Bertha Benz was a German automotive pioneer. She was the business wife of automobile inventor Karl Benz. On 5 August 1888, she was the first person to drive an automobile over a long distance, rigorously field testing the patent Motorwagen, inventing brake pads and solving several practical issues during the 65 miles trip. In doing so, she brought the Benz Patent-Motorwagen worldwide attention and got the company its first sales. Bertha Ringer was born in 1849 to a wealthy family in Pforzheim in the Grand Duchy of Baden. Two years before her marriage to Karl Benz, she used part of her dowry to invest in his failing iron construction company; as an unmarried woman, she was able to do so. On 20 July 1872, Bertha Ringer married Karl Benz; as he moved on to a new manufacturing venture, Benz & Cie, he continued to use her dowry as financial support. He finished his work on his first horseless carriage in December 1885. Bertha served as a field tester, contributing to the design of the Motorwagen by adding wire insulation and inventing leather brake pads to supplement the wooden brakes when they failed.
Moreover, she identified several key areas of opportunities – such as the fuel line design – that Karl improved. In addition to her contributions to the machine’s design, Bertha helped finance the development of the Motorwagen, she would hold patent rights under modern law, however as a married woman she was not allowed to be named as an inventor on the patent at that time. Together they had five children: Eugen, Clara and Ellen. In 1886, Benz presented the Patent-Motorwagen automobile to the world. Within the decade, 25 vehicles had been built. With cutting-edge bicycle constructions, the Model I was the original Patent Motor Car and the world's first automobile; the Model II was converted to a four-wheeler for test purposes, making it the only one of this model. The first Patent Motor Car sold in small production runs was the Model III, it had powered rear wheels with steerable front wheel. Various options from which to choose were provided for customers, such as seat arrangements and a folding top.
On 5 August 1888, 39-year-old Bertha Benz drove from Mannheim to Pforzheim with her sons Richard and Eugen and fifteen years old in a Model III, without telling her husband and without permission of the authorities, thus becoming the first person to drive an automobile a significant distance, though illegally. Before this historic trip, motorized drives were very short trials, returning to the point of origin, made with assistance of mechanics. Following wagon tracks, this pioneering tour covered a one-way distance of about 106 km. Although the ostensible purpose of the trip was to visit her mother, Bertha Benz had other motives — to prove to her husband, who had failed to adequately consider marketing his invention, that the automobile in which they both had invested would become a financial success once it was shown to be useful to the general public, she left Mannheim around dawn. Bertha demonstrated her significant technical capabilities on this journey. With no fuel tank and only a 4.5-litre supply of petrol in the carburetor, she had to find ligroin, the petroleum solvent needed for the car to run.
It was only available at apothecary shops, so she stopped in Wiesloch at the city pharmacy to purchase the fuel. At the time and other fuels could only be bought from chemists, so this is how the chemist in Wiesloch became the first fuel station in the world, she used her garter as insulation material. A blacksmith had to help mend a chain at one point; when the wooden brakes began to fail, Benz visited a cobbler to install leather, making the world's first pair of brake pads. An evaporative cooling system was employed to cool the engine, making water supply a big worry along the trip; the trio added water to their supply every time. The car's two gears were not enough to surmount uphill inclines and Eugen and Richard had to push the vehicle up steep roads. Benz reached Pforzheim somewhat after dusk, notifying her husband of her successful journey by telegram, she drove back to Mannheim several days later. The novel trip received a great deal of publicity; the drive was a key event in the technical development of the automobile.
The pioneering couple introduced several improvements after Bertha's experiences. She reported everything that had happened along the way and made important suggestions, such as the introduction of an additional gear for climbing hills and brake linings to improve brake-power, her trip proved to the burgeoning automotive industry that test drives were essential to their business. Benz died in her villa in Ladenburg, where the workshop of Karl Benz had been built after they had moved there in 1906 and he established a family-held business and Sons. In 1925 Karl Benz wrote the following in his memoirs: "Only one person remained with me in the small ship of life when it seemed destined to sink; that was my wife. Bravely and resolutely she set the new sails of hope." In 2008, the Bertha Benz Memorial Route was approved as a route of the industrial heritage of mankind, because it follows Bertha Benz's path during the world's first long-distance journey by automobile in 1888. Now it is possible to follow the 194 km of signs indicating her route from Mannheim via Heidelberg to Pforzheim and back
The Pico do Marumbi State Park is a State park in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The Pico do Marumbi State Park is in the municipality of Morretes, Paraná, it has an area of 8,745.45 hectares. It may be reached from Curitiba by a 2-hour ride on the centennial Curitiba-Paranaguá railroad, which has a station at the park. Entrance is free; the climate is tropical, with an annual average temperature of 25 °C. The region is rainy, with driest conditions from April to October; the park has well-preserved forests. It is part of the Lagamar Mosaic; the Pico do Marumbi State Park was created by state governor decree 7300 of 24 September 1990 with an area of 2,342.41 hectares. The Institute of Lands and Forests of the State of Paraná was to administer the park to promote preserving the waters and fauna. Two years were given for preparation of the management plan, to be integrated with the Marumbi Tourist Area. On 2 October 2007 Governor Roberto Requião signed a decree to expand the Pico do Marumbi State Park to 8,745 hectares.
He expanded the Cerrado State Park to 1,830.40 hectares and created the Vale do Codó and Palmas state parks. The governor said. In his first term of office he had created the Guartelá State Park by decree, the governor who succeeded him had reduced it by 90% through a decree; this would not have been possible. The park remained under the administration of the Environmental Institute of Paraná; the decree declared that land within the new boundaries were of public utility, would be expropriated with compensation. The Marumbi Massif is located inside the state park, a complex with eight peaks with varying degrees of difficulty; the massif is in the heart of the Serra do Mar of Paraná. The mountains can be challenging, it is best to employ an experienced guide. Olimpo is the highest, at 1,539 metres, was first climbed by Joaquim Olímpio de Miranda on 21 August 1879; the seven other peaks are Boa Vista at 1,500 metres, Gigante at 1,487 metres, Ponta do Tigre at 1,400 metres, Esfinge at 1,378 metres, Torre dos Sinos at 1,280 metres, Abrolhos at 1,200 metres and Facãozinho at 1,100 metres.
An easy 30 minute walk from the park base leads at 630 metres above sea level. This gives a view over the Paranaguá and Antonina bays and the Serra do Mar; the Marumbinistas Waterfall is a 50 metres fall on the Taquaral River, which has several natural pools where visitors can bathe. The park has a free camping area with toilets and hot water showers. There is a museum with pictures and maps about the conquest of the peak
Paulo Macedo a Portuguese business manager and former politician. He was the Portuguese Health Minister from 2011 to 2015 in the government led by Pedro Passos Coelho. Paulo Macedo was born on 14 July 1963, he graduated in Business Organisation and Management from the Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, Technical University of Lisbon, completed the Advanced Business Management Programme at AESE Business School, Lisbon. He was Vice-Chairman of the Banco Comercial Português Executive Board of Directors, non executive Vice-Chairman of several companies in the BCP Group, he was a Member of the Supervisory Board of Bank Millennium and a Member of the Supervisory Board of Euronext. After serving as Director-General of Taxation and Chairman of the Tax Administration Board, he returned to the Banco Comercial Português, he is a former Member of the Executive Board of Seguros e Pensões, of the Board of Directors of Médis, Companhia Portuguesa de Seguros de Saúde, SA, of the Board of Directors of Interbanco and of the Board of Directors of Comercial Leasing
Water birth is childbirth that occurs in water. Proponents believe water birth results in a more relaxed, less painful experience that promotes a midwife-led model of care. Critics argue that the safety of water birth has not been scientifically proven and that a wide range of adverse neonatal outcomes have been documented, including increased mother or child infections and the possibility of infant drowning. A 2018 Cochrane Review of water immersion in the first stages of labor found evidence of fewer epidurals and few adverse effects but insufficient information regarding giving birth in water. Parent and birthing organizations have produced statements both supporting and criticizing water birthing. A moderate to weak level of evidence indicates that water immersion during the first stage of childbirth reduces the pain of labor. A 2018 Cochrane Review found that immersion during the first stage of childbirth reduces the use of epidurals, however there is no clear evidence on the benefits of water immersion for the second stage of labor or full water birth.
There is no evidence of increased adverse effects for immersion during the first or second stages of labor. There is not strong evidence that a water birth reduces perineal trauma. Water birth may offer perineal support for a birthing mother, some theorize that this may decrease the risk of tearing and reduce the use of episiotomy. A 2014 review reported that it has been found that water immersion during the first stage of labor can reduce the length of the first stage, reduce labor pain, the use of epidural/spinal analgesia, it is associated with a lower rate of cesarean delivery and stress urinary incontinence symptoms 42 days after delivery. The review reported that immersion during labor did not appear to increase the rate of infections for the mother or the baby, APGAR scores for the baby were similar to that of conventional births; the British Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the Royal College of Midwives issued a joint statement supporting water birth for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies but does not recommend it in cases of complications.
In a 2005 commentary, the Committee on Fetus and Newborn of the American Academy of Pediatrics released an analysis of the scientific literature regarding underwater births. The Committee noted several positive studies for underwater birth but went on to criticize them for lacking proper scientific controls, a significant number of infant deaths and diseases, the general lack of information to support the use of water births; the paper concluded: The safety and efficacy of underwater birth for the newborn has not been established. There is some concern for serious harm. Therefore, underwater birth should be considered an experimental procedure that should not be performed except within the context of an appropriately designed RCT after informed parental consent; the AAP received numerous letters in response to the statement, many claiming passionately that water birth had strong benefits and minimal risks for both parents and children and criticizing the AAP for failing to publish positive studies about the practice.
In response, an author of the statement noted that the claims made were unsubstantiated and based purely on anecdotal evidence, with no randomized controlled trials that would allow an evidence-based assessment of the safety and benefits of water births. The author concluded by urging for proponents to support such a trial so that the question could be answered; the editor of the journal Pediatrics, where the commentary was published, noted that no such trials had been submitted to the journal, which had a policy against publishing articles that are not based on scientific evidence. The reply concluded that "I have not received any science-based commentaries from the groups that you cite in your letter. We cannot publish every letter, based on opinions only, that we receive." A birth pool is a specially designed vessel containing water for women to immerse themselves in for pain relief during labour. Birth pools work on the same principle as a bathtub, but are distinct from them due to buoyancy and freedom of movement, factors deemed to be important in labour.
A birth pool can either be portable. Getting into a pool of water for labour is called water birth because some women choose to remain in the water for birth as well. Health policy in England stipulates women should be given the opportunity to labour in water through the publication of Intrapartum care guidelines issued in 2007 by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the Royal College of Midwives have jointly supported labour and birthing in water, encourage hospitals to ensure birth pools are available to all women. Immersing in water in a birth pool is one of the methods available to manage pain during labour, in addition to TENS machine and air, Pethidine injection, deep breathing and epidural. Before birth pools became available there are many stories of women labouring and birthing in re-purposed tub-like products including animal watering troughs. Ordinary bathtubs found in American and British homes are not adequate to provide enough room for women to comfortably move and try different positions in labour, such as squatting or kneeling, are not deep enough to create buoyancy.
In order to create the feeling of weightlessness through buoyancy the water needs to cover the women's breasts while she is sitting and should cover her belly while she is squatting, leaning over the side of the pool or kneeling upright in the pool sitting back on her heels. The original circular birth pool Dr Michel Odent used at Pithiviers hospital (F
Louis Stulman is Professor of Religious Studies and Chair of the Religious Studies and Philosophy Department at the University of Findlay, Ohio. He earned the M. Phil and Ph. D in Hebrew Bible from Drew University and has done post-doctoral work at the University of Michigan, he has served as an instructor in Hebrew at Drew University, Professor of Old Testament at Winebrenner Theological Seminary, as well as the positions noted above at The University of Findlay. Stulman’s awards for teaching include the “Outstanding Educator”, the “Founder’s Academic Excellence Award for Faculty,” and "Excellence in Education". Stulman was the founding co-chair of the Society of Biblical Literature Book of Jeremiah Consultation and has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Biblical Literature, he has served as Eastern Great Lakes Biblical Society. Stulman’s recent work on the Hebrew Bible is influenced by art criticism, trauma studies, postcolonialism, he has written/edited numerous articles published in books and journals.
Stulman is a contributor to the New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Feasting on the Word, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. He served as a translator and author of study notes on the book of Jeremiah in the Common English Bible, he is general editor of the Abingdon Press series Core Biblical Studies Series. Jeremiah Placed: New Directions in Writing/Reading Jeremiah. Edited with A. R. Pete Diamond. You are My People: An Introduction to Prophetic Literature. With Hyun Chul Paul Kim. Inspired Speech: Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Essays in Honour of Herbert B. Huffmon. Edited with John Kaltner. Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries:Jeremiah.. Troubling Jeremiah. Edited with A. R. Pete Diamond and Kathleen M. O’Connor. Order Amid Chaos.. The Prose Sermons of the Book of Jeremiah: A Redescription of the Correspondences with Deuteronomistic Literature in the Light of Recent Text-Critical Research.. The Other Text of Jeremiah. A Reconstruction of the Hebrew Text Underlying the Greek Version of the Prose Sections of Jeremiah..
"Zoot Suit Riot" is a song by the American ska-swing band the Cherry Poppin' Daddies, written by vocalist and frontman Steve Perry for the band's 1997 compilation album of the same name on Mojo Records. First issued as a single in October 1997, "Zoot Suit Riot" gained radio momentum with the commercial growth of the late-1990s swing revival before hitting its peak in the summer of 1998, reaching #41 on Billboard's Hot 100 and #15 on the Modern Rock chart, while a surrealist music video became one of MTV's most played of the year, earning the Daddies a nomination for "Best New Artist in a Video" at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards; as of 2018, "Zoot Suit Riot" remains the only single of the Daddies' career to place on the Billboard charts. By the end of 1996, the underground swing revival began drawing mainstream recognition following the success of bands including the Squirrel Nut Zippers and the hit film Swingers; as a result, the Cherry Poppin' Daddies, who were at that time associated with the West Coast ska punk scene, began attracting a separate and sizable following for the prominent swing influences in their music.
As means of having something new to sell on their next tour while the band was writing their next studio album, the Daddies put together a compilation album of only the swing tracks from their first three albums, recording four new songs—including "Zoot Suit Riot"—to round out a full-length record. The album, titled Zoot Suit Riot: The Swingin' Hits of the Cherry Poppin' Daddies, was released independently on Space Age Bachelor Pad Records in March 1997. "Zoot Suit Riot" is written in the musical style of 1940s jump blues. Lyrically, the song's narrative revolves around the Los Angeles Zoot Suit riots of the 1940s, though Perry has stated the song makes no overt political or social commentary regarding the events. In a 2009 interview, he elaborated on its significance as an intended "anthem" for the swing scene, saying "I guess it seemed like a Pachuco rallying cry that could double as a dance anthem for those of us interested in swing music and culture at a time when nobody else was, it was an expression of a proud marginalism.
That's not that deep, but there you go." In discussing the appropriation of the actual Zoot Suit riots, he wrote "To me, the simplified duality I used as I wrote the song was: we swingers were in solidarity with our counter cultural ancestors the'Zoot Suiters' and we were opposed to the'sailors' who represented the squares who weren’t yet hip to our growing communal jive". Due to the hurried production of the album, the vocal track for the song was recorded in one take. At the end of the recording, Perry is heard saying "I think I'm about ready to sing it", which he was signifying to the engineer. "I had sung the tune and the engineer, my friend, pressed the button and said,'I think it sounds pretty good, come in here and listen to it'", Perry revealed in a 2014 interview. "He said,'We should keep that in and it will be our joke that we did this on the first take.' So we moved on. Unbeknownst to us, it became a big hit record", noting elsewhere that he "probably would of given it 2 or 3 more rips slightly slower, if we had known the future back in 1996".
Following steady independent sales of the album which reached as many as 4,000 copies a week, the Daddies signed a distribution deal with major label subsidiary Mojo Records and Zoot Suit Riot was re-issued and nationally distributed in July 1997. A promotional demo cassette featuring two swing songs from the album, "Dr. Bones" and "Brown Derby Jump", plus the ska b-side "Hi and Lo" was distributed to radio stations for possible airplay; as swing music began gaining mainstream commercial momentum by late 1997, Mojo chose to issue "Zoot Suit Riot" as a single and distribute it among modern rock radio stations. The Daddies, who were in preparation over recording a new studio album, ardently protested this move under the belief that a swing song would never receive airplay on mainstream radio and were concerned over losing money from its marketing. Mojo persisted and "Zoot Suit Riot" soon found regular rotation on several major stations, notably Los Angeles' KROQ-FM, helping boost the single onto Billboard's Hot 100 Airplay chart and launch the Daddies into temporary mainstream notoriety.
Two separate music videos were filmed for "Zoot Suit Riot". The first, directed by Isaac Camner, was produced by the Daddies and filmed at the Café Du Nord nightclub in San Francisco, California; the video depicts the band and a zoot suited Steve Perry performing the song to a group of swing dancers and punk rockers in a smoky lounge, intercut with various shots of surrealist and occult imagery. Legendary disc jockey Al "Jazzbo" Collins has a brief cameo as one of the club's patrons, singing along to a verse from the song. Barry Ward, a former member of GWAR and Rich Kids on LSD makes a cameo appearance in the video. Released in October 1997, the original video received minimal exposure, having aired only once on MTV as part of 12 Angry Viewers, a program in which twelve music fans critique a series of music videos, where it received unanimous disapproval. In early 1998, once "Zoot Suit Riot" had charted and the Daddies were gaining commercial notoriety, Mojo requested that a newer video be filmed.
Directed by acclaimed pornographic film director Gregory Dark and edited by Bob Murawski, the second video follows the same premise as the original, with the Daddies playing to a crowd of swing dancers and punk rockers, though the surrealist imagery is much more prominent. Throughout the video, there are shots of such visuals as evil clowns, a goat head being used as part of a ritual