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For the Christian saint, see Saint Bessus. Bessus known as Artaxerxes V, was a prominent Persian Satrap of Bactria in Persia, self-proclaimed King of Kings of Persia. According to classical sources, he killed his predecessor and relative, Darius III, after the Persian army had been defeated by Alexander the Great. At the Battle of Gaugamela, in which Alexander defeated Darius III, Bessus commanded the left wing of the Persian army, chiefly composed of warriors from his Satrapy, mobilized before the Battle of Issus; the envelopment ordered by Darius failed and the Persians lost the battle after hours of fierce fighting. Bessus survived the battle and remained with his king, whose routed army eluded Alexander's forces and spent the winter in Ecbatana; the next year Darius attempted to flee to Bactria in the east. Bessus, conspiring with fellow satraps, deposed Darius and, according to sources, put him in golden chains, it is not clear whether Bessus was motivated by personal ambition or by disillusionment with Darius as a leader.

He may have intended to surrender the deposed king to the Macedonians, but Alexander ordered his forces to continue to pursue the Persians. According to sources, the panicked conspirators stabbed Darius and left him dying in a cart to be found by a Macedonian soldier; the Babylonian Chronicle known as BCHP 1 indicates this happened in July 330 BC. The site has been identified near modern Ahuan. Bessus proclaimed himself King of Kings of Persia and adopted the throne name Artaxerxes, his self-proclaimed ascension was justifiable, since the Satrap of Bactria, known as Mathišta, was the Persian noble next in the line of succession to the Persian throne. But since most of the Persian Empire had been conquered and Bessus only ruled over a loose alliance of those provinces not yet occupied by the Macedonians, historians do not regard him as an official King of Kings of Persia. Bessus tried to organize resistance among the eastern satrapies. Alexander was forced to move his force to suppress the uprising in 329 BC.

After burning the crops Bessus fled east. However his own Bactrian mounted levies deserted en masse, rather than abandon their homeland. Bessus was seized by several of his chieftains who handed him over to the pursuing Macedonians in an isolated village; the Macedonian vanguard was commanded by General Ptolemy who, under orders from Alexander, had the former satrap put in a wooden collar and tied naked to a stake by the road down which the main army was marching. Alexander questioned Bessus as to why he had betrayed Darius and continued to lead resistance to the Macedonians. Bessus claimed that he had been only one of several nobles who had jointly agreed on the need to dethrone their irresolute king. Unsatisfied by his responses Alexander ordered the prisoner to be whipped and taken to Balkh and to Hamadan for trial and punishment. A fellow conspirator against Darius, Satibarzanes Satrap of Aria, had surrendered to Alexander and had been pardoned. However, unlike Bessus, Satibarzanes had not aspired to the Persian throne.

At Hamadan, Alexander ordered that Bessus's nose and earlobes be cut off, a Persian custom for those involved in rebellion and regicide. Ancient reports contradict each other about the nature of Bessus's execution; the historian Quintus Curtius Rufus says he was crucified in the place where Darius had been killed, Arrian states that he was tortured and decapitated in Ecbatana, Plutarch suggests that he was torn apart in Bactria by recoiling trees after a Macedonian trial, a style, according to Persian custom: two trees would have been forcibly bent towards each other, the victim tied to both, the trees released, causing an agonizing and drawn-out death in which the ligaments, tendons and organs would come apart as the trees straightened themselves. BCHP 1 Bessus / Artaxerxes V

Amethyst Initiative

The Amethyst Initiative is an organization made up of U. S. college presidents and chancellors that in July 2008 launched a movement calling for the reconsideration of U. S. legal drinking age the minimum age of 21. The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 requires all US states to raise their minimum age for purchase and public possession of alcohol to 21 or face a reduction in highway funds under the Federal-Aid Highway Act; the Amethyst Initiative was initiated by John McCardell, founder of Choose Responsibility, a former professor of history at Middlebury College in Middlebury and current Vice-Chancellor of Sewanee: The University of the South, is supported by 136 college presidents who signed a statement proclaiming, "It’s time to rethink the drinking age". According to Greek and Roman legend, amethysts protected their owners from drunkenness; the Amethyst Initiative states that, in their experience as university presidents, they have observed, "Alcohol education that mandates abstinence as the only legal option has not resulted in significant constructive behavioral change among our students," and therefore they urge lawmakers "to invite new ideas about the best ways to prepare young adults to make responsible decisions about alcohol".

Gustavus Adolphus College President Jack R. Ohle said in a statement that the initiative is not about lowering the drinking age, but to open a debate on alcohol policies that affect young people and their choices about alcohol use. We need serious, unfettered debate about the drinking age and the reality of life on a college campus and how these two things are aligned. I signed the statement in hopes that it would encourage debate on our campus about the seriousness of drinking in general but more the high-risk drinking that has become so common on college campuses today; as an educator, I feel a responsibility to encourage a discussion about responsibility. That responsibility rests with not only the students but with those of us who work to provide for their education and well being. We must engage in civil and dispassionate debate and consider all policy alternatives no matter how controversial; the Amethyst Initiative states the following: It’s time to rethink the drinking age In 1984 Congress passed the National Minimum Drinking Age Act, which imposed a penalty of 10% of a state's federal highway appropriation on any state setting its drinking age lower than 21.

Twenty-four years our experience as college and university presidents convinces us that… Twenty-one is not working A culture of dangerous, clandestine “binge-drinking”—often conducted off-campus—has developed. Alcohol education that mandates abstinence as the only legal option has not resulted in significant constructive behavioral change among our students. Adults under 21 are deemed capable of voting, signing contracts, serving on juries and enlisting in the military, but are told they are not mature enough to have a beer. By choosing to use fake IDs, students make ethical compromises. How many times must we relearn the lessons of prohibition? We call upon our elected officials: To support an informed and dispassionate public debate over the effects of the 21-year-old drinking age. To consider whether the 10% highway fund “incentive” encourages or inhibits that debate. To invite new ideas about the best ways to prepare young adults to make responsible decisions about alcohol. We pledge ourselves and our institutions to playing a vigorous, constructive role as these critical discussions unfold.

Signatories of the initiative include: The initiative's proposal has been criticized by several groups and government and industry officials, including Mothers Against Drunk Driving. Joining MADD's criticism are other groups, including the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, the American Medical Association, the National Transportation Safety Board. A spokesman for the Governors Highway Safety Association told The Washington Post that university leaders "are just punting on the issue and leaving the high school principals to deal with it." However, Amethyst Initiative's parent organization, Choose Responsibility, proposes that only high school graduates should be eligible. In a press release, MADD argues that lowering the drinking age would result in greater numbers of fatal automobile accidents, that the presidents are "looking for an easy way out of an inconvenient problem" and "misrepresenting science." MADD cited former U. S. Department of Health and Human Services Secretary, current University of Miami president Donna Shalala statement that "maintaining the legal drinking age at 21 is a and medically sound policy that helps parents and law enforcement protect our youth from the life-threatening effects of underage drinking."Choose Responsibility argues that scientific evidence supports the Amethyst Initiative's views and goals, refutes some of MADD's past claims.

Sanford Ungar, president of Goucher College and signee of the initiative argues that opponents should not fear because the Amethyst Initiative is about opening up the debate to improve alcohol policy. He brings about the misconception that they want to "polarize" the issue at hand, but instead wishes to find a better alternative to the current drinking age. Radley Balko, of Reason, wryly noted inconsistency in opponents' arguments and supporting evidence against the Amethyst Initiative in that they believe that it "would be a "national tragedy" to, for example, allow 19- and 20-year-old men and women returning from Iraq and Afghanistan to have a beer in celebration of completing their tours of duty." Balko noting research showing that underage drinking laws had not reduced highway deaths. In November 2008, the Student Senate at the University of

Still on the Planet

Still on the Planet is an album by vocalist Eddie Jefferson recorded in 1976 and released on the Muse label. In his review for AllMusic, Scott Yanow stated "The innovative scat singer and vocalese lyricist was having a comeback during his final years, teaming up with altoist Richie Cole for spirited performances". "I Got the Blues" – 5:33 "Workshop" – 2:57 "Sherry" – 3:20 "Ornithology" – 8:17 "Keep Walkin'" – 5:38 "Zap! Carnivorous" – 6:19 "Pinetop's Boogie" – 3:17 "Chameleon" – 4:32 "Chameleon" – 5:07 Additional track on CD release Eddie Jefferson – vocals Waymon Reedtrumpet, flugelhorn Richie Cole – alto saxophone Mickey Tucker - keyboards Rick Laird - bass Eddie Gladden - drums

Evolution in Four Dimensions

Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life is a book by Eva Jablonka and Marion J. Lamb about evolutionary biology. First published by the MIT Press imprint Bradford Books in 2005, the book challenges the gene-centric view of evolution for what the authors consider its excessive focus on the role of DNA sequences in evolution and biological inheritance; the book's title refers to the argument made by the authors that evolution by natural selection, rather than only acting on DNA sequence variation, acts on four different systems or "dimensions": genetic, epigenetic and symbolic. It includes cartoon illustrations by an artist and physician. Steven Rose reviewed Evolution in Four Dimensions favorably for the Guardian, describing it as "a lucid book that restores subtlety to evolutionary theory". Andrew Lloyd of St. Vincent's University Hospital reviewed the book favorably as well, describing it as "engagingly well-written" and praising the cartoon illustrations.

Stuart Newman reviewed Evolution favorably, calling it "gracefully written, in a tone, unusually relaxed and confident given the complexity and broad range of its subject matter and the iconoclastic ideas of the authors." Michael Benton praised it as "one of the best written that I have read in years: clear, succinct signposted, with ample summaries and reviews of difficult areas." In a more mixed review of the 2017 revised edition, Russell Bonduriansky of the University of New South Wales argued, "Jablonka and Lamb do not quite pull off the Herculean feat of clarifying how all of these dimensions and processes fit together into a coherent picture of evolution. Yet, this book succeeds in a more modest but still important objective—to compel readers to ponder new evidence and question long-held assumptions." Aaron D. Blackwell argued that Jablonka and Lamb propose a new theory of evolution based on the four dimensions they describe, but fail to detail what such a theory would look like. Blackwell acknowledges, that "it is hard to fault them for this one" because "ur understandings of epigenetics and cultural inheritance are still limited"

Tom and Jerry: The Movie

Tom and Jerry: The Movie is a 1992/1993 American/German animated musical film featuring the characters Tom and Jerry. Produced and directed by Phil Roman, the film stars the voices of Richard Kind, Dana Hill, Anndi McAfee, Tony Jay, Rip Taylor, Henry Gibson, Michael Bell, Ed Gilbert, David L. Lander, Howard Morris and Charlotte Rae. Produced by Turner Pictures and Roman's Film Roman, it is the first theatrical feature-length animated film featuring the cat-and-mouse pair as well as their return to the big screen after 25 years. Although mute in the original cartoons, the duo talked extensively in this film. Joseph Barbera, co-founder of Hanna-Barbera Productions and co-creator of Tom and Jerry, served as creative consultant for the film; the film tells the story about Tom and Jerry, who become homeless after their home is wrecked, meet and help a little girl escape from her child-hating and abusive guardian in order to find her lost and presumed-dead father. After having its world premiere in Germany on October 1, 1992, Tom and Jerry: The Movie was released theatrically by Miramax Films, a subsidiary of Disney at the time, LIVE Entertainment on July 30, 1993 in the United States.

After Miramax revived its family and animation division of Miramax Family on March 18, 2019, Miramax Family now owns the theatrical distribution, while Warner Bros. owns the home video and television distribution to the film. The film received predominantly negative reviews from fans and film critics for the film's use of dialogue for the characters, musical numbers, sub-par voice acting, dark content, lack of focus on the title characters and slapstick and the antagonist's similarities to Ursula the Sea Witch and Madame Medusa, the villains from Disney's animated films The Little Mermaid, The Rescuers although the animation was praised; the film was a box office bomb, earning only $3.6 million on a $3.5 million budget. While moving to a new house with their owners and Jerry get into a chase as usual, resulting in Tom nailing Jerry inside his mouse hole with floorboards, he misses the moving van and is trapped inside the house after angering a nearby bulldog. The house is demolished the next morning with Tom going back inside to rescue Jerry, leaving them both homeless.

Wandering through the city for shelter, the duo meet a dog named Puggsy and his flea friend named Frankie, upon introducing themselves, speak for the first time. After a brief argument and Frankie persuade the duo to be friends. While finding food from some nearby bins for a feast and Frankie are captured by two dogcatchers while Tom ends up in a tussle with some mean singing alley cats, until Jerry saves Tom by opening a sewer pipe and tricking the alley cats into it; the duo cross paths with an 8-year-old girl named Robyn Starling, who has run away from home since her mother died when she was still a baby and her father was killed in a recent avalanche while on a mountain-climbing expedition. Despite Robyn's misgivings and Jerry persuade her to return home. After Tom and Jerry end up in a massive food fight with Ferdinand and stumble across a telegram confirming that Robyn's father is still alive which Figg hides from Robyn, Figg sends them to an animal shelter run by Dr. Applecheek, who turns out to be a cruel animal kidnapper and the true employer of the two dogcatchers who caught Puggsy and Frankie.

Reuniting with Puggsy and Frankie in the cells and Jerry plan an escape, free all of Applecheek's captured animals and rush to tell Robyn the news. Elated, Robyn becomes determined to find her father in Tibet and they escape the city on a raft in the river but the raft is struck by a ship and they end up separated. Figg places a $1 million bounty on Robyn, while Robyn's father meanwhile is alerted of his daughter's situation and flies back to America to find her. Robyn is found by Captain Kiddie, the owner of a failing amusement park to which he houses her until seeing an advertisement for the reward on a milk cardboard with the help of his parrot puppet Squawk, whereupon he traps Robyn on a ferris wheel and contacts Figg. Tom and Jerry find Robyn and they flee in a paddle steamer as Figg, Lickboot and the dogcatchers arrive, resulting in a long chase that ends with the dogcatchers ending up trapped in the ferris wheel and Kiddie and Applecheek being left stranded in the river. Tom and Robyn arrive at Robyn's summer cabin built by her father, but Figg and Ferdinand have arrived there first.

In the ensuing scuffle, a lantern is accidentally knocked over, starting a fire that engulfs the whole cabin. Figg and Ferdinand flee the burning cabin with Figg knocking the door down, but Lickboot stumbles on Ferdinand's skateboard, causing them to fall onto Kiddie's paddle steamer that goes out of control after Ferdinand inadvertently moves the ship's rudder, sailing the trio away. Tom and Jerry manage to get Robyn to the roof. Robyn is rescued, but her father is unable to reach Tom and Jerry in time before the cabin collapses; the duo survive. In the aftermath, Robyn is reunited with her father and takes Tom and Jerry in as her pets. Just when it appears that they have found friendship however and Jerry resume their antics once Robyn and her father are out of sight, to which the film ends as the duo chase each other once again. Richard Kind as To

Aly Hindy

Aly Hindy is the Imam of the Salaheddin Islamic Centre in Toronto, Canada once called "Toronto's million-dollar radical mosque” by the National Post. Hindy immigrated to Canada in 1975 after graduating in Engineering from Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, he spent the next four years studying at the University of Western Ontario, where he received his Doctorate in structural engineering. He worked for Stone & Webster for two years, before starting his 21-year career as a safety engineer for Ontario Hydro. While acting as the director of the Canadian Islamic Congress in Toronto, Hindy was arrested by Egyptian security forces in February 2003 and held for two days before being released. Upon his return from Canada in November 2003, he was questioned for three hours at the Cairo Airport and twice brought to the State Security bureau for interviews. In 2004, Hindy celebrated the 135th birthday of Mahatma Gandhi by organising a group of 100 local Muslims to videotape the CN Tower as part of a non-violent protest against detention of Kassim Mohamed, arrested after taking footage of the tourist attraction on his video camera.

Hindy has performed at least thirty polygamous wedding ceremonies, which are illegal in Canada. Hindy's son Imam. Dar Al-Tawheed Islamic Centre was established in 2004 to serve the GTA Community. DAT is located in the same building as Safa and Marwa Islamic School He claims to have cooperated with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in the past, helping them and answering questions about potential militants in Canada. Hindy claims that he ended that support when he learned that the RCMP were asking the local communities about him. In 2007, Hindy raised $15,000 from the Toronto Muslim community to add to Hassan Almrei's application for release on bail. However, in December 2009, Federal Court judge Mosley concluded that Almrei has nothing to do with terrorism and found that security certificate is not reasonable and must be quashed