Martin County, North Carolina
Martin County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,505, its county seat is Williamston. The county was formed in 1774 from the southeastern part of Halifax County and the western part of Tyrrell County, it was named for the last royal governor of North Carolina. Whereas Dobbs County and Tryon County, named for Martin's predecessors Arthur Dobbs and William Tryon, were abolished after American independence, Martin County was neither abolished nor renamed, a fact, attributed to the popularity of Alexander Martin, twice governor of the state; the Martin County Courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 462 square miles, of which 461 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. Bertie County – northeast Washington County – east Beaufort County – southeast Pitt County – southwest Edgecombe County – west Halifax County – northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 25,593 people, 10,020 households, 7,194 families residing in the county.
The population density was 56 people per square mile. There were 10,930 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 52.54% White, 45.37% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.90% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. 2.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,020 households out of which 31.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.30% were married couples living together, 17.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families. 25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 15.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years.
For every 100 females there were 86.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,793, the median income for a family was $35,428. Males had a median income of $29,818 versus $19,167 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,102. About 16.30% of families and 20.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.50% of those under age 18 and 25.70% of those age 65 or over. Martin County is a member of the Mid-East Commission regional council of governments. Martin County has tended to vote in line with the rest of the country in presidential elections. In 2008, Barack Obama won the county with 52.2% of the vote. This was similar to his national figure of 52.91%. The primary and secondary public school functions are performed by Martin County Schools, a district covering the entire county. Martin Community College is located in Williamston. William Drew Robeson I studied at Lincoln College, where he earned an A.
B. in 1873 and Bachelor of Sacred Theology in 1876, was the father of Paul Robeson and the minister of Witherspoon Street Presbyterian Church in Princeton, New Jersey from 1880 to 1901. Bear Grass Everetts Hamilton Hassell Jamesville Oak City Robersonville Williamston National Register of Historic Places listings in Martin County, North Carolina NCGenWeb Martin County – free genealogy resources for the county
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
The Inner Banks is a neologism made up by developers and tourism promoters to describe the inland coastal region of eastern North Carolina. Without historical precedent, the term "Inner Banks" is an early 21st-century construct, part of an attempt to rebrand the agrarian coastal plain east of I-95 as a more attractive region for visitors and retirees; the current Inner Banks region was grouped with the Sandhills as the Carolinas and Georgia's Piney Woods. Around the time of the Civil War, people from the area were known as "Goobers"; the regional name and demonym fell from use over time. The present term suggests relation to the historical area known as the Outer Banks, a string of barrier islands off the coast of North Carolina that have long been a popular tourist attraction; the demand for waterfront property in eastern North Carolina as a site for second homes for the wealthy has resulted in a tremendous disparity of prices in such locales. Otherwise equivalent lots on opposite sides of a road will have broadly divergent tax and appraisal values.
For example, on Rock Creek Road in Jones County, riverfront lots on the Trent River had a tax value of $201,286 per acre. The developers and tourism promoters have broadly defined the Inner Banks as an area on the East Coast of North Carolina, 22,227 square miles; the so-called Inner Banks comprises over 3,000 miles of inland coastline and is home to over 2.5 million residents. Marketing people include the Crystal Albemarle regions of the state in the Inner Banks. Having a moderate climate, the area is becoming a popular destination for retirees and small business entrepreneurs. "Inner Banks" is sometimes abbreviated with another attempt at trendiness. The general definition states that the Inner Banks is a region between Interstate 95 to the west, the Outer Banks to the east, extend from the Virginia border to the South Carolina border. Consisting of 41 counties, the region is three times the size of the state of New Jersey. Many areas farther from the sounds and tidal rivers have not embraced the Inner Banks brand and are included in the definition.
Traditionally dependent on agriculture and the textile industry, eastern North Carolina has worked to redefine the region's strengths to transition into the new global economy. Six small towns in the Inner Banks have joined together in what they call the Creative Communities Initiative, they are working to foster an environment attractive to knowledge workers and other people working in the creative economy. These six towns are: Ayden, Hertford, Murfreesboro and Tarboro. Northeastern North Carolina consists of 16 counties in extreme northeast North Carolina that surround Albemarle Sound and its tributaries, such as the Chowan and the Roanoke rivers, it has numerous attractions in terms of its undeveloped beaches and small towns. Historic sites within the Albemarle Region are identified along the Historic Albemarle Tour; this waterway-rich region was inhabited for thousands of years by various cultures of indigenous peoples. By the historic period of European contact, the coastal area was occupied by Algonquian-speaking tribes.
The other two major language families of historic tribes in the state were Siouan languages and Iroquoian languages. After European contact, the area, now northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia was one of the first in North America to be settled by English and related northern Europeans. Virginia Dare was born on nearby Roanoke Island in what is today part of North Carolina, she is recorded as the first English child born in North America. The Roanoke colony did not survive. From the 17th century through the antebellum era, the cash crops were tobacco and cotton, both of which were labor-intensive in cultivation and processing. Major planters imported thousands of enslaved Africans for their work force through 1808, when the Atlantic trade was prohibited by Congress, they and their descendants were integral to the survival and success of the North Carolina colony and state. Tobacco was labor-intensive and exhausted the soil; some of the first tobacco planters shifted to mixed farming by the end of the 18th century in order to restore their soils.
Most of the region was prosperous for white planters until the American Civil War. The productive farmland and shipping industries became a frequent target for Union invasions. Several towns in the region were burned to the ground by Union troops during this time, including Plymouth and Winton. Confederate forces at Plymouth made the first use of the CSS Albemarle. After the war, the South continued to rely on agriculture, which suffered a decline through the end of the century; the region was slow to change its economy. The following is a list of counties considered a part of the Inner Banks: Generally: The following is a list of some of the towns and communities in the Inner Banks: Dismal Swamp State Park Goose Creek State Park Merchants Millpond State Park Pettigrew State Park Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuge Swanquarter National Wildlife Refuge Tidewater region Crystal Coast Southeastern North Carolina Intracoastal Waterway Outer Banks Atlantic Coastal Plain The IBX Newsletter IBX Lifestyles IBX Arts, a not-for-profit art organization, based in Columbia, NC Cruising Car
Special routes of U.S. Route 17
A total of at least twenty-three special routes of U. S. Route 17 have existed. US 17-92 Truck is an alternate route for US 17-92 in northern Kissimmee, following John Young Parkway and the Osceola Parkway instead of Vine Street and Orange Blossom Trail, it was signed in about 2011 when the single-point urban interchange at John Young and Osceola Parkways was completed. Until 1999, a truck bypass was signed around Downtown Kissimmee, it began where US 17-92 turned from John Young Parkway onto West Emmett Street, continued north in a straight line along John Young Parkway to US 192, where it turned east until it returned to US 17-92 at North Main Street. The route existed from sometime during the 1980s until 1999, when US 17-92 itself was rerouted to bypass downtown Kissimmee. US 17-92 Truck is designated to divert overheight truck traffic away from a low railroad bridge that carries the SunRail rail line over US 17-92 in southern Maitland; the route follows State Road 423, Interstate 4, State Road 414 in Winter Park and Maitland.
It used Wymore Road and Lake Avenue instead of I-4 and SR 414. U. S. Route 17 Alternate is an alternate route of U. S. Route 17 in South Carolina that runs between Georgetown, it is 123.4 miles long and has been four-laned in various segments since 1970. U. S. Route 17 Business known as Kings Highway, was established by 1967 when mainline US 17 was bypassed west of Murrells Inlet. In 1981, it was extended north to near Briarcliffe Acres, after mainline US 17 was placed on a new highway bypass route; the 22.8-mile business loop connects: Murrells Inlet, Garden City, Surfside Beach, Myrtle Beach. The road is a major route during the Bi-Lo Marathon weekend. U. S. Route 17 Business was established in 1991 after the completion of the Shallotte Bypass; the business loop has the street name Main Street for its entire length. The middle segment is concurrent with NC 130, which splits from Business US 17 in the north to travel to Whiteville and splits in the south to travel to Holden Beach; the entire route is in Brunswick County.
U. S. Route 17 Business was established in 1992 after the completion of the Bolivia Bypass; the business route follows the old alignment of US 17 through Bolivia, the small county seat of Brunswick County. This 7.5-mile route is called the Old Ocean Highway and passes through the center of Bolivia near its northern terminus. The entire route is in Brunswick County. U. S. Route 17 Business is a 13.0-mile business route through Wilmington. US 17 Bus was established in 1971, two years after US 17 was realigned onto new routing. Market Street was part of the original alignment, but goes south instead of north along 3rd Street to meetup with US 17. In 1979, AASHTO recognized US 17 Bus. In 2005, AASHTO approved the US 17 Bus extension upon completion of and realignment of US 17 along the Wilmington bypass. On June 30, 2006, when the Wilmington bypass opened, US 17 Bus replaced segments of US 17: North along Market Street, between 16th/17th Streets and near Futch Creek Road, south crossing the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge to Eagle Island.
In May 2015, AASHTO approved a request to reroute US 17 back through Wilmington, following US 76 along Oleander Drive and Military Cutoff Road. In May 2017, US 17 Bus was reduced as approved by AASHTO. US 17 Bus shares brief concurrency with US 421, while crossing over the Cape Fear River, it is part of the Cape Fear Historic Byway, which features scenic urban areas, colonial-era streets, the USS North Carolina battleship and the city parks. Major intersectionsThe entire route is in New Hanover County. U. S. Route 17 Business was established in 2006 after the completion of the Jacksonville Bypass, which rerouted US 17/NC 24 south and east around Jacksonville; the old alignment along Wilmington Highway and Marine Boulevard became US 17 Bus, with a short 1.4-mile overlap with NC 24 Bus. The entire route is in Onslow County. U. S. Route 17 Business was established in 2000 as a renumbering of mainline US 17 through downtown New Bern, via Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, Neuse Boulevard, Broad Street, Front Street.
In 2011, the business loop was extended south as mainline US 17 was placed on new freeway west of New Bern. U. S. Route 17 Business was established in 1961 when US 17 was rerouted, on bypass route, east of Vanceboro. US 17 Bus travels along Main Street, sharing 2.1 miles of it with NC 43, since 1987. The entire route is in Craven County. U. S. Route 17 Business was established in 2011 when US 17 was rerouted, onto new freeway grade highway, bypassing east of Chocowinity and west of Washington. US 17 Bus follows the old alignment of US 17 through Chocowinity and along Bridge Street/Carolina Avenue in Washington; the entire route is in Beaufort County. U. S. Route 17 Business was established in 1960 as a renumbering of US 17A, which traversed through downtown Williamston, via Washington Street and Main Street. Between 1969-1977, US 17 Bus is split in the downtown area, northbound on Haughton Street and southbound on Elm Street. In 2003, US 17 Bus was extended 1.61 miles, formally US 17 when the new Williamston bypass was established.
The entire route is in Williamston, Martin County
Pasquotank County, North Carolina
Pasquotank County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,661, its county seat is Elizabeth City. The county was created as Pasquotank Precinct and gained county status in 1739. Pasquotank County is part of the Elizabeth City, NC Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Virginia Beach-Norfolk, VA-NC Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 289 square miles, of which 227 square miles is land and 63 square miles is water, it is the fifth-smallest county in North Carolina by land area. All of the terrain in Pasquotank County is flatland with a topography near sea level, a characteristic of most of North Carolina's Coastal Plain; the county is flanked by two rivers: the Pasquotank—with which it shares its name—to the east, the Little River to the west. Camden County Perquimans County Gates County Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Future I-87 US 17 US 158 NC 344 As of the census of 2010, there were 40,661 people, 13,907 households, 9,687 families residing in the county.
The population density was 154 people per square mile. There were 14,289 housing units at an average density of 63 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.7% White, 37.8% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 4.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,907 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,444, the median income for a family was $36,402. Males had a median income of $30,072 versus $21,652 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,815. 18.4% of the population and 15.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 25.5% are under the age of 18 and 17.9% are 65 or older. Pasquotank County is a member of the Albemarle Commission regional council of governments. College of the Albemarle Elizabeth City State University Mid-Atlantic Christian University Elizabeth City Nixonton Weeksville National Register of Historic Places listings in Pasquotank County, North Carolina Official website Elizabeth City Area Convention & Visitors Bureau NCGenWeb Pasquotank County
Interstate 87 (North Carolina)
Interstate 87 is a completed Interstate Highway in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Serving eastern Wake County, between Raleigh and Wendell, it is planned to continue northeast through Rocky Mount and Elizabeth City, ending in Norfolk, Virginia, it is not contiguous with Interstate 87 in New York. It is the shortest designated primary interstate highway at 12.9 miles. I-87 is a six-lane interstate highway that connects I-40, in Raleigh, to Rolesville Road, in Wendell; the speed limit for majority of the route is 70 miles per hour. The southern terminus is at the interchange of I-40 and I-440 in Southeast Raleigh, at I-40 exit 301/I-440 exit 16. I-87 north follows I-440 west for 2 miles before exiting the Beltline at exit 14 to follow the US 64/US 264 freeway, known locally as the Knightdale Bypass. Following the Bypass south of Knightdale, I-87 has interchanges with two local roads before meeting the current eastern terminus of I-540. Two more local roads follow before the I-87 designation ends at a complex interchange with US 64 Bus./Knightdale Boulevard/Wendell Boulevard and Rolesville Road.
Though decommissioned, a portion of this freeway was designated I-495. As of March 2019, I-495 has not been removed from existing signage, but I-87, on separate sign assemblies, has been added near existing signs. Beyond Rolesville Road, the remainder of the US 64 freeway is designated as Future I-87, as it is not at Interstate standards. Additionally, the rest of the route to the Virginia border beyond Williamston, North Carolina is not built as a freeway, it would involve upgrading or building new roads parallel to existing US highways, including US 13, US 17 and US 158; some of these upgrades are part of the DOT 10-year plan released in 2017, with upgrading of highways around Elizabeth City given a start date of 2023. The state of Virginia has no timetable to construct the northern portion of I-87 from the Virginia state line to Norfolk. A portion of I-87 named I-495, was first designated as an Interstate Highway on February 20, 2013, when the North Carolina Department of Transportation submitted a request to AASHTO in order to establish Interstate 495 as a new auxiliary route of I-95.
The proposed 44.99-mile route would begin at I-440/US 64/US 64 Business in Raleigh and would end at I-95, in Rocky Mount concurrent with US 64. On March 15, 2013, AASHTO received a modified request from NCDOT requesting the establishment of I-495 from I-440 to I-540 and Future I-495 from I-540 to I-95, it was approved, though needed an additional approval from FHWA. On December 12, 2013, the proposed section was approved by the FHWA and was added to the interstate highway system; the freeway section, the part, to be signed I-495 and continuing east to US 64 Business, was completed in 2006. From I-440 to Rolesville Road, the freeway was built to interstate standards. East of Rolesville Road, the freeway was built in sections, since 1975; this older section of freeway will be upgraded to interstate standards. Long-term plans by the Raleigh-Durham area's Regional Transportation Alliance called for extension of the interstate east of I-95 toward Elizabeth City northeastward to the Interstate 64/Interstate 464 interchange in the Norfolk-Virginia Beach metropolitan area.
The NCDOT proposed the Interstate 44 designation for the Raleigh–Norfolk High Priority Corridor consisting of portions of the I-495 and US 64 in North Carolina and US 17 in North Carolina and Virginia. The route would connect two of the largest US metro areas lacking an Interstate connection: the Research Triangle area around Raleigh and the Hampton Roads metro area around Norfolk. In November 2012, NCDOT requested the addition of the corridor to the Interstate Highway System through administrative options with the Federal Highway Administration as I-44. Congressman G. K. Butterfield introduced legislation in June 2014 to add the corridor to the Interstate Highway System through Congressional authority. An NCDOT policy paper said they were "seeking language in the reauthorization of surface transportation programs legislation to enhance the description of the Raleigh–Norfolk Corridor to include the route via Rocky Mount–Elizabeth City for clarity, to designate the entire route from Raleigh to Norfolk as a future part of the Interstate system as I-44 or I-50."
Had the I-44 designation been approved, it would have been discontinuous with the current I-44, which runs between Wichita Falls, St. Louis, Missouri. On December 14, 2015, the proposed corridor was designated as a future interstate with the passage of the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act. Soon, several other route numbers were discussed and the RTA set their preference on two more-likely candidates: Interstate 56 if an east-west designation were chosen, or Interstate 89 if a north-south designation were chosen. I-56 is not in use, while I-89 exists in New Hampshire, far north of this corridor. For the upcoming AASHTO Special Committee on U. S. Route Numbering, NCDOT proposed I-89 for this route. On May 25, 2016, AASHTO instead approved I-87 as the number for the highway; the new I-87 would be non-contiguous with the route with the same number in New York Sta
Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina was an English and a British colony of North America. Carolina was founded in. Carolina expanded south and, at its greatest extent, nominally included the present-day states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama and Mississippi, parts of modern Florida and Louisiana. Sir Robert Heath, attorney-general of King Charles I of England, was granted the Cape Fear region of America, incorporated as the Province of Carolana, in 1629; the charter was unrealized and ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, on March 24, 1663. It was not until 1663 that the province became known as "Carolina." Charles II granted the land to the eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion. Led informally by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs.
In 1669, the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina divided the colony of Carolina into two provinces, Albemarle province in the north and Clarendon province in the south. Due to dissent over the governance of the colony, the distance between settlements in the northern half and settlements in the southern half, in 1691 a deputy governor was appointed to administer the northern half of Carolina. In 1712, the two provinces became separate colonies, the colony of North Carolina and the colony of South Carolina. Although the division between the northern and southern governments became complete in 1712, both colonies remained in the hands of the same group of proprietors. A rebellion against the proprietors broke out in 1719 which led to the appointment of a royal governor for South Carolina in 1720. After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729. On October 30, 1629, King Charles I of England granted a patent to Sir Robert Heath for the lands south of 36 degrees and north of 31 degrees, "under the name, in honor of that king, of Carolana."
Carolus is Latin for'Charles'. Heath wanted the land for French Huguenots, but when Charles restricted use of the land to members of the Church of England, Heath assigned his grant to George, Lord Berkeley. King Charles I was executed in 1649 and Heath fled to France. Following the 1660 restoration of the monarchy, Heath's heirs attempted to reassert their claim to the land, but Charles II ruled the claim invalid. On March 24, 1663, Charles II issued a new charter to a group of eight English noblemen, granting them the land of Carolina, as a reward for their faithful support of his efforts to regain the throne of England; the eight were called Lords Proprietors or Proprietors. The 1663 charter granted the Lords Proprietor title to all of the land from the southern border of the Virginia Colony at 36 degrees north to 31 degrees north. In 1665, the charter was revised with the northerly boundary extended to 36 degrees 30 minutes north to include the lands of settlers along the Albemarle Sound who had left the Virginia Colony.
The southern boundary was moved south to 29 degrees north, just south of present-day Daytona Beach, which had the effect of including the existing Spanish settlement at St. Augustine; the charter granted all the land, between these northerly and southerly bounds, from the Atlantic, westward to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. The Lords Proprietors named in the charter were Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. Of the eight, the one who demonstrated the most active interest in Carolina was Lord Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury, with the assistance of his secretary, the philosopher John Locke, drafted the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina, a plan for government of the colony influenced by the ideas of the English political scientist, James Harrington; some of the other Lords Proprietors had interests in other colonies: for instance, John Berkeley and George Carteret held stakes in the Province of New Jersey, William Berkeley had an interest in Virginia. The Lords Proprietors, operating under their royal charter, were able to exercise their authority with nearly the independence of the king himself.
The actual government consisted of a governor, a powerful council, on which half of the councillors were appointed by the Lords Proprietors themselves, a weak, popularly elected assembly. Within three generations of Columbus, the Spanish from their Florida base had started to emigrate up the coast of modern North Carolina. A hostile Virginia tribe drove them back to Georgia. A Scottish contingent had meanwhile settled in South Carolina only to be extirpated by the Spanish, who inhabited Parris Island, SC, as late as 1655; the Spanish were again beaten back to Georgia. Although the Lost Colony on Roanoke Island was the first English attempt at settlement in the Carolina territory, the first permanent English settlement was not established until 1653, when emigrants from the Virginia Colony, with others from New England and Bermuda, settled at the mouths of the Chowan and Roanok