The Advertiser (Adelaide)
The Advertiser is a daily tabloid format newspaper published in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. First published as a broadsheet named The South Australian Advertiser on 12 July 1858, it is a tabloid printed from Monday to Saturday; the Advertiser came under the ownership of Keith Murdoch in the 1950s, the full ownership of Rupert Murdoch in 1987. It is now a publication of News Corp Australia. Through much of the 20th century, The Advertiser was Adelaide's morning broadsheet, The News the afternoon tabloid, with The Sunday Mail covering weekend sport, Messenger Newspapers community news; the head office was relocated from a former premises in King William Street, to a new News Corp office complex, known as Keith Murdoch House at 31 Waymouth Street. An early major daily colonial newspaper, The Adelaide Times, ceased publication on 9 May 1858. Shortly afterwards, Reverend John Henry Barrow, a former editor of the South Australian Register founded the morning newspaper The South Australian Advertiser and a companion weekly The South Australian Weekly Chronicle.
The original owners were Barrow and Charles Henry Goode, the first issues were published on 12 July 1858 and 17 July 1858 respectively. It consisted of four pages, each of seven columns, cost 4 pence. In 1863 the company started an afternoon newspaper The Express as a competitor to The Telegraph, an afternoon/evening daily paper independent of both The Advertiser and the South Australian Register; the company was re-formed, effective 9 September 1864, with additional shareholders Philip Henry Burden, John Baker, Captain Scott, James Counsell, Thomas Graves and others. Burden, secretary of the company, died in 1864, Barrow, whose wife had died in 1856, married his widow in 1865, thus owning together a quarter of the company. In December 1866, the syndicate bought the now defunct The Telegraph at auction, incorporated it with The Express to form The Express and Telegraph. In 1871, when the shareholders were Barrow, Robert Stuckey, Thomas Graves, William Parkin, Thomas King, James Counsell, George Williams Chinner, the partnership was dissolved and the business was carried on by Barrow and King.
J. H. Barrow died on 22 August 1874, Thomas King ran the papers for himself and Mrs. Barrow for about five years. In 1879 a new firm was created, consisting of Thomas King, Fred Burden, John Langdon Bonython. In July 1884, Thomas King dropped out, the firm of Burden & Bonython was formed to run the paper. On 1 April 1889, the main publication was re-branded with The Advertiser. In December 1891, Burden retired, sold his share of the company to Bonython, from 1894 to 1929, became the sole proprietor of The Advertiser; as well as being a talented newspaper editor, he supported the movement towards the Federation of Australia. In 1923, after a run of 60 years, The Express was stopped just as its renamed rival, The News, was starting. On 12 January 1929, The Mail announced that Bonython had sold The Advertiser for £1,250,000 to a group of Melbourne financiers The Herald and Weekly Times, an external media company, now had the controlling stake, but Bonython still retained a 48.7% interest. Bonython retired from his newspapers in 1929, after 65 years' service, his son, John Lavington Bonython, became editor.
In February 1931, in the wake of the Great Depression, The Advertiser took over and shut down its ailing competitors, The Register, The Chronicle, The Observer renaming itself for seven months as The Advertiser and Register. On the death of Keith Murdoch in 1952, ownership of The News and The Mail passed to his son Rupert Murdoch via News Limited. Following the handover, in response to suggestions of external influences from Victoria made by competing newspaper The Mail, the Chairman of The Advertiser's board published its policy in The Advertiser as follows: "It is the same today as when the late Sir Langdon Bonython was in sole control, it is based upon a profound pride and belief in South Australia, the system of private enterprise which has made this State what it is." On 24 October 1953 the company launched the Sunday Advertiser in direct competition to News Limited's The Mail, but failed to outreach its rival, though no doubt affecting its profitability. It ceased publication five years or so after which the by renamed Sunday Mail advertised itself as a joint publication of Advertiser Newspapers and News Ltd. and incorporated many of the Sunday Advertiser regular features.
It had introduced colour graphics on the comics page, but this was dropped shortly after joint publication commenced. In addition, The Messenger, published since 1951 was purchased in 1962, owned by 1983; when Murdoch acquired The Herald and Weekly Times in 1987, he acquired the remaining 48.7% share of The Advertiser. He sold The News in 1987, it was closed in 1992. Murdoch changed the format of The Advertiser from a broadsheet to a tabloid in November 1997, the masthead and content font and layout was modernised in September 2009; the Advertiser is available for purchase throughout South Australia and some towns and regions in New South Wales and the Northern Territory located near or adjacent to the South Australia state border such as Broken Hill, Mildura and Alice Springs. According to The Advertiser's website, the newspaper is read by over 580,000 people each weekday, by more than 740,000 people each Saturday. Circulation figures reported in May 2016 by Roy Morgan Research showe
Cockatoo Valley is a settlement in South Australia. At the 2006 census, Cockatoo Valley had a population of 479, it was first discovered and named by Europeans on 3 March 1838 when an exploration party of four young horsemen comprising John Hill, William Wood, Charles Willis, John Oakden camped there on the first overland expedition from Adelaide to reach the River Murray at present Morgan. Oakden reported that the valley was'swarming with cockatoos, seven of which were shot' to roast for supper, they encamped there at'a rivulet' they had discovered named Yettie Creek
Eden Valley, South Australia
Eden Valley is a small South Australian town in the Barossa Ranges. It was named by the surveyors of the area. Eden Valley has an average annual rainfall of 716.2 mm. Eden Valley is in the Barossa Council local government area, the state electoral district of Schubert and the federal divisions of Barker and Mayo. Eden Valley gives its name to a wine growing region that shares its western boundary with the Barossa Valley wine region; the region is of similar size to the Barossa Valley wine region, is well known for producing high quality riesling and shiraz wines. Englishman Joseph Gilbert planted the first Eden Valley vineyard, Pewsey Vale, in 1847. Within the Eden Valley region there is a sub-region called High Eden, located higher in the Barossa Ranges, giving cooler temperatures. List of wineries in the Eden Valley Media related to Eden Valley, South Australia at Wikimedia Commons Eden Valley Wine Region South Australian Tourism Bureau webpage
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin; the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector". Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great, the third son of Frederick William I. Frederick the Great was instrumental in starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia and Sweden and establishing Prussia's role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power.
After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a major power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles, many wars; because of its power, Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule, although whether Austria would be included in such a unified German domain was an ongoing question. After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting their own constitution. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states and Austria; the North German Confederation, which lasted from 1867 to 1871, created a closer union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent. The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were used in the German Empire.
The German Empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony, this was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, with the victory came an overwhelming wave of nationalism which changed the opinions of some of those, against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor of the unified German Reich and as such a direct ancestor of today's Federal Republic of Germany; the formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the Free State of Prussia, which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.
The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. In 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. After the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states, including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia; the towns were poverty stricken, with the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade. Poverty in these towns was caused by Prussia's neighbours, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns could not compete; these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these towns gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west, allowed the urban middle class of Brandenburg to prosper.
It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, as it faced two dangers that the other German territories did not, partition from within and the threat of invasion by its neighbours. It prevented partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea, which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories; the second issue was resolved through expansion. Brandenburg was surrounded on every side by neighbours whose boundaries were political. Any neighbour could consume Brandenburg at any moment; the only way to defend herself was to absorb her neighbours. Through negotiations and marriages Brandenburg but expanded her borders, absorbing neighbours and eliminating the threat of attack; the Hohenzollerns were made rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1518. In 1529 the Hohenzollerns secured the reversion of the Duchy of Pomerania after a series of conflicts, acquired its eastern part following the Peace of Westphalia. In 1618 the Hohenzollerns inherited the Duchy of Prussia, since 1511 ruled by Hohenzollern Albrecht of Brandenburg Prussia, who in 1525 converted the Teutonic Order ruled state to a Protestant Duchy by accepting fiefdom of the crown of Poland.
It was ruled in a personal union with Brandenburg
Gotthard Daniel Fritzsche was a Prussian-Australian pastor who becoming instrumental in furthering that religion in South Australia. He was born in Liebenwerda, in the Electorate of Saxony and migrated to Australia in 1841. From 1842–1863, he was pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, he was buried at Lobethal, South Australia. Gotthard Fritzsche went to Breslau after his gymnasium training. There he studied under Johann Gottfried Scheibel; as was customary, after his university education, he served as a private tutor. At his first examination for entering the ministry, he declared himself to be against the Prussian Union, was banned from ministry in the State church, he joined the underground Old Lutheran church as a Flying Pastor, who travelled from place to place disguised as a travelling tradesman, performing secret worship services and rites to those opposed to the State church. After a time, he grew weary of the work, he travelled to Hamburg. Fritzsche arrived in Hamburg when a group of Prussian Old Lutherans were searching for financing and a pastor to join their group in emigrating to South Australia.
In 1840, at the synodical gathering of the newly constituted Lutheran Church in Australia, a request had been sent to the Old Lutherans in Prussia to send a second pastor to the young German settlement. A requirement had been imposed on them by the Prussian government, that they must be accompanied by a pastor before being allowed to emigrate. Fritzsche was not eager to emigrate, he had declined an invitation by Johannes Grabau to emigrate to the United States. However, he did relent to the requests of the people who were waiting to emigrate to South Australia. Fritzsche travelled to England to meet with George Angas in an attempt to gain financing for the balance of the fares, a sum of over £2000. Angas was unable to provide any financing to the group, it was in early June that a letter was received from a "Mrs. Richardson in Newcastle UK", with a sum of £270; the remainder of the required finances was donated by one of Mrs Anna Nehrlich. Fritzsche had become engaged to her daughter Johanna Dorothea, while in Hamburg.
The group set sail for Australia, on 11 July 1841 on the ship Skjold, arriving on 28 October 1841 at Port Misery, South Australia. The migrants settled at Lobethal, Bethanien. Fritzsche made his home at Lobethal. Fritzsche took on pastoral duties at Lobethal and the neighbouring communities, as part of the German settlement in Australia. Relations with the earlier Prussian settlers was harmonious, but soon deteriorated. In 1842 Pastor August Kavel, in an attempt to consolidate the settlers into one localised community urged the settlers in the early settlements at Klemzig and Hahndorf to relocate to the newly settled Langmeil. Many of the settlers in these towns refused, an underlying tension arose between these communities and Pastor Kavel. Over time, Fritzsche learned that Kavel had developed a millennialistic point of view, had the subject discussed at the synod gatherings in 1844 and 1845. No resolution was reached at these gatherings. In addition to this disagreement, Fritzsche differed with Kavel, in a proclamation released in 1846, regarding the power of civil government in the church.
These disagreements between the two pastors intensified a division which had developed in the Lutheran community. At the synodical gathering at Bethany, on 16 and 17 August 1846, the subject of millennialism was again raised, when the disagreement became heated, a divide was forged, when the Kavel followers left and formed their own synod. At this point, Fritzsche became the head of the Evangelical Church of South Australia; the Confessional Lutheran Emigrations From Prussia And Saxony Around 1839, Martin O. Records from the following Lutheran Churches, Lutheran Church of Australia ArchivesThe Diary of the Voyage, Private webpages of DIANE CUMMINGS Australia, and Fritzsche, Gotthard Daniel, Christian Cyclopedia, The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod
Krondorf, South Australia
Krondorf is a locality in the Barossa Valley in South Australia. The name of the village is derived from the German for Crown's village. Prior to 1918, the name of the locality may have been Kronsdorf. In 1918, it was changed to Kabminye when many Australian placenames were changed to sound less German. An alternate name, proposed instead of Kabminye was Blennerhassett, in honour of Lady Galway, wife of the Governor of South Australia and daughter of Sir Roland Blennerhassett, it was changed back to Krondorf in 1975. Krondorf was first settled in 1847 by Germans from nearby Bethany; the Zum Kripplein Christi Lutheran church was built in 1864 and closed in 1955. The church has been renovated by the owners of Charles Melton Wines, a local winery, to provide bed-and-breakfast accommodation
Truro, South Australia
Truro is a town in South Australia, 80 km northeast of Adelaide. It is situated in an agricultural and pastoral district on the Sturt Highway, east of the Barossa Valley, where the highway crosses somewhat lofty and rugged parts of the Mount Lofty Ranges. At the 2011 census, Truro had a population of 395. Truro is in the Mid Murray Council local government area, the South Australian House of Assembly electoral district of Schubert and the Australian House of Representatives Division of Barker; the town was established on Truro Creek in 1848 by John Howard Angas, the son of George Fife Angas who had bought the land in 1842. The survey was conducted by Thomas Burr, assisted by his son in law Frederick Sinnett, during a period when both were freed from their usual commitments in order to pursue private contracts, it is named after the city of Truro in United Kingdom. It is somewhat uncertain whether the name Truro was given by Angas, or the first settlers in the town, but with the Wheal Barton mine nearby, many of those settlers were Cornish miners, so it is quite that if they were not the namers of the town, they were the inspiration thereof.
The township of Barton was nearby, however that soon became a part of Truro. It was the seat of its own municipality, the District Council of Truro, from 1876 to 1991. Truro has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Baldon Road: Baldon Homestead Complex 37 Moorundie Street: Former Truro Police Station and Cells off Sturt Highway: Stone Wall off Sturt Highway: Accommodation Hill Spring and Pipeline Relics The first industry that European settlers introduced to Truro district, from the early 1840s, was pastoralism the grazing of sheep flocks, watched over by shepherds, on unfenced occupation licenses. Many of the picturesque dry stone walls so prevalent in the district date from this era. Copper was discovered in 1846 and was mined at the Wheal Barton mine 2 km east of Truro from 1849 to 1889 and again between 1956 and 1972; these copper mines are what led to the establishment of the town. The mine was established in 1849, a church erected in the township by August 1850. Truro was the terminus of the Truro railway line from its opening in 1917 until it ceased operating in the 1970s and was permanently closed in the 1980s.
Rainfall in Truro is lower than in the neighbouring Barossa Valley region. For this reason dry grain crop farming of wheat and barley, is more prevalent than viticulture. There are two hotels in Truro. Truro has several tourism offerings, in the form of the renovated Pioneer Park, a specialist olive shop and several antique shops; the town is notable for its service facilities its bakeries, which provide refreshment for tourists and travellers along the Sturt Highway. The breads and pastries are remarkable, not only for their large range but for unifying traditional English and Cornish cuisine with German from the nearby Barossa Valley. During the 1970s the town of Truro gained unwarranted notoriety due to human remains being found scattered among nondescript Mallee scrub upon the arid Murray Plains near Sandleton; this became known as the Truro murders, one of the notable occurrences of serial killing in Australian history. Those human remains were found many tens of kilometres away from Truro, despite these tragic crimes being unrelated to the Truro township, the broadcast media found'Truro' to be a convenient label for them through being the nearest town recognizable to the public