A greenhouse gas is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. Greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect; the primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and ozone. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 °C, rather than the present average of 15 °C; the atmospheres of Venus and Titan contain greenhouse gases. Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 406 ppm in early 2017; this increase has occurred despite the uptake of more than half of the emissions by various natural "sinks" involved in the carbon cycle. The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal and natural gas, with additional contributions coming from deforestation, changes in land use, soil erosion and agriculture.
Should greenhouse gas emissions continue at their rate in 2017, Earth's surface temperature could exceed historical values as early as 2047, with harmful effects on ecosystems and human livelihoods. At current emission rates temperatures could increase by 2 °C, which the United Nations' IPCC designated as the upper limit to avoid "dangerous" levels, by 2036; the main gases in Earth's atmosphere are: Nitrogen and Argon. The other gases are: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides and ozone, they are trace gases that account for a tenth of 1% of Earth's atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by Earth. In order, the most abundant greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are: Water vapor Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Ozone Chlorofluorocarbons Hydrofluorocarbons Atmospheric concentrations are determined by the balance between sources and sinks; the proportion of an emission remaining in the atmosphere after a specified time is the "airborne fraction".
The annual airborne fraction is the ratio of the atmospheric increase in a given year to that year's total emissions. As of 2006 the annual airborne fraction for CO2 was about 0.45. The annual airborne fraction increased at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.21% per year over the period 1959–2006. The major atmospheric constituents, nitrogen and argon, are not greenhouse gases because molecules containing two atoms of the same element such as N2 and O2 have no net change in the distribution of their electrical charges when they vibrate, monatomic gases such as Ar do not have vibrational modes. Hence they are totally unaffected by infrared radiation; some molecules containing just two atoms of different elements, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride, do absorb infrared radiation, but these molecules are short-lived in the atmosphere owing to their reactivity and solubility. Therefore they do not contribute to the greenhouse effect and are omitted when discussing greenhouse gases; some gases have indirect radiative effects.
This happens in two main ways. One way is. For example and carbon monoxide are oxidized to give carbon dioxide. Oxidation of CO to CO2 directly produces an unambiguous increase in radiative forcing although the reason is subtle; the peak of the thermal IR emission from Earth's surface is close to a strong vibrational absorption band of CO2. On the other hand, the single CO vibrational band only absorbs IR at much shorter wavelengths, where the emission of radiant energy from Earth's surface is at least a factor of ten lower. Oxidation of methane to CO2, which requires reactions with the OH radical, produces an instantaneous reduction in radiative absorption and emission since CO2 is a weaker greenhouse gas than methane. However, the oxidations of CO and CH4 are entwined. In any case, the calculation of the total radiative effect includes both direct and indirect forcing. A second type of indirect effect happens when chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving these gases change the concentrations of greenhouse gases.
For example, the destruction of non-methane volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere can produce ozone. The size of the indirect effect can depend on where and when the gas is emitted. Methane has indirect effects in addition to forming CO2; the main chemical that reacts with methane in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical, thus more methane means that the concentration of OH goes down. Methane increases its own atmospheric lifetime and therefore its overall radiative effect; the oxidation of methane can produce both water. CO and NMVOCs produce CO2, they remove OH from the atmosphere, this leads to higher concentrations of methane. The surprising effect of this is that the global warming potential of CO is three times that of CO2; the same process that converts NMVOCs to carbon dioxide can lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone. Halocarbons have an indirect effect because they destroy stratospheric
Scissor Sisters is an American pop/rock band formed in 2001. Forged in the "gay nightlife scene of New York", the band took its name from the female same-sex sexual activity tribadism, its members include Jake Shears and Ana Matronic as vocalists, Babydaddy as multi-instrumentalist, Del Marquis as lead guitar/bassist, Randy Real as drummer. Scissor Sisters incorporates diverse and eclectic styles in their music, but tends to sway towards pop rock, glam rock, nu-disco, electroclash; the band came to prominence following the release of their Grammy-nominated and chart-topping disco version of "Comfortably Numb" and subsequent debut album Scissor Sisters. The album was a success in the UK where it reached number one, was the best-selling album of 2004, was certified platinum by the BPI, accrued them three BRIT Awards in 2005. All five of its singles reached positions within the top 20 of the UK Singles Chart while "Filthy/Gorgeous" scored the band their first number one on Billboard's Hot Dance Club Songs, despite the album's meager success in their native US.
The album continued its success in countries around Europe, in Australia and in Canada before the release of the band's second studio album Ta-Dah, their second consecutive UK number one album which produced their first UK number one single "I Don't Feel Like Dancin'". Their third studio album Night Work displayed a shift towards a more club-oriented sound, charting at number two on the UK Albums Chart, number one on Billboard's Top Independent Albums chart and in the top 10 of several international territories; the band released their fourth studio album Magic Hour in May 2012. Scissor Sisters has performed around the world and have become recognized for their controversial and transgressive live performances, they collaborated with a number of other well-known pop musicians, including Elton John and Kylie Minogue. In 2004, lead vocalist of rock band U2, described Scissor Sisters as "the best pop group in the world", they have collaborated with Global Cool in 2007 on one of their green lifestyle campaigns.
Named Dead Lesbian and the Fibrillating Scissor Sisters, the final two words of the latter being derived from the lesbian sexual act tribadism, the band was founded in 2000 after friends Jason "Jake Shears" Sellards and Scott "Babydaddy" Hoffman both moved to New York City, enjoying its open and gay-friendly ethos. They began producing music together, with Babydaddy composing music and Shears writing lyrics; the duo released a couple of singles to little success and began appearing at underground clubs on New York's Lower East Side. On a trip to Disneyland, the pair met Ana "Matronic" Lynch at a screening of Michael Jackson's Captain EO. During a subsequent teacup ride, they discovered. Shears remarked, "I thought she was a freak but when I started singing "Another Part of Me" she showed me the best moonwalk I've seen."Ana Matronic ran a weekly cabaret event known as Knock Off at a club called the Slipper Room in New York, where she liked to hire eccentric and alternative acts. Matronic invited the pair to appear at Knock Off, which they did on September 21, 2001.
Shears dressed as his character "Jason the Amazing Back-Alley Late Term Abortion" whilst Matronic, dressed as a reject from Andy Warhol's Factory, joined the pair on stage and sang. Shears and Babydaddy felt she was effective and asked her to join the band on a permanent basis, to which she agreed; the trio began appearing at other clubs, dropping the word "Fibrillating" from their name. They played electroclash, popular at the time in the underground club scene of New York with bands like Peaches and Chicks on Speed, they were soon joined by Derek "Del Marquis" Gruen on lead guitar, who had known Shears from when they both worked at the IC Guys club where Shears had been a stripper. They were joined by a fifth member, Patrick "Paddy Boom" Seacor, on drums who felt the need to explain to his mother that "it's not a gay band... There gay members. It's about the music and about performance."In 2002, the band signed with a small New York record company called A Touch of Class for a two-single deal.
Their first single "Electrobix" dealt with gay men's obsessions with working out but proved to be less popular than its B-side, a cover version of Pink Floyd's progressive rock classic "Comfortably Numb". Matronic commented, "It's one of those songs that people were either gonna love or hate, that's really powerful, because it means you're evoking a reaction in everyone; the first time I heard it, I thought that if it doesn't make us famous, it'll make us infamous because somebody will shoot us!" Their version of "Comfortably Numb" became a hit in many dance clubs and, after sending Pink Floyd themselves a copy, the Scissor Sisters received positive remarks from the song's original writers Roger Waters and David Gilmour. The song proved to be popular in the UK, where various record labels soon took an interest in the band. In 2003, they decided they would tour Europe where they believed audiences would be more receptive of them and their music than their native US. "Comfortably Numb" came to the attention of British label Polydor, who signed the group to a contract.
Their first single for the label "Laura" (with two different mu
Gogol Bordello is an American punk band from the Lower East Side of Manhattan, formed in 1999 and known for theatrical stage shows and persistent touring. Much of the band's sound is inspired by Gypsy music mixed with dub; the band incorporates violin. The band has appeared in a number of popular films, most notably in 2005's Everything Is Illuminated in which the lead singer, Eugene Hütz, co-starred with Elijah Wood in a dramedy and adventure story about the Nazi purges in Ukraine; the entire group was present for one shot in which they played a brass band in a set that included the "Star-Spangled Banner". They played the traditional Yiddish tune "Bublitschki". Gogol Bordello contributed the song "Start Wearing Purple" to the film's score; the band has their own documentary called Gogol Bordello Non-Stop. This documentary follows the band's progress. In 2012, the band recorded a song titled Let's Get Crazy for Coca-Cola's Euro 2012 advertising campaign. "Gogol" comes from a classical Ukrainian writer, born in today's Ukraine.
He serves as an ideological influence for the band because he "smuggled" Ukrainian culture into Russian society, which Gogol Bordello intends to do with Gypsy/East-European music in the English-speaking world. "Bordello", in Italian, refers to a brothel or a "gentleman's club". The band was titled Hütz and the Béla Bartóks, but Eugene Hütz says that they decided to change the name because "nobody knows who the hell Béla Bartók is in the United States." The band played their first show as the unofficial band at an after-hours club called Pizdetz where they became the house band and DJ Hütz became the house DJ. Gogol Bordello's first single was released in 1999, since they have released six full-length albums, one EP. In 2005 the band signed to punk label SideOneDummy Records. On 27 April 2010 Gogol Bordello made its major record label debut with Transcontinental Hustle on Rick Rubin's American Recordings, a subsidiary of Columbia Records/Sony Music Entertainment. Many of the songs on Transcontinental Hustle were inspired by Hütz's move to Brazil.
The band has toured extensively throughout America. They have made numerous appearances at international festivals and have toured with such diverse bands as Primus, Flogging Molly, Cake. In an interview with NPR, frontman Eugene Hütz cites Jimi Hendrix and Parliament-Funkadelic as among the band's main musical influences, they have mentioned Manu Chao, Zvuki Mu, Karamelo Santo, Sasha Kolpakov and The Clash as influences. They performed live at the Bonnaroo Music and Arts festival 2011 for Bonnaroo's 10 year anniversary, playing a 1.5 hour set in the middle of the night and performed with Devotchka. Gogol Bordello released a new song titled Let's Get Crazy in 2012 as part of Coca-Cola's advertising campaign for the European Football Championships, which were part-hosted by Ukraine; the track samples one of their earlier singles, Wonderlust King, the Coca-Cola advertising jingle. In 2012 former guitarist Oren Kaplan sued Hütz for personal damages. 2004 – Kill Your Idols – Hütz was interviewed in this documentary about New York's "art punk" music scene.
2005 – Everything Is Illuminated – In Liev Schreiber's directorial debut, which stars Elijah Wood, the role of Alexander Perchov was played by Eugene Hütz. It includes cameo appearances by other Gogol Bordello members in the train scene. 2006 – The Pied Piper of Hützovina – Documentary by Pavla Fleischer about a road trip she and Eugene Hütz took to Ukraine to trace his roots. 2006 – Wristcutters: A Love Story – "Eugene," played by American actor Shea Whigham, is based on Eugene Hütz, whose music is featured in the film as that recorded by the character's old band. Contrary to the belief that he has received no credit for this, the film credits show the copyrights for both Gogol Bordello songs, as well as giving thanks to Eugene multiple times throughout the credit roll. 2008 – Filth and Wisdom – The entire band appeared in this independent film directed by Madonna. Eugene Hütz is the protagonist. Madonna allowed Eugene to add his own dialogue into the script. 2008 – Gogol Bordello Non-Stop – The development of the band was documented in this film directed by Margarita Jimeno.
It follows the band's rise from underground legends to international fame from 2001 to 2007. 2009 – Larger Than Life in 3D – Live High-def digital concert footage shot in stereoscopic 3-D at the Austin City Limits festival in October 2009. 2009 – Live From Axis Mundi: Professionally recorded live concert footage shot in New York. 2011 – Grain: Short film,'Against the Nature' appears on the credits. 2017 – "American Wedding" Fargo Season 3 Episode 2 "The Principle of Restricted Choice" closing credits 2017 - "Risky Bismuth" The Tick Season 1 Episode 10 "Trans Continental Hustle" closing credits Current members Eugene Hütz – Ukraine Sergey Ryabtsev – Russia Thomas "Tommy T" Gobena – Ethiopia Pedro Erazo – Ecuador Alfredo Ortiz – United States Boris Pelekh – Russia Ashley Tobias "TOBI" – United States Former membersPamela Racine - Oren Kaplan Yuri Lemeshev Elizabeth Sun – China and Scotland Pasha Newmer – Belarus
Lily Rose Beatrice Cooper, known professionally as Lily Allen, is an English singer and songwriter. She is the daughter of actor Keith Allen and film producer Alison Owen. Allen left school when she was 15 and concentrated on improving her performing and compositional skills. In 2005, she made some of her recordings public on Myspace and the publicity resulted in airplay on BBC Radio 1 and a contract with Regal Recordings, her first mainstream single, "Smile", reached number one on the UK Singles Chart in July 2006. Her debut record, Still, was well received, selling over 2.6 million copies worldwide and brought Allen a nomination at the Grammy Awards, the Brit Awards, the MTV Video Music Awards. She began hosting Lily Allen and Friends, on BBC Three, her second studio album, It's Not Me, It's You, saw a genre shift, having more of an electropop feel, rather than the ska and reggae influences of the first one. The album debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart and the Australian ARIA Charts and was well received by critics, noting the singer's musical evolution and maturity.
It spawned the hit singles "The Fear" and "Fuck You". This success saw. Allen and Amy Winehouse were credited with starting a process that led to the "year of the women" media label in 2009 that saw five female artists making music of "experimentalism and fearlessness" nominated for the Mercury Prize. After announcing a hiatus from her music career in 2009, Allen launched her own record label, In the Name Of, in 2011, she has released two further albums: Sheezus, which debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart, No Shame. In September 2018, Allen released her debut book, My Thoughts Exactly. Allen was born in Hammersmith, west London, daughter of Keith Allen, a Welsh-born comedian, film producer Alison Owen, she has Sarah. Allen's mother was from a working class Portsmouth family, was 17 when she gave birth to Sarah, her family were devout Catholics. Allen is the goddaughter of Wild Colonials vocalist Angela McCluskey and third-cousin of singer Sam Smith. At the age of three, Allen appeared in The Comic Strip Presents... episode "The Yob", which her father had co-written.
When she was four, her father left the family. During her early childhood, Allen lived with her family on a council estate, they settled in Islington. For a time, the family lived with comedian Harry Enfield; the Clash singer and guitarist Joe Strummer was close to Allen. Allen attended 13 schools, including Prince Charles's junior alma mater, Hill House School, Bedales School and was expelled from several of them for drinking and smoking; when Allen was eleven, former University of Victoria music student Rachel Santesso overheard Allen singing "Wonderwall" by Oasis in the school's playground. This led to Allen singing "Baby Mine" from Disney's Dumbo at a school concert. Allen told Loveline that the audience was "brought to tears at the sight of a troubled young girl doing something good". At that point Allen said she knew that music was something she needed to do either as a lifelong vocation or to get it out of her system, she achieved grade 8 in singing. Allen played violin and trumpet and was a member of a chamber choir.
Her first solo was "In the Bleak Midwinter". She appeared as a lady-in-waiting in the 1998 film Elizabeth, co-produced by her mother; that same year, Allen appeared in the music video to the Fat Les song "Vindaloo". She dropped out of school at age fifteen, not wanting to "spend a third of her life preparing to work for the next third of her life, to set herself up with a pension for the next third of her life." When her family went to Ibiza on holiday, Allen told her mother that she was staying with friends but remained in Sant Antoni de Portmany instead. She earned money by dealing ecstasy. Allen met George Lamb in Ibiza, she was rejected by several labels, which she attributed to her drinking and being the daughter of Keith Allen. She used her father's connections to get signed to London Records in 2002; when the executive who had signed her left, the label lost interest and she left without releasing the folk songs many of which were written by her father. She studied horticulture to become a florist, but changed her mind and returned to music.
Allen began writing songs, while her manager introduced her to production duo Future Cut in 2004. They worked in a small studio in the basement of an office building. In 2005, Allen was signed to Regal Recordings. Allen created an account on MySpace and began posting demos that she recorded in November 2005; the demos attracted thousands of listeners, 500 limited edition 7" vinyl singles of "LDN" were rush-released, reselling for as much as £40. Allen produced two mixtapes – My First Mixtape and My Second Mixtape – to promote her work; as she accumulated tens of thousands of MySpace friends, The Observer Music Monthly, a magazine published in The Observer, took interest in March 2006. Few people outside of her label's A&R department knew who she was, so the label was slow in responding to publications wanting to report about her. She
Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly
Samuel Lloyd "Sam" Duckworth is an English musician who performs as Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly, he is sometimes referred to as Get Cape, GCWCF and Slam Dunkworth. According to Duckworth, his original stage name came from Retro Gamer magazine, from an article about superhero games such as Batman containing the heading "Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly", although a Calvin & Hobbes cartoon by Bill Watterson has been cited. In addition to the Get Cape name, his given name, Duckworth has released music under the moniker Recreations. Duckworth grew up in Essex. Get Cape was signed to Atlantic Records in March 2006, after playing many gigs, both with punk rock band Silverskin and as Get Cape; as Get Cape, Duckworth has collaborated with Billy Bragg, Nitin Sawhney, Killa Kela, Baba Maal, Kate Nash and many others with his participation in many events for Africa Express. Duckworth co-organised The Demolition Ball – the last night at the London Astoria venue before it was knocked down in January 2009, he had headlined at the Astoria for his 21st birthday party.
After 10 years, Duckworth decided to end Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly and to continue making under his own name; the "last ever" show under the Get Cape moniker was held at The Forum, Kentish Town on 12 September 2014. In May 2017, Duckworth announced that he was resurrecting the Get Cape name, with the release of the single Optimist, subsequently announced a new full length album, Young Adult, due for release in January 2018. Get Cape's debut album, The Chronicles of a Bohemian Teenager, is best described as an indie/folk/electronic fusion; the album made the top 100 albums of 2006 lists of Q and NME. It spawned three top 40 singles. In October 2006, he performed as part of the BBC Electric Proms, he played at a number of major festivals in 2007, including Oxegen, Glastonbury and Leeds Festivals and SXSW, appeared in the BBC Radio 1 live lounge. In January 2007, Duckworth was nominated for best solo artist at the annual NME Awards, up against Lily Allen, Jamie T, Jarvis Cocker and Thom Yorke, although he did not win.
Get Cape's second album, Searching for the Hows and Whys was released on 10 March 2008. It features guest vocals from Kate Nash on the track, "Better Things"; the album features Billy Bragg on "Interlude". "Waiting for the Monster to Drown" was released as a free download via Get Cape's official website and MySpace on 7 December 2007. The first single released from the album was "Find The Time", released on 3 March 2008, reached number 33 on the UK Singles Chart; the third and self-titled album was released on Cooking Vinyl on 13 September 2010, with the first single from the album "Collapsing Cities Feat. Shy FX" released on 9 August 2010; the album cover artwork was created by photographer Joe Lang. The Mannequin is the first album released under the name Sam Duckworth rather than'Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly.' The fourth Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly album was released on 7 May 2012; the fifth Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly album was released on 15 September 2014 on Alcopop! Records; this accompanied a farewell UK tour between 12 September.
The sixth Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly album was due to be released in January 2018 through Xtra Mile Recordings. Singles from the release include "Adults/Always", "Just A Phase", "DNA" and "VHS Forever". On 24 March 2008, he performed on Hollyoaks, he had an episode of American TV show One Tree Hill named after him. Every episode of the show has a song title or band name. Episode 3 of season 6 of One Tree Hill is titled "Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly." Duckworth grew up in Southend-on-Sea and attended Southend High School for Boys between 1997 and 2004, studying up to A-level. He is well known for his love for a variety of different musical styles, he has had run-ins with the British National Party after a racist attack in a nightclub which led to the song "Glasshouses", he has since become an avid supporter of Love Music Hate Racism. He is a Fairtrade supporter. Duckworth took part in Oxfam's Blue campaign at Glastonbury, shot by photographer Rankin. Other members of the Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly live band have included: Mikey Glenister – Cornet Andy Theakstone – Drums Gavin Fitzjohn – Trumpet, Sax Jamie Allen – Bass Guitar Tom Pinder – Trombone Tim Oliver – Keyboards Chris Bradshaw – Guitar Cody Webb - Bongo Recreations on Facebook
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island