SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Berthe Morisot

Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. In 1864, Morisot exhibited for the first time in the esteemed Salon de Paris. Sponsored by the government and judged by Academicians, the Salon was the official, annual exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, her work was selected for exhibition in six subsequent Salons until, in 1874, she joined the "rejected" Impressionists in the first of their own exhibitions, which included Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. It was held at the studio of the photographer Nadar. Morisot was married to the brother of her friend and colleague Édouard Manet, she was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Mary Cassatt. Morisot was born in Bourges, into an affluent bourgeois family, her father, Edmé Tiburce Morisot, was the prefect of the department of Cher.

He studied architecture at École des Beaux Arts. Her mother, Marie-Joséphine-Cornélie Thomas, was the great-niece of Jean-Honoré Fragonard, one of the most prolific Rococo painters of the ancien régime, she had two older sisters and Edma, plus a younger brother, born in 1848. The family moved to Paris in 1852, it was commonplace for daughters of bourgeois families to receive art education, so Berthe and her sisters Yves and Edma were taught by Geoffroy-Alphonse Chocarne and Joseph Guichard. Morisot and her sisters started taking lessons so that they could each make a drawing for their father for his birthday. In 1857 Guichard, who ran a school for girls in Rue des Moulins, introduced Berthe and Edma to the Louvre gallery where from 1858 they learned by copying paintings; the Morisots were not only forbidden to work at the museum unchaperoned, but they were totally barred from formal training. Guichard introduced them to the works of Gavarni; as art students and Edma worked together until 1869, when Edma married Adolphe Pontillon, a naval officer, moved to Cherbourg, had less time to paint.

Letters between the sisters show a loving relationship, underscored by Berthe's regret at the distance between them and Edma's withdrawal from painting. Edma wholeheartedly supported their families always remained close. Edma wrote "… I am with you in thought, dear Berthe. I’m in your studio and I like to slip away, if only for a quarter of an hour, to breathe that atmosphere that we shared for many years…", her sister Yves married Theodore Gobillard, a tax inspector, in 1866 and was painted by Edgar Degas as Mrs Theodore Gobillard. As a copyist at the Louvre, Morisot befriended other artists such as Manet and Monet. In 1861 she was introduced to Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, the pivotal landscape painter of the Barbizon school who excelled in figure painting. Under Corot's influence she took up the plein air method of working. By 1863 she was studying under another Barbizon painter. In the winter of 1863–64 she studied sculpture under Aimé Millet, but none of her sculpture is known to survive, it is hard to trace the stages of Morisot's training and to tell the exact influence of her teachers because she was never pleased with her work and she destroyed nearly all of the artworks she produced before 1869.

Her first teacher, Geoffroy-Alphonse Chocarne, taught her the basics of drawing. After several months, Morisot began to take classes taught by Guichard. During this period, she drew ancient classical figures; when Morisot expressed her interests in plein-air painting, Guichard sent her to follow Corot and Oudinot. Painting outdoors, she used watercolors. At that time, Morisot became interested in pastel. During this period, Morisot still found oil painting difficult, worked in watercolor, her choice of colors is rather restrained. Due to specific characteristics of watercolors as a medium, Morisot was able to create a translucent atmosphere and feathery touch, which contribute to the freshness in her paintings. Having become more confident about oil painting, Morisot worked in oil and pastel at the same time, as Degas did, she painted quickly but did much sketching as preparation, so she could paint "a mouth, a nose with a single brushstroke." She made countless studies of her subjects, which were drawn from her life so she became quite familiar with them.

When it became inconvenient to paint outdoors, the finished watercolors done in the preparatory stages allowed her to continue painting indoors later. Since 1885, drawing began to dominate in Morisot's works. Morisot experimented with charcoals and color pencils, her reviving interest in drawing was motivated by her Impressionist friends, who are known for blurring forms. Morisot put her emphasis on the clarification of lines during this period. In addition, she was influenced by photography and Japonisme, shown in her composition without a clear center. Morisot started to use the technique of squaring and the medium of tracing paper to transcribe her drawing to the canvas exactly. By employing this new method, Morisot was able to create compositions with more complicated interaction between figures.. She stressed the forms while her impressionist brushstrokes still remained, her original synthesis of the impressionist touch with broad strokes and light reflections and the graphic approach featured by cle

Fritz von Miller

Johann Joseph Fritz von Miller, known as Fritz von Miller was a German bronze caster and sculptor. Fritz von Miller, born in Munich, was one of the 14 children of Ferdinand von Miller, creator of the Bavaria statue in the centre of Munich, his brothers included Ferdinand Freiherr von Miller, Oskar von Miller and Wilhelm von Miller He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts and the Academy of Arts, Berlin. He taught from 1868 to 1912 at the Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich, he was a prolific maker of small objets d'art and artistic domestic items, including pens and electric light fittings. One of his larger projects, on which he collaborated with his brother Ferdinand, was the Tyler Davidson Fountain, built in 1871 in Cincinnati. Both Fritz and Ferdinand supported their brother Oskar financially when he wanted to open his own office in 1887. In 1875 Fritz von Miller married Rosina Theresia Anna Sedlmayr, a descendant of the brewer Gabriel Sedlmayr. Thanks to this marriage he inherited a fortune in 1891.

In 1894 he renovated the Kainzenhof in Bad Wiessee. The design for the church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, dedicated in 1926, was produced by his son, the architect Rupert von Miller. Fritz was much involved with St. Benno's Church in Neuhausen, founded in 1850 by his father; the Neo-Romanesque church includes an elaborate chapel in honour of the Miller family, for which Fritz's son Rupert sculpted a bust of him. Fritz died in Munich; the Fritz-von-Miller-Weg in Bad Wiessee is named after him, another von Miller family memorial chapel in a Neo-Romanesque style, is located there. He is buried in the family grave in the Winthir Cemetery in the Munich suburb of Neuhausen. Thieme-Becker, Bd. 24, 1930, p. 583. Newsletter of St. Benno's Church, Munich, 2006, containing article on the Miller family chapel Metropolitan Museum, New York: photo of Fritz von Miller

Ginka Zagorcheva

Ginka Zagorcheva-Boycheva, Bulgarian: Гинка Загорчева-Бойчева is a former hurdling athlete from Bulgaria. Most notable for winning the 100 metres hurdles at the 1987 World Championships, she held the world record for a year with a time of 12.25 sec, until it was beaten by Yordanka Donkova in August 1988. She competed in the women's 100 metres hurdles at the 1988 Summer Olympics. Five-time Bulgarian National Champion at 100 m hurdles, 1983, 85, 87, 89 & 90. Evans, Hilary. "Ginka Zagorcheva". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. World Championships European Indoor Championships European Championships