Best Buy Co. Inc. is an American multinational consumer electronics retailer headquartered in Richfield, Minnesota. It was founded by Richard M. Schulze and James Wheeler in 1966 as an audio specialty store called Sound of Music. In 1983, it was re-branded under its current name with an emphasis placed on consumer electronics. Best Buy operates internationally in Canada and Mexico, operated in China until February 2011; the company operated in Europe until 2012. Its subsidiaries include Geek Squad, Magnolia Audio Video, Pacific Sales. Best Buy operates the Best Buy Mobile and Insignia brands in North America, plus Five Star in China. Best Buy sells cellular phones from Verizon Wireless, AT&T Mobility, Sprint Corporation in the United States. In Canada, carriers include Bell Mobility, Rogers Wireless, Telus Mobility, their fighter brands, competing smaller carriers, such as SaskTel. Best Buy was named "Company of the Year" by Forbes magazine in 2004, "Specialty Retailer of the Decade" by Discount Store News in 2001, ranked in the Top 10 of "America's Most Generous Corporations" by Forbes in 2005, made Fortune magazine's list of "Most Admired Companies" in 2006. and "The Most Sustainable Company in the United States" by Barron's in 2019.
Hubert Joly is executive chairman of Best Buy, having been succeeded as CEO by Corie Barry in June 2019. According to Yahoo! Finance, Best Buy is the largest specialty retailer in the United States consumer electronics retail industry; the company ranked No. 72 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. On August 22, 1966, Richard M. Schulze and a business partner opened Sound of Music, an electronics store specializing in high fidelity stereos in St. Paul, Minnesota. Schulze financed the opening of his first store with his personal savings and a second mortgage he took out on his family's home. In 1967, Sound of Music acquired Bergo Company. Sound of Music made about $58,000 in profits in its first year. In 1969, Sound of Music had three stores and Schulze bought out his business partner. Sound of Music operated nine stores throughout Minnesota by 1978. In 1981, the Roseville, Minnesota Sound of Music location, at the time the largest and most profitable Sound of Music store, was hit by a tornado.
The store's roof was sheared off and showroom destroyed. In response, Schulze decided to have a "Tornado Sale" of damaged and excess stock in the damaged store's parking lot, he poured the remainder of his marketing budget into advertising the sale, promising "best buys" on everything. Sound of Music made more money during the four-day sale. In 1983, with seven stores and $10 million in annual sales, Sound of Music was renamed Best Buy Company, Inc; the company expanded its product offerings to include home appliances and VCRs, in an attempt to expand beyond its then-core customer base of 15-to-18-year-old males. That year, Best Buy opened its first superstore in Burnsville, Minnesota; the Burnsville location featured a high-volume, low price business model, borrowed from Schulze's successful Tornado Sale in 1981. In its first year, the Burnsville store out-performed all other Best. Best Buy debuted on the New York Stock Exchange in 1987. In 1989, the company introduced a new store concept dubbed "Concept II".
Concept II replaced dimly lit industrial-style stores with brighter and more fashionably fixtured stores. Stores began placing all stock on the sales floor rather than in a stock room, had fewer salespersons and provided more self-help product information for its customers. Best Buy did away with commissioned salespeople; the commission-free sales environment "created a more relaxed shopping environment free of the high-pressure sales tactics used in other stores," but was unpopular with salespersons and suppliers. Some suppliers, such as Maytag and Sony, were upset that salespeople would no longer be pushing their products and stopped selling in Best Buy stores altogether; the suppliers returned after Best Buy's sales and revenue grew following the roll-out of Concept II. In 1992, the company achieved $1 billion in annual revenues. In 1995, Best Buy debuted "Concept III" stores; the Concept III stores included expanded product offerings, interactive touchscreen kiosks that displayed product information for both customers and employees, demonstration areas for products such as surround sound stereo systems and videogames.
Best Buy launched its "Concept IV" stores with its expansion into New England in 1998. Concept IV stores included an open layout with products organized by category, cash registers located throughout the store, smaller stores than Concept III stores; the stores had large areas for demonstrating home theater systems and computer software. In 1999, Best Buy was added to Standard & Poor's S&P 500. In 2000, Best Buy formed Redline Entertainment, an independent music label and action-sports video distributor; the company acquired Magnolia Hi-Fi, Inc. an audio-video retailer located in California and Oregon, in December 2000. In January 2001, Best Buy acquired Musicland Stores Corporation, a Minnetonka, Minnesota-based retailer that sold home entertainment products under the Sam Goody, Suncoast Motion Picture Company, Media Play and OnCue brands. Best Buy purchased the company for $425 million in cash and the assumption of $271 million of Musicland debt; that year, Best Buy acquired the British Columbia, Canada-based electronics-chain Future Shop Ltd. marking its entrance to the international marketplace.
Loranne Ausley is an attorney and Democratic politician from Tallahassee, Florida. She has been a member of the Florida House of Representatives from the 9th district since 2016, representing part of Leon County, including most of Tallahassee, she served in the Florida House from 2000 to 2008. With over 20 years of public service at the state and federal level, Ausley was a member of the Florida House of Representatives from 2000 to 2008, her district included the northern half Leon County, including most of Tallahassee, the northwest part of adjoining Jefferson County. Ausley was the ranking Democratic member on the House Health Care Council from 2007 to 2008. In the 2010 election, Ausley ran for Florida Chief Financial Officer, losing in the general election to Jeff Atwater, she is a senior advisor to the Lawton Chiles Foundation and Board Chair of the Florida Healthy Kids Corporation. After eight years out of elected office, Ausley returned to the Florida House in 2016, again representing the 9th district.
Loranne is married to Bill Hollimon and their children are John Hollimon, William DuBose Ausley Hollimon. She is triathlete. Loranne's father is Tallahassee attorney DuBose Ausley of the 33-partner, 75-year-old law firm of Ausley & McMullen, P. A. Loranne Ausley graduated from Randolph-Macon Woman's College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1985, she attended Washington & Lee University where she received her J. D. in 1990. Ausley's grandfather was Charles S. Ausley served in the Florida Senate and her great-great-grandfather was Alexander McSwain a member of the Florida House in 1891, her father is Tallahassee attorney and past Chairman of the State University System of Florida DuBose Ausley. Her mother is co-founder of the Red Hills Horse Trials. Ausley ran for Chief Financial Officer of Florida in the 2010 election, she became the Democratic nominee by default when no other candidates filed for the election and faced State Senate President Jeff Atwater, the Republican nominee, in the general election.
Campaign Website at the Library of Congress Web Archives
The Sallen–Key topology is an electronic filter topology used to implement second-order active filters, valued for its simplicity. It is a degenerate form of a voltage-controlled voltage-source filter topology. A VCVS filter uses a voltage amplifier with infinite input impedance and zero output impedance to implement a 2-pole low-pass, high-pass, bandstop, or allpass response; the VCVS filter passband gain without the use of inductors. A VCVS filter has the advantage of independence: VCVS filters can be cascaded without the stages affecting each others tuning. A Sallen–Key filter is a variation on a VCVS filter that uses a unity-voltage-gain amplifier, it was introduced by R. P. Sallen and E. L. Key of MIT Lincoln Laboratory in 1955. In 1955, Sallen and Key used vacuum tube cathode follower amplifiers. Modern analog filter implementations may use operational amplifiers; because of its high input impedance and selectable gain, an operational amplifier in a conventional non-inverting configuration is used in VCVS implementations.
Implementations of Sallen–Key filters use an operational amplifier configured as a voltage follower. VCVS filters are resilient to component tolerance, but obtaining high Q factor may require extreme component value spread or high amplifier gain. Higher-order filters can be obtained by cascading two or more stages; the generic unity-gain Sallen–Key filter topology implemented with a unity-gain operational amplifier is shown in Figure 1. The following analysis is based on the assumption; because the operational amplifier is in a negative-feedback configuration, its v+ and v− inputs must match. However, the inverting input v− is connected directly to the output vout, so By Kirchhoff's current law applied at the vx node, By combining equations and, v in − v x Z 1 = v x − v out Z 3 + v x − v out Z 2. Applying equation and KCL at the OA's non-inverting input v+ gives v x − v out Z 2 = v out Z 4, which means that Combining equations and gives Rearranging equation gives the transfer function which describes a second-order linear time-invariant system.
If the Z 3 component were connected to ground, the filter would be a voltage divider composed of the Z 1 and Z 3 components cascaded with another voltage divider composed of the Z 2 and Z 4 components. The buffer bootstraps the "bottom" of the Z 3 component to the output of the filter, which will improve upon the simple two-divider case; this interpretation is the reason why Sallen–Key filters are drawn with the operational amplifier's non-inverting input below the inverting input, thus emphasizing the similarity between the output and ground. By choosing different passive components for Z 1, Z 2, Z 4, Z 3, the filter can be made with low-pass and high-pass characteristics. In the examples below, recall that a resistor with resistance R has impedance Z R of Z R = R, a capacitor with capacitance C has impedance Z C of Z C = 1 s C, where s = j ω = 2 π j f is the complex angular frequency, f is the frequency of a pure sine-wave input; that is, a capacitor's impedance is frequency-dependent and a resistor's impedance is not.
An example of a unity-gain low-pass configuration is shown in Figure 2. An operational amplifier is used as the buffer here, although an emitter follower is effective; this circuit is equivalent to the generic case above with Z 1 = R 1, Z 2 = R 2, Z 3 = 1 s C