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Bessarabia

Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. About two thirds of Bessarabia lies within modern-day Moldova, with the Ukrainian Budjak region covering the southern coastal region and part of the Ukrainian Chernivtsi Oblast covering a small area in the north. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, the ensuing Peace of Bucharest, the eastern parts of the Principality of Moldavia, an Ottoman vassal, along with some areas under direct Ottoman rule, were ceded to Imperial Russia; the acquisition was among the Empire's last territorial acquisitions in Europe. The newly acquired territories were organised as the Governorate of Bessarabia, adopting a name used for the southern plains, between the Dniester and the Danube rivers. Following the Crimean War, in 1856, the southern areas of Bessarabia were returned to Moldavian rule. In 1917, in the wake of the Russian Revolution, the area constituted itself as the Moldavian Democratic Republic, an autonomous republic part of a proposed federative Russian state.

Bolshevik agitation in late 1917 and early 1918 resulted in the intervention of the Romanian Army, ostensibly to pacify the region. Soon after, the parliamentary assembly declared independence, union with the Kingdom of Romania; the legality of these acts was however disputed, most prominently by the Soviet Union, which regarded the area as a territory occupied by Romania. In 1940, after securing the assent of Nazi Germany through the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union pressured Romania, under threat of war, into withdrawing from Bessarabia, allowing the Red Army to annex the region; the area was formally integrated into the Soviet Union: the core joined parts of the Moldavian ASSR to form the Moldavian SSR, while territories inhabited by Slavic majorities in the north and the south of Bessarabia were transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Axis-aligned Romania recaptured the region in 1941 with the success of Operation München during the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, but lost it in 1944 as the tide of war changed.

In 1947, the Soviet-Romanian border along the Prut was internationally recognised by the Paris Treaty that ended World War II. During the process of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Moldavian and Ukrainian SSRs proclaimed their independence in 1991, becoming the modern states of Moldova and Ukraine, while preserving the existing partition of Bessarabia. Following a short war in the early 1990s, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic was proclaimed in the Transnistria, extending its authority over the municipality of Bender on the right bank of Dniester river. Part of the Gagauz-inhabited areas in the southern Bessarabia was organised in 1994 as an autonomous region within Moldova. According to the traditional explanation, the name Bessarabia derives from the Wallachian Basarab dynasty, who ruled over the southern part of the area in the 14th century; some scholars question this, claiming that: the name was an exonym applied by Western cartographers it was first used in local sources only in the late 17th century.

According to Dimitrie Cantemir, the name Bessarabia applied only to the part of the territory south of the Upper Trajanic Wall, i.e. an area only bigger than present-day Budjak. The region is bounded by the Dniester to the north and east, the Prut to the west, the lower River Danube and Black Sea to the south, it has an area of 45,630 km2. The area is hilly plains and flat steppes, it is fertile and has lignite deposits and stone quarries. People living in the area grow sugar beet, wheat, tobacco, wine grapes, fruit, they raise sheep and cattle. The main industry in the region is agricultural processing; the main cities are Chișinău, Izmail and Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi. Other towns of administrative or historical importance include: Khotyn and Kilia. In the late 14th century, the newly established Principality of Moldavia encompassed what became known as Bessarabia. Afterwards, this territory was directly or indirectly or wholly controlled by: the Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire, the USSR. Since 1991, most of the territory forms the core of Moldova, with smaller parts in Ukraine.

The territory of Bessarabia has been inhabited by people for thousands of years. Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished between the 6th and 3rd millennium BC. In Antiquity the region was inhabited by Thracians, as well as for shorter periods by Cimmerians, Scythians and Celts by tribes such as the Costoboci, Britogali and Bastarnae. In the 6th century BC, Greek settlers established the colony of Tyras

Human trafficking in Germany

Germany is a European source, point of transit and destination country for women and men subjected to trafficking in persons forced prostitution and forced labor. The Government of Germany complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, but has not implemented European Union recommendations to reduce sexual slavery; the government made substantial progress in addressing forced labor. Available statistics indicate the majority of convicted labor and sex trafficking offenders were not required to serve time in prison, raising concerns that punishments were inadequate to deter traffickers. U. S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in "Tier 1" in 2017. Ninety percent of identified victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation came from Europe, including 28 percent from Germany, 20 percent from Romania, 18 percent from Bulgaria. Non-European victims originated in Nigeria, other parts of Africa, Asia and the Americas.

One-quarter of identified trafficking victims were children. The majority of identified sex trafficking victims have been exploited in bars and apartments – one third of identified sex trafficking victims reported that they had agreed to engage in prostitution. Victims of forced labor have been identified in hotels, domestic service, construction sites, restaurants. Police estimate that gangs brought around 1,000 Chinese people to Germany over the past decade and forced them to work in restaurants under exploitative conditions. Members of ethnic minorities, such as Roma, as well as foreign unaccompanied minors who arrived in Germany, were vulnerable to human trafficking. Most convicted traffickers are not required to serve time in prison. Germany prohibits all forms of trafficking. Prescribed punishments in these statutes range from six months’ to 10 years’ imprisonment, it is common practice for judges in Germany to suspend prison sentences of two years or less for all crimes, including trafficking.

Authorities prosecuted 173 persons for sex trafficking in 2008, the last year for which statistics were available. Of those, 138 were convicted, including seven juveniles, up from 123 convictions for sex trafficking in 2007. Of the 131 adults convicted, 92 -- or 70 percent -- received either a suspended sentence. Prison sentences for the remainder ranged from two to 10 years imprisonment. Authorities prosecuted 25 persons for labor trafficking in 2008. Of the nine adult labor trafficking offenders, one received a sentence of between three and five years imprisonment and the remaining eight received suspended sentences or fines. Police boosted efforts against labor trafficking in 2008—more than 1,300 police officers and customs officials took part in raids in several cities. There were no reports of trafficking-related complicity of government officials during the reporting period; the government, in partnership with NGOs, provided a range of specialized anti-trafficking training to judges and police.

The federal criminal police counter-trafficking office coordinated international trafficking cases and promoted partnership with other countries by offering training programs for foreign law enforcement. The German government provided economical means with a value of €500,000 for victim protection during the reporting period; the Federal Family Ministry used the funds to capitalize an umbrella organization representing 39 NGOs and counseling centers that provided or facilitated shelter and psychological care, legal assistance, other services for victims. The majority of these NGOs focused on female victims; some of these NGOs made their services available to male victims. The government continued to distribute formal guidelines on victim identification techniques to police, counseling centers and judges. According to the federal police, authorities pro-actively identified 38 percent of all victims registered by the government in 2008. Authorities registered 676 sex trafficking victims and 96 forced labor victims in 2008, down from 689 sex trafficking victims and 101 forced labor victims identified in 2007.

Formal victim referral mechanisms existed in 12 out of 16 German states. The government publicly encourages victims to cooperate in anti-trafficking investigations; the government provided legal alternatives to foreign victims’ deportation to countries where they may face hardship or retribution. Trafficking victims were provided a 30-day reflection period to decide whether to cooperate with investigators. Victims who agreed to act as witnesses were only provided temporary residence permits for the duration of trial proceedings, in rare circumstances long-term residence permits, such as when the victim faced severe threats in the country of origin; the government did not penalize victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked. The governmental German Institute for Human Rights in July 2009 began a $800,000 project to assist trafficking victims in claiming their financial rights in German courts, as some victims had made claims for financial compensation. T

Escape to Margaritaville

Escape to Margaritaville is a musical, first performed in 2007, featuring Jimmy Buffett songs. The plot revolved around a part-time singer who falls for a career-minded tourist; the show features music and lyrics by Jimmy Buffett and is based on a book by Greg Garcia and Mike O'Malley. Following try-out performances in La Jolla, New Orleans and Chicago, the show premiered on Broadway in February 2018 at the Marriott Marquis Theatre; the La Jolla Playhouse presented the musical in a limited engagement from May 9 until July 9, 2017. Following its run at La Jolla, the musical had limited runs in New Orleans, Louisiana from October 20 until October 28, Texas from October 31 until November 5 and in Chicago, Illinois from November 9 until December 2, 2017; the musical premiered on Broadway at the Marquis Theatre on February 16, 2018, prior to a March 15, 2018 opening, directed by Christopher Ashley and choreographed by Kelly Devine. The musical closed after 29 previews and 124 regular performances.

The musical performed on the PBS "A Capitol Fourth" on July 4, 2018 in Washington, D. C. Upon closing, Broadway Licensing acquired the rights for stock and amateur performance rights. A non-Equity national tour is scheduled to launch in Providence, Rhode Island, in September 2019. Tully Mars works as a singer for the bar at Margaritaville, a run down hotel on a small island in the Caribbean, along with Brick, the bartender, the busboy, the owner, J. D. a one eyed beach bum. He has affairs with female guests with no intention of continuing the fling beyond their time at the hotel. In Cincinnati, Ohio and Tammy prepare to go on vacation at the Margaritaville before Tammy gets married, her fiancé, forces Tammy to go on a diet of carrot juice and sunflower seeds, so she can lose weight for the wedding, which infuriates Rachel. Chadd has Tammy promise not to cheat on him and his friends warn the two women of the land sharks. Tammy and Rachel travel to the hotel. Rachel is disappointed with the condition of the hotel though Tammy is just happy to be on vacation.

Tully flirts with Rachel, more concerned about work, has Brick bring tequila shots, to which Rachel questions if it's the appropriate time to start drinking. Tully, Brick, J. D. and the patrons insist that. Tully and Brick take the women's bags to their room, along with some margaritas. Rachel insists going up to the volcano. Brick offers to drive them up in his run down convertible. On the way to the volcano, the car breaks down, the four search for another form of transportation. Brick and Tammy hit it off, while Tully continues to flirt with Rachel, where she informs him of her experiment to use potatoes as an alternative energy resource and how it takes up much of her time, leaving her no time to relax. Brick and Tammy rent bikes and the four continue their journey. On the beach, J. D. tells guests stories about his buried treasure, which Marley dismisses as lies. After being ordered to leave the guests alone, J. D. begins to sing a song that she invites the guests sing along. At the volcano, Tully tries to get Rachel to enjoy her time on the island.

He breaks the ice between them by teaching her. Tammy and Brick discuss their childhoods and how their parents had high expectations for them, finding amusement that they had become the people their parents frowned upon; the two kiss before Tammy reveals that she is engaged. That night, Tully reveals to Rachel that he grew up in Maine, where his father wanted him to continue the family line of fisherman, he arrived at the island to get away from the cold weather and irritations of society. Rachel, finding herself charmed, kisses him. Back at the hotel, everyone is recovering from the previous night of partying. Tully and Rachel prepare to go snorkeling and Marley notices something different about Tully, he admits to her that he thinks he's in love with Rachel. After swearing that she wouldn't tell anyone, she tells some guests, word spreads around the hotel. Tully and Rachel spend the rest of the week on the beach, causing Tully to miss work. Brick tries to help keep Tammy from giving into her urge to sleep with him.

On her last night on the island, he suggests they do something to distract her and the two decide to get tattoos, with Brick needing to be drunk due to his fear of needles. On their last night on the island and Tammy discuss how the past week has changed their views of the future. Tully decides to tell Rachel how he feels. Brick discovers that his tattoo on his stomach is of Tammy's face and admits to Tully that he has feelings for Tammy; the two lament about their failed romances, while J. D. looks for a salt shaker for his shrimp. The guests realize the volcano is about to erupt. Everyone begins sending Margaritaville into chaos. Jamal wonders where he will go after evacuating the island as the patrons panic, Marley tries to keep everyone calm and Brick pack the boat with whatever they can, J. D. grabs a shovel. After everyone is onboard of the evacuation boat, Marley notices J. D. is missing, Jamal reveals that he saw him heading into the jungle