American Association for the Advancement of Science
The American Association for the Advancement of Science is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members, is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science, which had a weekly circulation of 138,549 in 2008; the American Association for the Advancement of Science was created on September 20, 1848 at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was a reformation of the Association of American Naturalists; the society chose William Charles Redfield as their first president because he had proposed the most comprehensive plans for the organization. According to the first constitution, agreed to at the September 20 meeting, the goal of the society was to promote scientific dialogue in order to allow for greater scientific collaboration.
By doing so the association aimed to use resources to conduct science with increased efficiency and allow for scientific progress at a greater rate. The association sought to increase the resources available to the scientific community through active advocacy of science. There were only 78 members; as a member of the new scientific body, Matthew Fontaine Maury, USN was one of those who attended the first 1848 meeting. At a meeting held on Friday afternoon, September 22, 1848, Redfield presided, Matthew Fontaine Maury gave a full scientific report on his Wind and Current Charts. Maury stated that hundreds of ship navigators were now sending abstract logs of their voyages to the United States Naval Observatory, he added, "Never before was such a corps of observers known." But, he pointed out to his fellow scientists, his critical need was for more "simultaneous observations." "The work," Maury stated, "is not for the benefit of any nation or age." The minutes of the AAAS meeting reveal that because of the universality of this "view on the subject, it was suggested whether the states of Christendom might not be induced to cooperate with their Navies in the undertaking.
William Barton Rogers, professor at the University of Virginia and founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offered a resolution: "Resolved that a Committee of five be appointed to address a memorial to the Secretary of the Navy, requesting his further aid in procuring for Matthew Maury the use of the observations of European and other foreign navigators, for the extension and perfecting of his charts of winds and currents." The resolution was adopted and, in addition to Rogers, the following members of the association were appointed to the committee: Professor Joseph Henry of Washington. This was scientific cooperation, Maury went back to Washington with great hopes for the future. By 1860, membership increased to over 2,000; the AAAS became dormant during the American Civil War. The AAAS did not become a permanent casualty of the war. In 1866, Frederick Barnard presided over the first meeting of the resurrected AAAS at a meeting in New York City. Following the revival of the AAAS, the group had considerable growth.
The AAAS permitted all people, regardless of scientific credentials. The AAAS did, institute a policy of granting the title of "Fellow of the AAAS" to well-respected scientists within the organization; the years of peace brought the expansion of other scientific-oriented groups. The AAAS's focus on the unification of many fields of science under a single organization was in contrast to the many new science organizations founded to promote a single discipline. For example, the American Chemical Society, founded in 1876, promotes chemistry. In 1863, the US Congress established the National Academy of Sciences, another multidisciplinary sciences organization, it elects members based on the value of published works. Alan I. Leshner, AAAS CEO from 2001 until 2015, published many op-ed articles discussing how many people integrate science and religion in their lives, he has opposed the insertion of non-scientific content, such as creationism or intelligent design, into the scientific curriculum of schools.
In December 2006, the AAAS adopted an official statement on climate change, in which they stated, "The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human activities is occurring now, it is a growing threat to society.... The pace of change and the evidence of harm have increased markedly over the last five years; the time to control greenhouse gas emissions is now."In February 2007, the AAAS used satellite images to document human rights abuses in Burma. The next year, AAAS launched the Center for Science Diplomacy to advance both science and the broader relationships among partner countries, by promoting science diplomacy and international scientific cooperation. In 2012, AAAS published op-eds, held events on Capitol Hill and released analyses of the U. S. federal research-and-development budget, to warn that a budget sequestration would have severe consequences for scientific progress. AAAS covers various areas of sciences and engineering, it has twelve sections, each with a committee and its ch
Myrmecology is a branch of entomology focusing on the scientific study of ants. Some early myrmecologists considered ant society as the ideal form of society and sought to find solutions to human problems by studying them. Ants continue to be a model of choice for the study of questions on the evolution of social systems because of their complex and varied forms of eusociality, their diversity and prominence in ecosystems has made them important components in the study of biodiversity and conservation. Ant colonies are studied and modeled for their relevance in machine learning, complex interactive networks, stochasticity of encounter and interaction networks, parallel computing, other computing fields; the word myrmecology was coined by William Morton Wheeler, although human interest in the life of ants goes back further, with numerous ancient folk references. The earliest scientific thinking based on observation of ant life was that of Auguste Forel, a Swiss psychologist, interested in ideas of instinct and society.
In 1874 he wrote a book on the ants of Switzerland, Les fourmis de la Suisse, he named his home La Fourmilière. Forel's early studies included attempts to mix species of ants in a colony, he compared them with the structure of nations. Wheeler looked at ants in a new light, in terms of their social organization, in 1910 he delivered a lecture at Woods Hole on “The Ant-Colony as an Organism,” which pioneered the idea of superorganisms. Wheeler considered the sharing of food within the colony as the core of ant society; this was studied observing how it spread in the colony. Some, such as Horace Donisthorpe, worked on the systematics of ants; this tradition continued in many parts of the world until advances in other aspects of biology were made. The advent of genetics, ideas in ethology and its evolution led to new thought; this line of enquiry was pioneered by E. O. Wilson. Ants are studied by engineers for biomimicry and by network engineers for more efficient networking, it is not known how ants manage to avoid congestions and how they optimize their movements to move in most efficient ways without a central authority that would send out orders.
There have been many applications in structure design and networking that have been developed from studying ants, but the efficiency of human-created systems is still not close to the efficiency of ant colonies. The black and white 1954 Warner Bros. movie Them! Describes the visiting expert Dr. Harold Medford from the Department of Agriculture in Washington DC as a myrmecologist. Note: Names are listed alphabetically. Ernest André, French entomologist Thomas Borgmeier, German-Brazilian theologian and entomologist William L. Brown, Jr. American entomologist Giovanni Cobelli, Italian entomologist, director of the Rovereto museum Arthur Charles Cole, Jr. American entomologist Walter Cecil Crawley, British entomologist William Steel Creighton, American entomologist Horace Donisthorpe, British myrmecologist, named several new species Carlo Emery, Italian entomologist Johan Christian Fabricius, Danish entomologist, student of Linnaeus Auguste-Henri Forel, Swiss myrmecologist, studied brain structure of humans and ants Émil August Goeldi, Swiss-Brazilian naturalist and zoologist William Gould, described by Horace Donisthorpe as "the father of British myrmecology" Robert Edmond Gregg, American entomologist Thomas Caverhill Jerdon, British physician and botanist Walter Wolfgang Kempf, Brazilian myrmecologist Heinrich Kutter, Swiss myrmecologist Nicolas Kusnezov as Nikolaj Nikolajevich Kuznetsov-Ugamsky Pierre André Latreille French entomologist Sir John Lubbock, wrote on hymenoptera sense organs William T. Mann, American entomologist Gustav Mayr, Austrian entomologist and professor in Pest and Vienna, specialised in Hymenoptera Carlo Menozzi as Carlo Minozzi, Italian entomologist William Nylander, Finnish botanist, micologist and myrmecologist Basil Derek Wragge-Morley, research included genetics, social behaviour of animals, the behaviour of agricultural pests Fergus O'Rourke, Irish zoologist Julius Roger, German physician and folklorist Felix Santschi, Swiss entomologist Theodore Christian Schneirla, American animal psychologist Frederick Smith, worked in the zoology department of the British Museum from 1849, specialising in the Hymenoptera Roy R. Snelling, American entomologist credited with many important finds of rare or new ant species Erich Wasmann, Austrian entomologist Neal Albert Weber, American myrmecologist John Obadiah Westwood, English entomologist and archaeologist noted for his artistic talents William Morton Wheeler, curator of invertebrate zoology in the American Museum of Natural History, described many new species Donat Agosti, Swiss entomologist Cesare Baroni Urbani, Swiss ant taxonomist Murray S. Blum, American chemical ecologist, an expert on pheromones Barry Bolton, English ant taxonomist Alfred Buschinger, German myrmecologist Henri Cagniant, French myrmecologist John S. Clark, Scottish myrmecologist Cedric Alex Collingwood, British entomologist
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, is adapted structurally to this way of life. The entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one". Parasites include protozoans such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery. There are six major parasitic strategies of exploitation of animal hosts, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism, trophically transmitted parasitism, vector-transmitted parasitism and micropredation. Like predation, parasitism is a type of consumer-resource interaction, but unlike predators, with the exception of parasitoids, are much smaller than their hosts, do not kill them, live in or on their hosts for an extended period. Parasites of animals are specialised, reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples include interactions between vertebrate hosts and tapeworms, the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, fleas.
Parasites reduce host fitness by general or specialised pathology, from parasitic castration to modification of host behaviour. Parasites increase their own fitness by exploiting hosts for resources necessary for their survival, in particular by feeding on them and by using intermediate hosts to assist in their transmission from one definitive host to another. Although parasitism is unambiguous, it is part of a spectrum of interactions between species, grading via parasitoidism into predation, through evolution into mutualism, in some fungi, shading into being saprophytic. People have known about parasites such as roundworms and tapeworms since ancient Egypt and Rome. In Early Modern times, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed Giardia lamblia in his microscope in 1681, while Francesco Redi described internal and external parasites including sheep liver fluke and ticks. Modern parasitology developed in the 19th century. In human culture, parasitism has negative connotations; these were exploited to satirical effect in Jonathan Swift's 1733 poem "On Poetry: A Rhapsody", comparing poets to hyperparasitical "vermin".
In fiction, Bram Stoker's 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula and its many adaptations featured a blood-drinking parasite. Ridley Scott's 1979 film Alien was one of many works of science fiction to feature a terrifying parasitic alien species. First used in English in 1539, the word parasite comes from the Medieval French parasite, from the Latin parasitus, the latinisation of the Greek παράσιτος, "one who eats at the table of another" and that from παρά, "beside, by" + σῖτος, "wheat", hence "food"; the related term parasitism appears in English from 1611. Parasitism is a kind of symbiosis, a close and persistent long-term biological interaction between a parasite and its host. Unlike commensalism and mutualism, the parasitic relationship harms the host, either feeding on it or, as in the case of intestinal parasites, consuming some of its food; because parasites interact with other species, they can act as vectors of pathogens, causing disease. Predation is by definition not a symbiosis, as the interaction is brief, but the entomologist E. O. Wilson has characterised parasites as "predators that eat prey in units of less than one".
Within that scope are many possible strategies. Taxonomists classify parasites in a variety of overlapping schemes, based on their interactions with their hosts and on their life-cycles, which are sometimes complex. An obligate parasite depends on the host to complete its life cycle, while a facultative parasite does not. Parasite life-cycles involving only one host are called "direct". An endoparasite lives inside the host's body. Mesoparasites - like some copepods, for example - enter an opening in the host's body and remain embedded there; some parasites can be generalists, feeding on a wide range of hosts, but many parasites, the majority of protozoans and helminths that parasitise animals, are specialists and host-specific. An early basic, functional division of parasites distinguished macroparasites; these each had a mathematical model assigned in order to analyse the population movements of the host–parasite groupings. The microorganisms and viruses that can reproduce and complete their life cycle within the host are known as microparasites.
Macroparasites are the multicellular organisms that reproduce and complete their life cycle outside of the host or on the host's body. Much of the thinking on types of parasitism has focussed on terrestrial animal parasites of animals, such as helminths; those in other environments and with other hosts have analogous strategies. For example, the snubnosed eel is a facultative endoparasite that opportunistically burrows into and eats sick and dying fish. Plant-eating insects such as scale insects and caterpillars resemble ectoparasites, attacking much larger plants; as female scale-insects cannot move, they are obligate parasites, permanently attached to their hosts. There are six major parasitic strategies, namely parasitic castration, directly transmitted parasitism, trophically transmitted parasitism, vector-transmitted parasitism, parasitoid
Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
The Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art was first established on 28 November 1853 by King Maximilian II von Bayern. It is awarded to acknowledge and reward excellent and outstanding achievements in the field of science and art. From 1933 onwards the order was no longer awarded, until 1980 when it was reinstated by the Minister-President of the Free State of Bavaria Franz Josef Strauß. Munich jewellers Hemmerle have been responsible for making the medal since 1905. In continuation of a Bavarian tradition, the Bavarian Maximialian Order for Science and Art was created, it is awarded to reward outstanding achievements in the field of art. The Maximilian Order is preferably awarded to German artists, it is not restricted to citizens of Bavaria. The order was instituted in two sections; the order is restricted to 100 living members. The Minister-President, the minister of state for their respective portfolio, the two sections of the order are eligible to nominate new members; these proposals are evaluated by an advisory committee.
It gives its recommendation to the Minister-President for the final decision. The advisory committee consists of: the President of the Landtag of Bavaria, the member of the government, deputy of the Minister-President, the State Minister of Sciences and the Arts, the President of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the President of the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts, the President of one of the Bavarian Art Colleges, the President of one of the Bavarian Universities and a representative of the applied sciences, named by the Minister-President. All members of the advisory committee are selected for a period of five years; the committee decides with the majority of its members. From 1980 to 2018 the order has been awarded to 222 recipients; the number of living members of the order cannot exceed 100. As of December 2018 there are 95 living members of the order. From 1853 to 1932 the order has been issued 351 times. Schreiber, Georg. Die Bayerischen Orden und Ehrenzeichen. Munich: Prestel-Verlag.
Körner, Hans. "Der Bayerische Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst und seine Mitglieder". Zeitschrift für Bayerische Landesgeschichte. 47: 299–398. Retrieved 24 July 2012.. 2. Kommission für bayerische Landesgeschichte bei der Akademie der Wissenschaften. 2001. ISBN 3-7696-9700-6. "Gesetz über den Bayerischen Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst". Bayerische Staatsregierung. München. 18 March 1980. Retrieved 25 February 2018. Official website www.ordenmuseum.de: Der Bayerische Verdienstorden und Bayerischen Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst
Chemical ecology examines the role of chemical interactions between living organisms and their environment, the consequences of those interactions on the ethology and evolution of the organisms involved. It is thus a vast and interdisciplinary field. Chemical ecology studies focus on the biochemistry of ecology and the specific molecules or groups of molecules that function as signals to initiate, modulate, or terminate a variety of biological processes such as metabolism. Molecules that serve in such roles are diffusible organic substances of low molecular mass that derive from secondary metabolic pathways, but include peptides. Chemical ecological processes mediated by semiochemicals may be interspecific; the field relies on analytical and synthetic chemistry, protein chemistry, neurobiology and evolution. Chemical ecology in plants is the study that integrates the chemistry and biological properties of the plants and their interaction with the environment and their antagonists. Chemical ecology in plants involves plants fighting herbivory by producing various phytochemical compounds.
These compounds can be produced by the plants themselves, or as a part of various symbiotic relationships fungi and bacteria. The surface of the primary aerial parts of terrestrial plants is covered by a thin waxy structure known as the cuticle; the cuticle has crucial autecological functions and plays an important role as an interface in trophic interactions. The cuticle is composed of the cuticular layer and the cuticle proper, covered by epicuticular waxes. Whereas the cutin fraction is a polyester-type biopolymer composed of hydroxyl and hydroxy epoxy fatty acids, the cuticular waxes are a complex mixture of long-chain aliphatic and cyclic compounds; these lipophilic compounds determine the hydrophobic quality of the plant surface and together with the microstructure of the waxes, vary in a species-specific manner. The physiochemical characteristics contribute to certain optical features, limit transpiration and influence adhesion of particles and organisms, as a result prevents it from undergoing wilting.
Apart from that the cuticle acts like a skin for plants which prevents any mechanical damage to them from the external sources which either living organisms or any other abiotic component. In many cases, the chemical ecology of plants involves mutualistic interactions with other organisms. One of these involves interactions with fungi, in particular, mycorrhizae- where fungi form a sheath on the outside of the roots, or penetrate the roots growing between root cells, pushing through cell walls of individual root cells. In this relationship, fungi produce chemicals that decompose organic matter in the soil around the root, absorb the inorganic nutrients released by this decomposition thanks to much larger surface area of the fungi threads, compared to the absorbing surface of the root, pass some of the water and nutrient the plant, thus enhancing the ability of the plant roots to extract nutrients and water from the soil; the fungi may provide a chemical protection against harmful bacteria and fungi in the soil.
Plants interact with micro-organisms. For this to become possible the microbes have to establish an interface between them and the plant, by growing into the plant through its surface. To do so, the microbes need to break the protective hydrophobic waxy layer on the plant’s surface. To do this, the micro-organisms secrete special fluids. Most of the hormones in plants are concentrated on their tips; the auxin hormones are responsible for growth of plants and are stimulated by certain stimulus such as light. This phenomenon is called phototropism, the movement towards or away from a light source; this growth enables the plant to obtain essentials such as sunlight, necessary for the photosynthesis. Therefore, the cuticle is one of the fundamental parts of the plant due to its physical and chemical properties such as waxy and thin like structure that enables it to be adapted to various mechanism such as hydrophobicity, interactions with microorganisms and growth of plants; the chemical ecology of plant-insect interaction is a significant subfield of chemical ecology.
In particular and insects are involved in a chemical evolutionary arms race. As plants develop chemical defences to herbivory, insects which feed on them evolve immunity to these poisons, in some cases, re-purpose these poisons for their own chemical defence against predators. One of the more well-known examples of this is the monarch butterfly, the caterpillars of which feed on the milkweed plant. Milkweeds contain cardenolide toxins, but monarch butterfly caterpillars have evolved to remain unaffected by the toxin. Instead, they sequester the toxins during their larval stage and the poison remains in the adult, making it unpalatable to predators. Many other such examples of this exist, including Manduca sexta caterpillars which sequester nicotine found in the tobacco plant. Marine chemical ecology is how organic life in the marine environment use chemicals to eat, interact and survive, ranging from microscopic phytoplankton to the many species of crustaceans, sponges and fish; the use of chemicals are used a means of survival for marine organisms.
Some crustaceans and mesograzers, such as the Pseudamphithoides incurvaria, use particular algae and seaweeds as a means of deterrence
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft is a German research funding organization. The DFG supports research in science and the humanities through a variety of grant programmes, prizes and by funding infrastructure; the self-governed organization is based in Bonn and financed by the German states and the federal government. As of 2017, the organization consists of approx. 100 research universities and other research institutions. The DFG endows various research prizes, including the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize; the Polish-German science award Copernicus is offered jointly with the Foundation for Polish Science. According to a 2017 article in The Guardian, the DFG has announced to publish its research in free online journals. In 1937, the Notgemeinschaft der Wissenschaft was renamed the Deutsche Gemeinschaft zur Erhaltung und Förderung der Forschung, for short known as the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Before the election of the National Socialists to power in 1933, projects funded by the NG had worked diligently on Nazi-aligned research German ethnographic research in Eastern Europe that would lay the foundations for the Hitlerite "Lebensraum" and extermination policies.
By the end of World War II in Germany, in 1945, the DFG was no longer active. In 1949, after formation of the Federal Republic, it was re-founded as the NG and again from 1951 as the DFG; the legal status of the DFG is that of an association under private law. As such, the DFG can only act through its statutory bodies, in particular through its executive board and the General Assembly; the DFG is a member of the International Council for Science and has numerous counterparts around the globe such as the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Science Foundation and the Royal Society. The DFG has several representative offices in Asia, North America and Europe and maintains the Sino-German Center for Research Promotion, jointly founded by the DFG and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. On 9 June 2012, DFG launced a centre in Hyderabad; the German-based research foundation and India's Department of Science and Technology are together working on 40 bilateral research projects in science and engineering.
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft is a member of Science Europe. German National Library of Economics German National Library of Medicine German National Library of Science and Technology Greenpilot Virtual Library of Musicology Open access in Germany Heilbron, J. L; the Dilemmas of an Upright Man: Max Planck and the Fortunes of German Science ISBN 0-674-00439-6 Hentschel, Hentschel, Ann M. Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources ISBN 978-3034898652 Perspektiven der Forschung und Ihrer Förderung. 2007–2011. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Anne Cottebrune: Der planbare Mensch. Die DFG und die menschliche Vererbungswissenschaft, 1920–1970. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-515-09099-5. Notker Hammerstein: Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in der Weimarer Republik und im Dritten Reich. Wissenschaftspolitik in Republik und Diktatur 1920 – 1945. Beck, München 1999, ISBN 3-406-44826-7. Thomas Nipperdey, Ludwig Schmugge: 50 jahre forschungsförderung in deutschland: Ein Abriss der Geschichte der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft.
1920-1970. Bad Godesberg: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 1970 Official website DFG Science TV YouTube channel