A cap is a form of headgear. Caps have crowns that fit close to the head, they are designed for warmth, when including a visor used for blocking sunlight from the eyes. They come in many shapes and sizes, various different brands. Ascot cap Ayam Baggy green Balmoral Baseball cap Beanie Bearskin Beret Biretta Busby Cap and bells Cap of Maintenance Casquette Caubeen Caul Coif Combination cap Coppola Cricket cap Deerstalker Do-rag Dutch cap Fez Fitted cap Flat cap Forage cap Gandhi cap Garrison cap Glengarry Greek fisherman's cap International cap Juliet cap Karakul Kepi Kippah Knit cap Kufi Lika cap M43 field cap Mao cap Monmouth cap Newsboy cap Nightcap Nurse cap Ochipok Papakhi Patrol cap Peaked cap Phrygian cap Rastacap Sailor cap Shako Shower cap Sindhi cap Snapback Sports visor Square academic cap Stormy Kromer cap Swim cap Tam o' Shanter Taqiyah, worn by Muslim males Toque Trucker hat Tubeteika Ushanka Utility cover Zucchetto Bonnet, until about 1700, the usual word for brimless male headgear Cap, metaphorical term List of headgear
A fedora is a hat with a soft brim and indented crown. It is creased lengthwise down the crown and "pinched" near the front on both sides. Fedoras can be creased with teardrop crowns, diamond crowns, center dents, others, the positioning of pinches can vary; the typical crown height is 4.5 inches. The fedora hat's brim is wide 2.5 inches wide, but may be wider, can be left "raw edged", finished with a sewn overwelt or underwelt, or bound with a trim-ribbon. "Stitched edge" means that there is one, two or more rows of stitching radiating inward toward the crown. The "Cavanagh Edge" is a welted edge with invisible stitching to hold it in place and is a expensive treatment that can no longer be performed by modern hat factories. Fedora hats are not to be confused with small brimmed hats called trilbies; the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg. Fedoras can be made of wool, rabbit or beaver felt; these felts can be blended to each other with mink or chinchilla and with vicuña, cervelt, or mohair.
They can be made of straw, waxed or oiled cotton, linen or leather. A special variation is the foldaway or crushable fedora with a certain or open crown. Special fedoras have a ventilated crown with grommets, mesh inlets or penetrations for a better air circulation. Fedoras can have a leather or cloth or ribbon sweatband. Small feathers are sometimes added as decoration. Fedoras can be equipped with a chinstrap; the term fedora was in use as early as 1891. Its popularity soared, it eclipsed the similar-looking homburg; the word fedora comes from the title of an 1882 play by dramatist Victorien Sardou, Fédora, written for Sarah Bernhardt. The play was first performed in the United States in 1889. Bernhardt played the heroine of the play. During the play, Bernhardt -- a noted cross-dresser -- wore a soft brimmed hat; the hat was fashionable for women, the women's rights movement adopted it as a symbol. After Edward, Prince of Wales started wearing them in 1924, it became popular among men for its stylishness and its ability to protect the wearer's head from the wind and weather.
Since the early part of the 20th century, many Haredi and other Orthodox Jews have made black fedoras normal to their daily wear. During the early twentieth century, a hat was a staple of men’s fashion and would be worn in all public places. However, as a social custom and common courtesy, men would remove their hats when at home or when engaged in conversation with women. In addition, the ability to own a hat was culturally considered a sign of wealth due to fashion being recognized as a “status symbol.” Only those with few economic resources would venture the streets without a hat. The introduction of a new line of felt hats made from nutria, an animal similar to the beaver, helped establish the fedora as a durable product. Prices, in the first decade of the twentieth century, for a nutria fedora ranged from ninety-eight cents to two dollars and twenty-five cents. Starting in the 1920s, fedoras began to rise in popularity after the Prince of Wales adopted the felt hat as his favored headwear.
As a result, “the soft felt hat replaced the stiff hat as the best seller in the decade.” The fedora soon took its place as a choice hat and joined other popular styles that included the derby and panama. In America during the 1940s, the brims of fedoras started to increase in width, while the British maintained a smaller brim size; the colors of fedoras traditionally included shades of black and gray. However, this palette would grow at the onset of the second world war to include military themed colors such as khaki and green. One of the most prominent companies to sell fedoras was the department store, Sears and Company. In addition, famous hat manufactures which still exist today include Bailey and Stetson. In the 1880s, French stage actress Sarah Bernhardt popularized the fedora for the female audience, it soon became a common fashion accessory for many women among activists fighting for gender equality during the late nineteenth century. The fedora was adopted as a defining symbol of the women’s rights movement.
It would not be until 1924 when, in Britain, the fashion minded Prince Edward started wearing the felt hat. This event shifted the popularity of the fedora over to men’s fashion, making the hat one of the few androgynous clothing pieces. To this day, fedoras continue to be worn by women, not quite to the same extent as they once were in the early twentieth century. Women’s fedoras vary in form and color. In addition, these fedoras come in every color from basic black to bright red and in the occasional animal print. Along with men’s felt hats, women’s fedoras are making a comeback in current fashion trends. Baseball caps, which have in recent years been the staple of headwear, are experiencing a decline in popularity amidst this “fedora renaissance.” Fedoras became associated with gangsters and Prohibition, a connection coinciding with the height of the hat's popularity between the 1920s and the early 1950s. In the second half of the 1950s, the fedora fell out of favor in a shift towards more informal clothing styles.
Coach Tom Landry wore the hat while he was the head coach of the Dallas Cowboys. It would become his trademark image. A cenotaph dedicated to Landry with a depiction of his fedora was placed in the official Texas State Cemeter
United States Patent and Trademark Office
The United States Patent and Trademark Office is an agency in the U. S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification; the USPTO is "unique among federal agencies because it operates on fees collected by its users, not on taxpayer dollars". Its "operating structure is like a business in that it receives requests for services—applications for patents and trademark registrations—and charges fees projected to cover the cost of performing the services provide"; the USPTO is based in Alexandria, after a 2005 move from the Crystal City area of neighboring Arlington, Virginia. The offices under Patents and the Chief Information Officer that remained just outside the southern end of Crystal City completed moving to Randolph Square, a brand-new building in Shirlington Village, on April 27, 2009; the current Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the USPTO is Andrei Iancu.
He began his role as Director on February 8, 2018. Iancu was nominated by President Trump in August 2017, unanimously confirmed by the U. S. Senate. Prior to joining the USPTO, he was the Managing Partner at Irell & Manella LLP, where his practice focused on intellectual property litigation; the USPTO cooperates with the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office as one of the Trilateral Patent Offices. The USPTO is a Receiving Office, an International Searching Authority and an International Preliminary Examination Authority for international patent applications filed in accordance with the Patent Cooperation Treaty; the USPTO maintains a permanent, interdisciplinary historical record of all U. S. patent applications in order to fulfill objectives outlined in the United States Constitution. The legal basis for the United States patent system is Article 1, Section 8, wherein the powers of Congress are defined, it states, in part: The Congress shall have Power... To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.
The PTO's mission is to promote "industrial and technological progress in the United States and strengthen the national economy" by: Administering the laws relating to patents and trademarks. The USPTO is headquartered at the Alexandria Campus, consisting of 11 buildings in a city-like development surrounded by ground floor retail and high rise residential buildings between the Metro stations of King Street station and Eisenhower Avenue station where the actual Alexandria Campus is located between Duke Street to Eisenhower Avenue, between John Carlyle Street to Elizabeth Lane in Alexandria, Virginia. An additional building in Arlington, was opened in 2009; the USPTO was expected by 2014 to open its first satellite offices in Detroit, Dallas and Silicon Valley to reduce backlog and reflect regional industrial strengths. The first satellite office opened in Detroit on July 13, 2012. In 2013, due to the budget sequestration, the satellite office for Silicon Valley, home to one of the nation's top patent-producing cities, was put on hold.
However and infrastructure updates continued after the sequestration, the Silicon Valley location opened in the San Jose City Hall in 2015. As of September 30, 2009, the end of the U. S. government's fiscal year, the PTO had 9,716 employees, nearly all of whom are based at its five-building headquarters complex in Alexandria. Of those, 6,242 were patent examiners and 388 were trademark examining attorneys. While the agency has noticeably grown in recent years, the rate of growth was far slower in fiscal 2009 than in the recent past. Patent examiners make up the bulk of the employees at USPTO, they hold degrees in various scientific disciplines, but do not hold law degrees. Unlike patent examiners, trademark examiners must be licensed attorneys. All examiners work under a strict, "count"-based production system. For every application, "counts" are earned by composing and mailing a first office action on the merits, upon disposal of an application; the Commissioner for Patents oversees three main bodies, headed by former Deputy Commissioner for Patent Operations Peggy Focarino, the Deputy Commissioner for Patent Examination Policy Andrew Hirshfeld as Acting Deputy, the Commissioner for Patent Resources and Planning, vacant.
The Patent Operations of the office is divided into nine different technology centers that deal with various arts. Prior to 2012, decisions of patent examiners may be appealed to the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences, an administrative law body of the USPTO. Decisions of the BPAI could further be appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or a civil suit may be brought against the Commissioner of Patents in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia; the United States Supreme Court may decide on a patent case. Under the America Invents Act, the BPAI was converted to the Patent Trial and Appeal Board or "PTAB". Simila
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
The Beaux' Stratagem
The Beaux' Stratagem is a comedy by George Farquhar, first produced at the Theatre Royal, now the site of Her Majesty's Theatre, in the Haymarket, London, on March 8, 1707. In the play and Aimwell, two young gentlemen who have fallen on hard times, plan to travel through small towns, entrap young heiresses, steal their money and move on. In the first town, they set their sights on Dorinda. Aimwell falls in love, comedy ensues. Foigard, a priest and chaplain to the French officer, is an Irish priest called MacShane. Archer, a beau, posing as servant to Aimwell Aimwell, another beau Count Bellair, a French count Boniface, a Landlord of an inn Cherry, his daughter Lady Bountiful, country woman, specialises in herbal medicine Dorinda, her daughter A countrywoman Squire Sullen, a country block-head, Lady Bountiful's son Scrub, his servant Mrs Sullen, his unhappy wife, Lady Bountiful's daughter-in-law Gipsy, her servant Foigard, a priest and chaplain to the French officers Gibbet, a highwayman Hounslow, his associate Bagshot, another associate Sir Charles Freeman, brother to Mrs. Sullen Aimwell and Archer are two fashionable beaux, on the lookout for an heiress to marry so they can repair their fortunes.
To help their scheme, Archer poses as Aimwell's servant. Aimwell insinuates himself into friendship with daughter of Lady Bountiful. Meanwhile, Archer strikes up an worldly friendship with Kate, Dorinda's sister-in-law. She's unhappily married to Sullen, a parody of a country squire, mad for hunting and eating and drinking. Obstacles to a happy ending include the fact. In London in the early eighteenth century, two rollicking young gentlemen and Archer, their money spent and their only alternatives being to marry money or to sell their swords for the wars, conceal their poverty from their gay London friends, ride into the country to let fate decide their course for them, they are still in possession of their last two hundred pounds, they have conceived a shrewd plan: by turns one is to play the fine lord, the other his servant, the better to impress the country folk. They arrive at Lichfield Inn, Aimwell, taking the first turn at playing the lord, drinks with the garrulous Will Boniface, the landlord, to learn of the prospects in the vicinity.
The countryside's most notable household, he finds, is that of Lady Bountiful, a wealthy widow whose philanthropy and skill as a healer have made her an idolised figure. She has a young and lovely daughter called Dorinda, a sluggard son, Squire Sullen, who has married a comely London lady. At the inn are some captive French officers, among them Count Bellair and Foigard, their priest. Aimwell, to strengthen the impression of his high estate, puts his money in the landlord's strongbox, bidding Boniface to keep it in readiness as he may stay at the inn only a half hour. Boniface, himself in league with the highwaymen, Gibbet and Bagshot, suspects that Aimwell and Archer are thieves, and, to betray them and get their money, he tells his pretty daughter, Cherry, to tease what information she can from Archer while he plies Aimwell with drink and subtle questioning, but Boniface is outwitted by Aimwell who reveals nothing, Cherry only succeeds in falling in love with Archer. Dorinda and her sister-in-law, Mrs. Sullen, are curious about the travellers, for Aimwell has gone to church to meet the rich Dorinda.
Dorinda becomes interested in the handsome stranger. She and Mrs. Sullen induce Scrub, servant to the Sullens, to invite Archer to their home for questioning, they too are checkmated in their attempt to get information, but the discontented Mrs. Sullen observes that Archer is not without charm; when Archer has gone, Mrs. Sullen and Dorinda carry out a ruse to awaken Sullen, derelict in this respect, to his duties as a loving husband. Dorinda has concealed Sullen in a closet in order that he may hear Count Bellair woo his wife and she ridicule her husband. Sullen reacts by rushing out with a drawn sword, but is restrained from attacking Bellair by a pistol levelled at him by his wife, he scores a point, when he observes that he does not care if his wife bestows her favours elsewhere if she does so secretly and not to a Frenchman — he detests all Frenchmen. Bellair, whom Mrs. Sullen now informs, with some exaggeration, that her passion has been only feigned, notes that her virtue may be great but her honesty little, invites her to send for him whenever she needs a fool.
All in all, the stratagem has not done well. A diversion is created when Archer appears, simulating great concern, to report that his master is outside, suffering from a fit, he implores the good offices of Lady Bountiful. Aimwell, feigning coma, is borne in, but regains consciousness after violently squeezing the comforting hand of the beautiful Dorinda; when Archer suggests that Aimwell should not yet venture into the open air and her sister-in-law escort the men on a tour of the house. Aimwell and Dorinda stray off by themselves, only a determined effort of conscience saves Mrs. Sullen from a lapse from virtue when the industrious Archer entices her into her own bedchamber; as Archer leaves, Scrub tells him that he has overheard Foigard, the priest, bribing Gipsy, the Sullens' ma
Fashion Institute of Technology
The Fashion Institute of Technology is a public college in Manhattan, New York. It is part of the State University of New York and focuses on art, design, mass communication, technology connected to the fashion industry, it was founded in 1944. Seventeen majors are offered through the School of Art and Design, ten through the Jay and Patty Baker School of Business and Technology leading to the A. A. S. B. F. A. or B. S. degrees. The School of Liberal Arts offers a BS degree in art history and museum professions and a BS degree in film and media; the School of Graduate Studies offers seven programs leading to the Master of Arts, Master of Fine Arts or Master of Professional Studies degree. In addition to the degree programs, FIT offers a wide selection of non-credit courses through the Center for Professional Studies. One of the most popular programs is the "Sew Like a Pro" series, which teaches basic through advanced sewing skills. FIT is an accredited institutional member of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, the National Association of Schools of Art and Design, the Council for Interior Design Accreditation.
FIT publishes research on store positioning. In 1967, FIT faculty and staff won the first higher education union contract in New York State; the nine-building campus includes classrooms and radio studios, design workshops, multiple exhibition galleries. The campus has a Noble College Bookstore; the Conference Center at FIT features the John E. Reeves Great Hall, a space suitable for conferences, fashion shows and other events; the campus has two large theatres: the Haft Auditorium and the Katie Murphy Amphitheatre. FIT serves over 7,578 full-time and 2,186 part-time students. Four dormitories, three of which are on-campus, serve 2,300 students and offer a variety of accommodations; the George S. and Mariana Kaufman Residence Hall located at 406 West 31st Street – a book bindery factory – was converted into residential apartments, to offer more housing near the campus for FIT students. The campus has a retail food court/dining hall, a deli and a Starbucks; the Fred P. Pomerantz Art and Design Center offers facilities for design studies: photography studios with black-and-white darkrooms, painting rooms, a sculpture studio, a printmaking room, a graphics laboratory and exhibit design rooms, life-sketching rooms, a model-making workshop.
The Shirley Goodman Resource Center houses the Museum at FIT and the Library/Media Services, with references for history, technology and literature. The Gladys Marcus Library provides access to books, periodicals, DVDs and non-print materials, houses Fashion Institute of Technology Special Collections and College Archives. FIT has many computer labs for student use; the Instructional Media Services Department provides audiovisual and TV support and an in-house TV studio. Student work is displayed throughout the campus. Fashion shows featuring the work of graduating B. F. A. Students occur each academic year; the Design/Research Lighting Laboratory, a development facility for interior design and other academic disciplines, features 400 commercially available lighting fixtures controlled by a computer. The Annette Green/Fragrance Foundation Laboratory is an environment for the study of fragrance development. Well-known alumni of the school include the fashion designers Norma Kamali, Calvin Klein, Michael Kors, interior designer Scott Salvator and the film director Joel Schumacher.
The Museum at FIT, founded in 1969 as the Design Laboratory, includes collections of clothing and accessories. It began presenting exhibitions in the 1970s, utilizing a collection on long-term loan from the Brooklyn Museum of Art, over time acquiring its own collection as well as thousands of textiles and other fashion-related material. In 1993, the Board of Trustees of FIT, noting the significance of the Design Laboratory’s collections and exhibitions, changed the institution's name to The Museum at FIT. In 2012, the Museum was awarded accreditation by the American Alliance of Museums; the Museum’s permanent collection now includes more than 50,000 garments and accessories from the 18th century to the present. Important designers such as Adrian, Balenciaga and Dior are represented; the collecting policy of the Museum focuses on aesthetically and significant clothing, accessories and visual materials, with emphasis on contemporary avant-garde fashion. There are three galleries in the Museum; the lower level gallery is devoted to special exhibitions.
The Fashion and Textile History Gallery on the main floor features a rotating selection of 200 and artistically significant objects from the Museum’s permanent collection. Gallery FIT located on the main floor, is dedicated to student and faculty exhibitions. Past exhibitions include: London Fashion, which received the first Richard Martin Award for Excellence in Costume Exhibitions from The Costume Society of America, The Corset: Fashioning the Body, Gothic: Dark Glamour. Other special exhibitions have included Isabel Toledo: Fashion From the Inside Out, in which the inauguration day ensemble Isabel Toledo designed for Michelle Obama in 2008 was on display, a look at sustainable fashion with Eco-Fashion: Going Green, an exhibition from 2010 examining the past two centuries of fashion’s good—and bad—environmental and ethical practices. More than 100,000 people visit The Museum at FIT each year, attending exhibitions and other events. Admis
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B