology, for which he received nominations for the same three Academy Awards. Despite Avatar being his only movie made to date in 3D, Cameron is the most successful 3D film-maker in terms of box-office revenue. In the time between making Titanic and Avatar, Cameron spent several years creating many documentary films and co-developed the digital 3D Fusion Camera System.
Described by a biographer as part scientist and part artist, Cameron has contributed to underwater filming and remote vehicle technologies. On March 26, 2012, Cameron reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean, in the Deepsea Challenger submersible, he is the first person to do this in a solo descent, is only the third person to do so ever. In 2010, Time magazine listed Cameron among the 100 most influential people in the world. In total, Cameron's directorial efforts have grossed US$2 billion in North America and US$6 billion worldwide. Not adjusted for inflation, Cameron's Titanic and Avatar are the two highest-grossing films of all time at $2.19 billion and $2.78 billion respectively. Cameron holds the distinction of having directed the first two of the four films in history to gross over $2 billion worldwide. In March 2011, he was named Hollywood's top earner by Vanity Fair, with estimated 2010 earnings of $257 million. In October 2013, a new species of frog Pristimantis jamescameroni from Venezuela was named after him in recognition of his efforts in environmental awareness, in addition to his public promotion of veganism.
Cameron was born in 1954 in Kapuskasing, Canada, the son of Shirley, an artist and nurse, Phillip Cameron, an electrical engineer. His paternal great-great-great-grandfather emigrated from Balquhidder, Scotland, in 1825. Cameron grew up in Chippawa and attended Stamford Collegiate School in Niagara Falls, Ontario, his family moved to California in 1971, when Cameron was 17 years old. He dropped out of Sonora High School attended Brea Olinda High School to further his secondary education. Cameron enrolled at a two-year community college, in 1973 to study physics, he switched to English dropped out before the start of the fall 1974 semester. Next, he worked several jobs, including as a truck driver, writing. During this period he taught himself about special effects: "I'd go down to the USC library and pull any thesis that graduate students had written about optical printing, or front screen projection, or dye transfers, anything that related to film technology; that way I could sit down and read it, if they'd let me photocopy it, I would.
If not, I'd make notes."Cameron quit his job as a truck driver to enter the film industry after seeing Star Wars in 1977. When Cameron read Syd Field's book Screenplay, it occurred to him that integrating science and art was possible, he wrote a 10-minute science-fiction script with two friends, titled Xenogenesis, they raised money, rented camera, film stock and studio shot it in 35 mm. They dismantled the camera to understand how to operate it and spent the first half-day of the shoot trying to figure out how to get it running, he was the director, writer and production designer for Xenogenesis. He became an uncredited production assistant on Rock and Roll High School in 1979. While continuing to educate himself in filmmaking techniques, Cameron started working as a miniature model maker at Roger Corman Studios. Making produced, low-budget productions taught Cameron to work efficiently, he soon found employment as an art director in the sci-fi movie Battle Beyond the Stars. He did special effects work design and direction on John Carpenter's Escape from New York, acted as production designer on Galaxy of Terror, consulted on the design of Android.
Cameron was hired as the special effects director for the sequel to Piranha, entitled Piranha II: The Spawning in 1982. The original director, Miller Drake, left the project due to creative differences with producer Ovidio Assonitis, who gave Cameron his first job as director; the interior scenes were filmed in Rome, while the underwater sequences were shot at Grand Cayman Island. The movie was to be produced in Jamaica. On location, production slowed due to adverse weather. James Cameron was fired after failing to get a close up of Carole Davis in her opening scene. Ovidio ordered Cameron to do the close-up the next day. Cameron spent the entire day sailing around the resort, reproducing the lighting but still failed to get the close-up. After he was fired, Ovidio invited Cameron to assist in the shooting. Once in Rome, Ovidio took over the editing. During his illness, Camer
The New York Times International Edition
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories. Founded under the title Paris Herald in 1887 in Paris as the European edition of the New York Herald, it changed owners and was renamed several times: it became the Paris Herald Tribune, global edition of the New York Herald Tribune in 1924 the International Herald Tribune in 1967, with The Washington Post and The New York Times as joint parent newspapers. In 2002, The New York Times Company took control of the International Herald Tribune, subtitled since The Global Edition of the New York Times. On October 15, 2013, the paper was renamed The International New York Times, in October 2016, it was integrated with its parent and renamed The New York Times International Edition. Autumn that year saw the closing of editing and preproduction operations in the Paris newsroom, where the paper, under its various names, had been headquartered since 1887.
The Paris Herald was founded on 4 October 1887, as the European edition of the New York Herald by the parent paper’s owner, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. The company was based in Neuilly-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, France. After the death of Bennett in 1918, Frank Andrew Munsey bought the New York Herald and the Paris Herald. Munsey sold the Herald newspapers in 1924 to the New York Tribune, the Paris Herald became the Paris Herald Tribune, while the New York paper became New York Herald Tribune; the newspaper became a mainstay of American expatriate culture in Europe. In Ernest Hemingway’s 1926 novel, The Sun Also Rises, the first thing the novel’s protagonist Jake Barnes does on returning from Spain to France is to buy the New York Herald from a kiosk in Bayonne and read it at a cafe. In Jean-Luc Godard’s 1960 film Breathless, the female lead character Patricia is an American student journalist who sells the New York Herald Tribune on the streets of Paris. Pages from the day’s paper can be seen tacked up through the office windows, a tradition, to continue with the International Herald Tribune.
In 1959 John Hay Whitney, a businessman and United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom, bought the New York Herald Tribune and its European edition. In 1966 the New York Herald Tribune was merged into the short-lived New York World Journal Tribune and ceased publication, but the Whitney family kept the Paris paper going through partnerships. In December 1966 The Washington Post became a joint owner; the New York Times became a joint owner of the Paris Herald Tribune in May 1967, whereupon the newspaper became known as the International Herald Tribune. In 1974, the IHT began transmitting facsimile pages of the paper between nations and opened a printing site near London. In 1977 the paper opened a second site in Zürich; the IHT began transmitting electronic images of newspaper pages from Paris to Hong Kong via satellite in 1980, making the paper available on opposite sides of the planet. This was the first such intercontinental transmission of an English-language daily newspaper and followed the pioneering efforts of the Chinese-language newspaper Sing Tao Daily.
In 1991, The Washington Post and The New York Times became sole and equal shareholders of the IHT. In February 2005 it opened its Asia newsroom in Hong Kong. In April 2001, the Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun tied up with the IHT and published an English-language newspaper, the International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun. After The Washington Post sold their stake in the IHT, it continued being published under the name International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun, but it was discontinued on February 2011. On 30 December 2002 The New York Times Company took control of the paper by buying the 50% stake owned by The Washington Post Company; the takeover ended a 35-year partnership between the two US domestic competitors. The Post was forced to sell when the Times threatened to pull out and start a competing paper; as a result, the Post entered into an agreement to publish selected Post articles in The Wall Street Journal’s European edition. After the takeover the IHT was subtitled The Global Edition of the New York Times instead of Published by The New York Times and The Washington Post.
In 2008, the NYT Company announced the merger of the New York Times and IHT websites. In March 2009 the IHT website became the global version of NYTimes.com. In 2013, the New York Times Company announced that the newspaper itself would be renamed The International New York Times to reflect the company’s focus on its core New York Times newspaper and to build its international presence. On 14 October 2013 the International Herald Tribune appeared on newsstands for the last time, it came with a supplemental section, titled Turning the Page, a retrospective on the Herald Tribune’s past articles and place in newspaper history. On October 15, 2013, the International New York Times debuted with a ‘Premier Edition’ flash above the masthead, it came with a supplement titled Turning the Page II, which discussed and predicted developments in many global areas including energy, finance and media. In October 2016, the newspaper was integrated with its parent and renamed The New York Times International Edition.
While the International Edition shares many columnists with The New York Times, it has its own voice in the field of culture. Well-known commentators include Alice Rawsthorn on design and Souren Melikian on art. Besides the daily edition, a weekly 16-page edition is published as The New York Times International Weekly featuring the best of New York Times articles for a week. Designed to complement and extend local reporting, it offers readers globally resonant coverage of ideas and trends, business