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Bethel, Alaska

Bethel is the largest community on the Kuskokwim River, located 50 mi upriver from where the river flows into Kuskokwim Bay. Bethel is the largest community in western Alaska and in the Unorganized Borough, as well as the ninth largest in the state, with a population of 6,080 as of the 2010 Census. Annual events in Bethel include a dogsled race. Southwestern Alaska has been the homelands of Yup'ik peoples and their ancestors for thousands of years; the residents of what became Bethel were called the Mamterillermiut, meaning "Smokehouse People", after their nearby fish smokehouse. In the late 19th century, the Alaska Commercial Company established a trading post in the town, called Mumtrekhlogamute, which had a population of 41 people by the 1880 US Census. In 1885, the Moravian Church established a mission in the area under the leadership of Rev. William Weinland and Caroline and John Henry Kilbuck, Jr. a Lenape, his wife Edith, a daughter and granddaughter of Moravian missionaries in Kansas.

They both learned Yup'ik, which enhanced their effectiveness as missionaries. He made Yup'ik the language of the Moravian Church in the community and region, helped translate scripture into the people's language; the missionaries moved Bethel from Mamterillermiut to its present location on the west side of the Kuskokwim River. A United States post office was opened in 1905. Alaska Natives in this area have had a long Christian history, in part from Russian Orthodox and Moravian influence; as in many Alaska Native villages, Christian tradition has become interwoven with the people's original culture. Development came to the area during and after World War II, causing a great social disruption among the Alaska Natives. In 1971, Bethel established a community radio station KYUK, a strong influence in the redevelopment and revival of Yup'ik culture and self-definition, it was the first Native-owned and operated radio station in the US. Similar stations were soon started in Kotzebue, by 1990, there were 10 stations in communities of fewer than 3,500 people.

On February 19, 1997, a school shooting attracted widespread media attention to Bethel when 16-year-old Evan Ramsey, a student at Bethel Regional High School and killed his principal and one student and wounded two others, for which he received a 210-year prison sentence. In 2009, Bethel opted out of status as a "Local Option" community, theoretically opening the door to allowing alcohol sales in the city. In October 2015, though, a vote for allowing alcohol sales in Bethel passed and two liquor licenses were approved for existing stores in the city. On November 3, 2015, the Kilbuck building housing both the Ayaprun Elitnaurviat Yup’ik immersion school and the Kuskokwim Learning Academy caught fire, destroying the immersion school and damaging the boarding school. Fire fighters demolished part of the building in an effort to save a media center containing Yup'ik artifacts and elder interviews. Bethel is located at 60°47′32″N 161°45′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 48.7 square miles, of which 43.2 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles, or 11.34%, is water.

Though the region is flat and treeless, Bethel lies inside the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, the second largest wildlife refuge in the United States. Bethel has a subarctic climate, with long, somewhat snowy, moderately cold winters, short, mild summers. Normal monthly mean temperatures range from 6.6 °F in January to 56.1 °F in July, with an annual mean of 30.7 °F. Warm days of above 70 °F can be expected on 14 days per summer. Precipitation is both most frequent and greatest during the summer months, averaging 18.5 inches per year. Snowfall falls in light bouts, is greater in November and December than in January and February, averaging 45 inches a season. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −52 °F on January 18–19 and 25, 1947 up to 90 °F on June 17, 1926; the first settlement at the location of Bethel reported on the 1880 U. S. Census as "Mumtrekhlagamute Station." It had 29 Inuit. 1/2 mile away was the adjacent Mumtrekhlagamute Village (1880 population: 41. Bethel was established at Mumtrekhlagamute Station in 1885 and supplanted it by the 1890 U.

S. Census, it reported 20 residents. Mumtrekhlagamiut would be absorbed into Bethel. Bethel did not appear on the 1900 Census, but has on every census since 1910, it would formally incorporate as a city in 1957. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,471 people, 1,741 households, 1,190 families residing in the city; the population density was 125.0 people per square mile. There were 1,990 housing units at an average density of 45.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 26.83% White, 0.93% Black or African American, 61.78% Native American, 2.87% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 6.91% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.70% of the population. There were 1,741 households out of which 44.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.2% had someone liv

List of rivers of Sergipe

List of rivers in Sergipe. The list is arranged by drainage basin from north to south, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name and ordered from downstream to upstream. All rivers in Sergipe drain to the Atlantic Ocean. São Francisco River Betume River Salgado River Capivara River Cachorro River Campos Novos River Jacaré River Sapucaia River Japaratuba River Siriri River Sergipe River Poxim River Poxim Mirim River Poxim Açu River Pomonga River Parnamirim River Do Sal River Cotinguiba River Jacarecica River Jacoca River Cágado River Da Campanha River Salgado River Das Lajes River Socavão River Vaza-Barris River Santa Maria River Pitanga River Salgado River Piauí River Indiaroba River Pagão River Fundo River Piauitinga River Arauá River Jacaré River Real River Itamirim River Jabiberi River Arauá River Betume River Cachorro River Cágado River Da Campanha River Campos Novos River Capivara River Cotinguiba River Fundo River Indiaroba River Itamirim River Jabiberi River Jacaré River Jacaré River Jacarecica River Jacoca River Japaratuba River Das Lajes River Pagão River Parnamirim River Piauí River Piauitinga River Pitanga River Pomonga River Poxim Açu River Poxim Mirim River Poxim River Real River Do Sal River Salgado River Salgado River Salgado River Santa Maria River São Francisco River Sapucaia River Sergipe River Siriri River Socavão River Vaza-Barris River Ministry of Transport map GEOnet Names Server

Vilhelm Petersen

Vilhelm Valdemar Petersen was a Danish architect who became Royal Building Inspector from 1892 until his death. He was the father of architect Knud Arne Petersen. Vilhelm Petersen was born in Copenhagen in 1830, he was admitted to the Art Academy in 1843, when just 13 years old, where he studied decorative arts. He turned to architecture and became a student of Gustav Friedrich Hetsch for whom he worked as an assistant and draughtsman. For a few years he apprenticed as a mason to acquire practical knowledge of the building trade. In 1856, he won the Academy's Honorary Medal and in 1860 its large gold medal, accompanied by a four-year travel scholarship which brought him to Germany, the Netherlands and Italy. Back in Denmark, he became a member of the Art Academy in 1866 and he served as Building Inspector in Copenhagen from 1869 until 1874, he became a titular professor at the Art Academy and from 1887 until 1911 was a member of the Academy Council. In 1892 he received appointment as an office he held until his death.

Vilhelm Petersen's earliest independent works include a new Custom House and a building for the Royal Nautical Charts Archive and Meteorological Institute, both completed at Nordre Toldbod in Copenhagen in 1873. Another early work was a large residential development, Søtorvet, which he designed for the Copenhagen Building Company in collaboration with Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen and under supervision of Ferdinand Meldahl, it was built on a prominent location overlooking The Copenhagen Lakes between 1873 and 1876 and relied on inspiration from Paris. His new Town Hall and Jailhouse in Roskilde was completed in 1878, his building for the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters at Dantes Plads in Copenhagen, built between 1894 and 1898 in Renaissance Revival style, is considered his most successful work. Other late commissions include hospitals, such as the new building for Almindeligt Hospital, a few churches and custom houses in Frederiksværk, Rønne and Nykøbing Falster. Architecture of Denmark

Antoine Polier

Colonel Antoine-Louis Henri de Polier was a Swiss adventurer, art collector, military engineer and soldier who made his fortune in India in the eighteenth century. He was the father of Count Adolphe de Polier. Antoine-Louis was born in Lausanne from a French Huguenot family who emigrated to Switzerland in the mid 16th century to escape the wars of religion, he was the youngest son of his wife Jeanne-Françoise Moreau. He learned Hindi and Persian. Antoine Polier was an engineer from Lausanne who supported the military adventures of Robert Clive and became a rich trader and loyal supporter of the British Raj administration in Calcutta, he devoted his free moments to collecting rare manuscripts in Sanskrit and Arabic. Many were sent back to France to augment the growing collection in the Royal Library. France was now the center for the study of ancient Indian languages and its'orientalism' spread to Germany in the early 1800s as Europe began to show a keen interest in early Indian-Persian-Zoroastrian origins.

In India, he had two Indian wives and Zinat, one senior and one junior and three children who were all baptized in Calcutta. He became rich working for the Indian royalty. In 1788 he left his Indian wives with his loyal companion and fellow enlightened adventurer, Claude Martin, and settled in France with an unfortunate timing as he arrived in time for the French revolution. Having purchased a chateau and taking a French wife and two children, Charles de Polier and Adolphe de Polier, he was assassinated in Avignon on February 9, 1795 in the terror that followed the French revolution. His collection of miniatures are in Berlin. Claude Martin A European Experience of the Mughal Orient: The I’jaz-i Arsalani of Antoine-Louis-Henri Polier - Translated with an introduction by Muzaffar Alam and Seema Alavi. Pub. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-564980-XJean-Marie Lafont, Indika. Essays in Indo-French Relations 1630-1976. New Delhi 2000. ISBN 81-7304 278 0

Ifremeria nautilei

Ifremeria nautilei is a species of large, deepwater hydrothermal vent sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Provannidae, the only species in the genus Ifremeria. This species lives in the South Pacific Ocean Other species in the family Provannidae live in similar deepwater hydrothermal vent habitats; as is the case in species in the genus Alviniconcha, the tissues of Ifremeria nautilei contain symbiotic bacteria which live on the sulfur from the vents, the snails derive their nutrition from this symbiosis. This species is notable because the female snails have a brood pouch on the foot, because they release a gastropod larval form which had never been observed and described before until 2008. Ifremeria nautilei attains a maximum dimension of 85 mm, larger than other abyssochroids; this species hosts symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria. This arrangement enables it to satisfy most of its metabolic requirements; this species is unique among the others in this superfamily in two respects.

Firstly females of the species possess a brood pouch in the foot. Secondly the species releases unusual unknown, uniformly ciliated lecithotrophic larvae, which are now known as Warén's larvae; these are free swimming larvae. They metamorphose after 15 days into the more usual form. Warén's larva, is the first new gastropod larval form; this species occurs at depths between 1,700 m and 2,900 m, in hydrothermal vents and hydrocarbon cold seeps in the Valufa Ridge, southeast of Fiji, in the South Pacific Ocean. "Ilfremeria nautilei". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019. Desbruyères D. Segonzac M. & Bright M.. Handbook of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Fauna. Second Edition Denisia 18: 1-544.. Osca D. Templado J. & Zardoya R.. "The mitochondrial genome of Ifremeria nautilei and the phylogenetic position of the enigmatic deep-sea Abyssochrysoidea". Gene 547: 257-266. Suzuki Y. Kojima S. Watanabe H. Suzuki M. Tsuchida S. et al.. "Single host and symbiont lineages of hydrothermal vent gastropods, Ifremeria nautilei: biogeography and evolution".

Marine Ecology Progress Series 315: 167–175. Doi:10.3354/meps315167. Windoffer & Giere. "Symbiosis of the Hydrothermal Vent Gastropod Ifremeria nautilei with Endobacteria - Structural analyses and ecological considerations". The Biological Bulletin 193: 381-392

De Vargas Street House

De Vargas Street House, located at 215 East De Vargas Street on the eastern side of Old Santa Fe Trail in Santa Fe, New Mexico within the Barrio De Analco Historic District, is one of the Oldest buildings in America. The Oldest House rests on part of the foundation of an ancient Indian Pueblo dating from around 1200 AD; this pueblo was once inhabited by a tribe from the Tano speaking tribes of the northern part of the territory. Sometime around 1435 AD, this tribe abandoned their village, moving on to other sites farther south in search of water, better fields or hunting grounds. In 1598, Don Juan de Onate led a party of Spanish settlers into the area in search of a suitable place to establish a permanent settlement. Accompanying Onate were Tlaxcalen Indian warrior auxiliaries; the small band seems to have gravitated to their own ward, or barrio, soon known as El Barrio de Analco at the same time La Villa Real de Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asisi was founded in 1608. The Tlaxcala's found; the river provided ample water for the irrigation of cornfields to the south of the San Miguel Church and an abundance of sweet tasting stream trout to grace their tables.

During the Great Pueblo Rebellion, the Indians of the Barrio de Analco suffered greatly. Their homes were burned with a heavy loss of life; the survivors retreated across the river and joined the Spaniards in a spirited but unsuccessful defense of the Villa. The Spanish withdrew from the Villa with the Tlaxcalans. Only a few of the first Tlaxcalans are believed to have returned to Santa Fe after the reconquest by Don Diego de Vargas in 1692–93. Between 1709–1710 the "Oldest House" became temporary residence to Spanish Territorial Governor Chacon Medina Salazar, Marquez de Penuela, while repairs were being made to the San Miguel Church. By the late 1800s, genizaros or acculturated plains Indians such as the Apaches and Navajos, as well as the families of Spanish soldiers were living in the Barrio. Up until the 1920s the Oldest House was continually occupied by people representing all the cultures of Santa Fe. Santa Fe oldest house Henry Whitfield Museum, Guildford, Ct