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Bertolt Brecht

Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht, known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner and poet. Coming of age during the Weimar Republic, he had his first successes as a playwright in Munich and moved to Berlin in 1924, where he wrote The Threepenny Opera with Kurt Weill and began a lifelong collaboration with the composer Hanns Eisler. Immersed in Marxist thought during this period, he wrote didactic Lehrstücke and became a leading theoretician of epic theatre and the so-called V-effect. During the Nazi period he lived in exile, first in Scandinavia, during World War II in the United States, where he was surveilled by the FBI and subpoenaed by the House Un-American Activities Committee. Returning to East Berlin after the war, he established the theatre company Berliner Ensemble with his wife and long-time collaborator, actress Helene Weigel. Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht was born on 10 February 1898 in Augsburg, the son of Berthold Friedrich Brecht and his wife Sophie, née Brezing.

Brecht's mother was his father a Roman Catholic. The modest house where he was born is today preserved as a Brecht Museum, his father worked for a paper mill, becoming its managing director in 1914. Due to his mother's influence, Brecht knew the Bible, a familiarity that would have a lifelong effect on his writing. From her, came the "dangerous image of the self-denying woman" that recurs in his drama. Brecht's home life was comfortably middle class, despite what his occasional attempt to claim peasant origins implied. At school in Augsburg he met Caspar Neher. Neher designed many of the sets for Brecht's dramas and helped to forge the distinctive visual iconography of their epic theatre; when Brecht was 16, the First World War broke out. Enthusiastic, Brecht soon changed his mind on seeing his classmates "swallowed by the army". Brecht was nearly expelled from school in 1915 for writing an essay in response to the line "Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori" from the Roman poet Horace, calling it Zweckpropaganda and arguing that only an empty-headed person could be persuaded to die for their country.

His expulsion was only prevented through the intervention of his religion teacher. On his father's recommendation, Brecht sought a loophole by registering for a medical course at Munich University, where he enrolled in 1917. There he studied drama with Arthur Kutscher, who inspired in the young Brecht an admiration for the iconoclastic dramatist and cabaret-star Frank Wedekind. From July 1916, Brecht's newspaper articles began appearing under the new name "Bert Brecht". Brecht was drafted into military service in the autumn of 1918, only to be posted back to Augsburg as a medical orderly in a military VD clinic. In July 1919, Brecht and Paula Banholzer had Frank. In 1920 Brecht's mother died; some time in either 1920 or 1921, Brecht took a small part in the political cabaret of the Munich comedian Karl Valentin. Brecht's diaries for the next few years record numerous visits to see Valentin perform. Brecht compared Valentin to Charlie Chaplin, for his "virtually complete rejection of mimicry and cheap psychology".

Writing in his Messingkauf Dialogues years Brecht identified Valentin, along with Wedekind and Büchner, as his "chief influences" at that time: But the man he learnt most from was the clown Valentin, who performed in a beer-hall. He did short sketches in which he played refractory employees, orchestral musicians or photographers, who hated their employers and made them look ridiculous; the employer was played by his partner, Liesl Karlstadt, a popular woman comedian who used to pad herself out and speak in a deep bass voice. Brecht's first full-length play, arose in response to an argument in one of Kutscher's drama seminars, initiating a trend that persisted throughout his career of creative activity, generated by a desire to counter another work. "Anyone can be creative," he quipped, "it's rewriting other people that's a challenge." Brecht completed his second major play, Drums in the Night, in February 1919. Between November 1921 and April 1922 Brecht made acquaintance with many influential people in the Berlin cultural scene.

Amongst them was the playwright Arnolt Bronnen with whom he established a joint venture, the Arnolt Bronnen / Bertolt Brecht Company. Brecht changed the spelling of his first name to Bertolt to rhyme with Arnolt. In 1922 while still living in Munich, Brecht came to the attention of an influential Berlin critic, Herbert Ihering: "At 24 the writer Bert Brecht has changed Germany's literary complexion overnight"—he enthused in his review of Brecht's first play to be produced, Drums in the Night—" has given our time a new tone, a new melody, a new vision, it is a language you can feel on your tongue, in your gums, your ear, your spinal column." In November it was announced that Brecht had been awarded the prestigious Kleist Prize for his first three plays. The citation for the award insisted that: " language is vivid without being deliberately poetic, symbolical without being over literary. Brecht is a dram

1978 Broxbourne Borough Council election

The Broxbourne Council election, 1978 was held to elect council members of the Broxbourne Borough Council, the local government authority of the borough of Broxbourne, England. An election was held in 14 wards on 4 May 1978. 14 seats were contested at this election. The Conservative Party made 2 gains winning Rosedale Ward from Labour and retaking Goffs Oak Ward from Councillor D T Hickman who had left the Conservative Group shortly after the 1976 election to sit as an Independent; this was the first Broxbourne Election to see National Front candidates. The new political balance of the council following this election was: Conservative 37 seats Labour 5 seats Lea Valley Mercury Friday 12 May 1978 Edition

1611 Beyer

1611 Beyer, provisional designation 1950 DJ, is a carbonaceous Hygiean asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt 20 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 17 February 1950, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southern Germany, it was named after astronomer Max Beyer. Beyer is a member of the Hygiea family, a large family of carbonaceous outer-belt asteroids, named after the fourth-largest asteroid, 10 Hygiea, it orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.7–3.7 AU once every 5 years and 8 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 4 ° with respect to the ecliptic, its observation arc begins with its official discovery observation, as no precoveries were taken, no prior identifications were made. Beyer is a carbonaceous C-type asteroid. Astronomers Pierre Antonini and Silvano Casulli obtained a rotational light-curve of Beyer from photometric observations taken in July 2009, it gave a rotation period of 13.29 hours with a brightness variation of 0.35 magnitude.

In October 2010, observations in the R-band at the Palomar Transient Factory gave a similar period of 13.2608 hours and an amplitude of 0.12 magnitude. According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Beyer measures between 15.46 and 24.44 kilometers in diameter, its surface has an albedo between 0.062 and 0.101. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for carbonaceous asteroids of 0.057 and calculates a diameter of 24.30 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 11.8. This minor planet was named by the discoverer for Max Beyer, German astronomer at the Bergedorf Observatory in Hamburg. Beyer was on the post-war editorial board of the Astronomische Gesellschaft; the official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center in December 1959. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1611 Beyer at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1611 Beyer at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters