Every Girl Should Be Married
Every Girl Should Be Married is a 1948 American romantic comedy film directed by Don Hartman and starring Cary Grant, Betsy Drake and Franchot Tone. Grant and Drake married a year after the films release, department store salesclerk Anabel Sims is very enamoured with the idea of getting married. So when handsome pediatrician Dr. Madison Brown asks for her help in making a purchase and he is quite happy as a bachelor, but Anabel proves to be a very determined schemer. She learns all she can about him, everything from where he went to school to his favourite foods, Madison soon realises her intentions and does his best to fend off the young woman. Anabel makes a reservation at a restaurant on a day when she knows that Madison habitually dines there, in an attempt to make him jealous, she pretends to be waiting for wealthy, thrice-married playboy Roger Sanford, who happens to be her employer and Madisons university classmate. Fortunately for her, Roger believes that she is using Madison as a ruse to get acquainted with him, the manoeuvre fails, Madisons feelings remain unchanged.
Anabel comes up with more ingenious schemes, but they are all unsuccessful, Roger falls in love with her. He eventually asks her to him, but she only invites him to dinner at her home. When Anabels best friend Julie warns Madison, he begins to worry, the doctor invites himself to the little soirée. While waiting for Anabel, they are joined by Old Joe, Anabels longtime hometown beau. At first, Madison congratulates them, but after thinking about it, Anabel leaves the decision up to Joe, who bows out, saying that he only wants her to be happy. After Joe leaves, Madison informs Anabel that her research on him was incomplete, the films lead actors, Cary Grant and Betsy Drake were married in real life one year after the films release. Grant spotted Drake performing in a play in London two years before the films release called Deep are the Roots. Grant was reportedly intrigued by her talent and charm and Drake became friends and soon were romantically involved. Barbara Bel Geddes was initially intended to play Anabel Sims but Grant, Grant made sure he had a say in anything that concerned Drakes performance from lighting to dialogue and used his influence on everyone involved with the film.
Actress Lois Hall made her motion picture debut in this film, according to an interview with gossip columnist Hedda Hopper, Drake believed if everyone thought she had gotten her breakthrough because of Grant, they were very wrong about him and her. She further suggested that Grant had simply made it possible for them to share a creative experience with their real-life chemistry, an instrumental version of Charles Trenets La Mer is played several times in the film. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times praised Betsy Drakes performance, the weekly American entertainment trade magazine Variety described Drakes performance in the film as a tour de force in the romantic comedy vein
Room for One More (film)
Room for One More is a 1952 comedy-drama film starring Cary Grant and directed by Norman Taurog. In 1962 the film became the basis for a television series with a different cast. Anna visits an orphanage and decides to foster a child, Jane, a very unhappy 13-year-old, moves in with her, her engineer husband, Poppy Rose, and her three children. Later, 12-year-old orphan Jimmy-John, who walks with an orthopedic disability, setbacks occur as the children struggle with acceptance by their new siblings. A boys snobby mother forbids him to take Jane to a school dance, but she attends anyhow, wearing a new gown. Jimmy-John smashes his new bicycle in frustration, feeling that his new siblings are not accepting him and it is discovered that he can barely read, and must be tutored by Anna. Poppy seriously considers returning the two adoptees to the orphanage, all these setbacks are overcome and the two new children become full members of the family. Jimmy-John makes a difficult hike alone in the snow to fulfill a Scouting requirement, at a school PTA meeting, Anna makes a speech to parents on the rewards of adopting older children.
The story ends with Jimmy-John receiving his highly-coveted Eagle Scout medal at a Court of Honor ceremony. Room for One More at the Internet Movie Database Room for One More at the TCM Movie Database Room for One More at AllMovie Room for One More at the American Film Institute Catalog
Sophia Loren is an Italian film actress. Encouraged to enroll in acting lessons after entering a beauty pageant and she appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, until her five-picture contract with Paramount in 1956 launched her international career. Notable film appearances around this time include The Pride and the Passion, after starting her family in the early 1970s, Loren spent less time on her acting career and chose to make only occasional film appearances. In years, she has appeared in American films such as Grumpier Old Men, in 1995, she received the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievements, one of such awards. In 1999, Loren was acknowledged as one of the top 25 female American Screen Legends in the American Film Institutes survey, AFIs 100 Years.100 Stars. Loren was born Sofia Villani Scicolone in the Clinica Regina Margherita in Rome, the daughter of Romilda Villani and Riccardo Scicolone, Riccardo Scicolone refused to marry Villani, leaving the piano teacher and aspiring actress without support.
Lorens parents had another child together, her sister Maria, in 1938, Loren has two younger paternal half-brothers and Giuseppe. Romilda and Maria lived with Lorens grandmother in Pozzuoli, during World War II, the harbour and munitions plant in Pozzuoli was a frequent bombing target of the Allies. During one raid, as Loren ran to the shelter, she was struck by shrapnel, after that, the family moved to Naples, where they were taken in by distant relatives. After the war and her returned to Pozzuoli. Lorens grandmother Luisa opened a pub in their room, selling homemade cherry liquor. Romilda Villani played the piano, Maria sang, and Loren waited on tables, the place was popular with the American GIs stationed nearby. When she was 14, Sofia entered a beauty pageant, Miss Italia 1950 and, she enrolled in acting class and was selected as an uncredited extra in Mervyn LeRoys film Quo Vadis, at the age of 15. In 1951, she appeared in Italian film Era lui. sì. sì. where she played an odalisque. She appeared in bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade.
She began using her current stage name in La Favorita, the new name being a twist on the name of the Swedish actress Märta Torén and was suggested by Goffredo Lombardo or Carlo Ponti and her first starring role was in Aida, for which she received critical acclaim. After playing the role in Two Nights with Cleopatra, her breakthrough role was in The Gold of Naples
RMS Queen Mary
RMS Queen Mary is a retired ocean liner that sailed primarily on the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line. The two ships were a British response to the built by German and French companies in the late 1920s. Queen Mary was the flagship of the Cunard Line from May 1936 until October 1946 when she was replaced in that role by Queen Elizabeth, with the outbreak of the Second World War, she was converted into a troopship and ferried Allied soldiers for the duration of the war. Following the war, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service, the two ships dominated the transatlantic passenger transportation market until the dawn of the jet age in the late 1950s. By the mid-1960s, Queen Mary was ageing and, though still among the most popular transatlantic liners, was operating at a loss, after several years of decreased profits for Cunard Line, Queen Mary was officially retired from service in 1967. She left Southampton for the last time on 31 October 1967 and sailed to the port of Long Beach, United States, where she remains permanently moored.
Much of the machinery, including one of the two rooms, three of the four propellers, and all of the boilers, were removed. The ship serves as a tourist attraction featuring restaurants, a museum, the ship is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Trust for Historic Preservation has accepted the Queen Mary as part of the Historic Hotels of America, with Germany launching Bremen and Europa into service, Britain did not want to be left behind in the shipbuilding race. White Star Line began construction on their 80, 000-ton Oceanic in 1928, while Cunard planned a 75, 000-ton unnamed ship of their own. Construction on the ship, only as Hull Number 534. Work was halted in December 1931 due to the Great Depression, the loan was granted, with enough money to complete Queen Mary and to build a sister ship, Hull No. Both lines agreed and the merger was completed on 10 May 1934, work on Queen Mary resumed immediately and she was launched on 26 September 1934. Completion ultimately took 3 1⁄2 years and cost 3.5 million pounds sterling, much of the ships interior was designed and constructed by the Bromsgrove Guild.
The ship was named after Queen Mary, consort of King George V, until her launch, the name she was to be given was kept a closely guarded secret. And so, the legend goes, the delegation had of course no other choice and this story was denied by company officials, and traditionally the names of sovereigns have only been used for capital ships of the Royal Navy. Some support for the story was provided by Washington Post editor Felix Morley, in his 1979 autobiography, For the Record, Morley wrote that he was placed at table with Sir Percy Bates, chairman of the Cunard Line. Bates told him the story of the naming of the ship on condition you wont print it during my lifetime
Houseboat is a 1958 Technicolor romantic comedy VistaVision film starring Cary Grant, Sophia Loren, Martha Hyer, Paul Petersen, Charles Herbert, and Mimi Gibson. The movie was directed by Melville Shavelson, who directed the original version of Yours, Mine. The love theme Almost In Your Arms, sung by Sam Cooke, sung by Loren, were written by Jay Livingston and Ray Evans. For several years, Tom Winters has been estranged from his wife, the film begins as he returns home from Europe shortly after his wifes death. The children resent their father, and, at a concert, Robert runs away. He is found by Cinzia Zaccardi and she too is running away and is enchanted by little Roberto and his harmonica. When she brings him home, Tom offers her a job as a maid. Carolyn, now divorced from her husband, offers Tom and the children her old guest house, feeling guilty, Angelo sells Tom his leaky, run-down, old houseboat. Once moved in, Tom discovers that Cinzia is unable to cook, do laundry and others incorrectly assume that Cinzias relationship with Tom is sexual, while she innocently wins the affection of Tom and the children.
Meanwhile, Tom spends his evenings with Carolyn, who is secretly in love with him, on the 4th of July, she tries to embarrass Cinzia by selecting a gaudy dress for Tom to buy for her, but Cinzia transforms it into an elegant evening gown. She looks so beautiful in the gown that Angelo, a womanizer, cancels a date with her out of a fear of falling in love. That evening, Carolyn arrives at the boat with Captain Alan Wilson, who is somewhat drunk, jokes about Cinzias living arrangement with Tom and slaps her on the behind as she serves drinks. She calls him an ill-mannered lout and throws a drink in his face before walking off, Tom asks Alan to leave the boat, but Carolyn takes Alans side, following which Tom asks all three guests to leave. David cheers Cinzia up, and they make plans to go fishing, once there, Tom reconciles with Carolyn, and they agree to get married. As he dances with Cinzia, he realizes he is in love with her, but she learns of the proposal, becomes upset. Tom catches her and breaks it off with Carolyn, a little while later, David unhappily finds them kissing in a rowboat.
The children do not want Tom to marry Cinzia, David calls her ugly, Robert rejects her as a mother figure, and Elizabeth wants to continue sleeping in Toms bed with him. Discouraged by this, Cinzia returns to her father, Maestro Zaccardi, the wedding takes place on the houseboat
Hypnosis is a state of human consciousness involving focused attention and reduced peripheral awareness and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. Theories explaining what occurs during hypnosis fall into two groups, altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary conscious state. In contrast, nonstate theories see hypnosis as a form of imaginative role enactment, during hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened focus and concentration. The person can concentrate intensely on a thought or memory. Hypnotised subjects are said to show a response to suggestions. Hypnosis is usually induced by a known as a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions. The use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as hypnotherapy, stage hypnosis is often performed by mentalists practicing the art form of mentalism. The term hypnosis comes from the ancient Greek word ὕπνος hypnos and the suffix -ωσις -osis, or from ὑπνόω hypnoō, put to sleep and the suffix -is.
The words hypnosis and hypnotism both derive from the term neuro-hypnotism, all of which were coined by Étienne Félix dHenin de Cuvillers in 1820 and these words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers, a person in a state of hypnosis is relaxed, has focused attention, and has increased suggestibility. It could be said that suggestion is explicitly intended to make use of the placebo effect. For example, in 1994, Irving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a placebo, i. e. a method that openly makes use of suggestion. Have defined hypnosis in terms of dissociation, Social psychologists Sarbin and Coe. have described hypnosis in terms of role theory. Hypnosis is a role that play, they act as if they were hypnotised. Defined hypnosis in terms of behavioural parameters, such as task motivation. Conceptualised hypnosis as a state of enhanced suggestibility and he has defined hypnotism as a form of influence by one person exerted on another through the medium or agency of suggestion.
Described hypnosis by using the concept of regression in the service of the ego
The Second Woman
The Second Woman is a 1950 film noir mystery-suspense film directed by James V. Kern and featuring Robert Young, Betsy Drake, John Sutton and Florence Bates. Sequences of the film were shot on the areas of Monterey. This psychological thriller tells the story of Jeff Cohalan and he is a successful architect who is tormented because his fiancée, Vivian Sheppard, was killed in a mysterious car accident on the night before their wedding. Blaming himself for her death, Cohalan spends his time alone, Cohalan notices that ever since the accident, he seems to be followed by bad luck. His horse and dog turn up dead without explanation, leading him to wonder if he has been cursed and he meets a woman named Ellen, and they are immediately attracted to each other. She soon learns about Jeffs past and begins to suspect that Jeff may be more in danger than he himself realizes. Turns out his would have been father-in-law and partner in architecture and he held Jeff responsible for the death of his daughter.
But the driver of the car was a man, with whom Vivian was having an affair. Ben himself had a run away from him, and has a psychotic break when confronted with the truth behind why his daughter was in a car crash. Thinking Ellen is Vivian, and angry at his wifes running off, Jeff gets hit in the shoulder protecting Ellen. It all ends well, with Jeff and Ellen getting together and he wrote, The Second Woman is an intriguing if frustrating little thriller -- frustrating because it verges on being very good but settles for being merely OK. Part of the problem is that Woman combines elements of various styles -- film noir, psychological drama, thriller, romance --, all in all, The Second Woman is a good attempt that is worth watching, even if it falls short of reaching its goals. Film critic Dennis Schwartz was disappointed, Robert Young gives a performance that is somewhat credible. The films ultimate villain is the real estate industry that is spoiling the natural beauty in its need to make lots of money, but the brooding melodrama, thought of by many as film noir, never seemed vibrant as a thriller
Hal B. Wallis
Harold Brent Hal Wallis was an American film producer. He is best remembered for producing Casablanca and True Grit, along many other major films for Warner Bros. featuring such film stars as Humphrey Bogart, Bette Davis. Later on, for a period, he was connected with Paramount Pictures and oversaw films featuring Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Elvis Presley. Aaron Blum Wolowicz was born October 19,1898 in Chicago and his family moved in 1922 to Los Angeles, where he found work as part of the publicity department at Warner Bros. in 1923. Within a few years, Wallis became involved in the end of the business. In a career spanned more than 50 years, he was involved with the production of more than 400 feature-length movies. Among the more significant movies he produced were Casablanca, Dark Victory, The Adventures of Robin Hood, The Maltese Falcon, Sergeant York and he left Warner Bros. in 1944, after a clash with Jack L. Warner over Warners acceptance of the Best Picture Oscar for Casablanca, to work as an independent producer, the first screenwriters he hired for his new enterprise were Ayn Rand and Lillian Hellman.
Among his financial hits were the Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis comedies and he produced True Grit, for which John Wayne won the Academy Award for Best Actor of 1969, and its sequel. After moving to Universal Pictures, he produced Mary, Queen of Scots and he received 16 Academy Award producer nominations for Best Picture, winning for Casablanca in 1943. For his consistently high quality of motion picture production, he was honored with the Academy Awards Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award. He was nominated for seven Golden Globe awards, twice winning awards for Best Picture, in 1975, he received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures, in 1980, he published his autobiography, cowritten with Charles Higham. In the 1930s Mr. Wallis used his investment dollars to develop real estate in Sherman Oaks. He named one of the streets after himself using his nickname Hal, halbrent Avenue, Sherman Oaks, CA is the street and most of the original homes are still standing today.
Its very close to Ventura and Sepulveda Boulevards near the infamous Sherman Oaks Galleria used extensively in the 1982 movie romp Fast Times at Ridgemont High. Wallis was married twice, to actress Louise Fazenda from 1927 until her death in 1962 and he had one son with Fazenda, Brent Harris. Wallis died in 1986 of complications of diabetes in Rancho Mirage, news of his passing was not released until after his private memorial service was completed
Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College.
Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
General Electric Theater
General Electric Theater was an American anthology series hosted by Ronald Reagan that was broadcast on CBS radio and television. The series was sponsored by General Electrics Department of Public Relations, jaime del Valle produced and directed the show. Ken Carpenter was the host and announcer, stereo Theater, the program was the first network radio series to be broadcast on FM in stereo. The television version of the program, produced by MCA-TV/Revue, was broadcast every Sunday evening at 9,00 pm EST, beginning February 11953, and ending May 271962. Each of the estimated 209 television episodes was an adaptation of a novel, short story, film, an exception was the 1954 episode Music for Christmas, which featured choral director Fred Waring and his group The Pennsylvanians performing Christmas music. On September 26,1954, Ronald Reagan debuted as the only host of the program, GE added a host to provide continuity in the anthology format. General Electric Theater made the already well-known Reagan, who had appeared in films as a second lead throughout his career, wealthy.
After eight years as host, Reagan estimated he had visited 135 GE research and manufacturing facilities, who would be known as The Great Communicator because of his oratorical prowess, often credited these engagements as helping him develop his public-speaking abilities. Among the guest stars on the anthology were, Reagan was fired by General Electric in 1962 in response to his reference to the Tennessee Valley Authority as one of the problems of big government. This program started as a flood control project, the Tennessee Valley was periodically ravaged by destructive floods, the Army Engineers set out to solve this problem. They said that it was possible that once in 500 years there could be a total capacity flood that would inundate some 600,000 acres and they made a permanent lake which inundated a million acres. This solved the problem of floods, but the annual interest on the TVA debt is five times as great as the flood damage they sought to correct. Of course, you point out that TVA gets electric power from the impounded waters, and this is true.
The series was not dropped because of low ratings but political intervention, Michael claimed that Robert Kennedy told GE officials that the company would receive no federal contracts so long as Reagan was host of the series. S. According to Michael Reagan, Kennedys directive is another example of the law of unintended consequences, had Kennedy stayed out of GE contract matters, there would have been no Governor or President Reagan, speculates Michael Reagan. In fact, the primary reason Reagan was fired by General Electric for his comments regarding the TVA was that the TVA was one of General Electrics biggest customers. General Electric was and remains the largest supplier of equipment to the TVA, don Herbert, a television personality well known as the host of Watch Mr. Wizard, appeared as the General Electric Progress Reporter, adding a scientific touch to the institutional advertising pitch. The show was produced by Revue Studios, whose successor-in-interest, NBC Universal Television, was co-owned by GE, following General Electric Theaters cancellation in 1962, the series was replaced in the same time slot by the short-lived GE-sponsored GE True, hosted by Jack Webb
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
Elia Kazan was a Greek-American director, producer and actor, described by The New York Times as one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history. He was born in Istanbul, to Cappadocian Greek parents, after attending Williams College and the Yale School of Drama, he acted professionally for eight years, joining the Group Theater in 1932, and co-founded the Actors Studio in 1947. With Robert Lewis and Cheryl Crawford, his actors studio introduced Method Acting under the direction of Lee Strasberg, Kazan acted in a few films, including City for Conquest. Noted for drawing out the best dramatic performances from his actors, he directed 21 actors to Oscar nominations and he directed a string of successful films, including A Streetcar Named Desire, On the Waterfront, and East of Eden. During his career, he won two Oscars as Best Director and received an Honorary Oscar, won three Tony Awards, and four Golden Globes and his films were concerned with personal or social issues of special concern to him.
Kazan writes, I dont move unless I have some empathy with the basic theme and his first such issue film was Gentlemans Agreement, with Gregory Peck, which dealt with anti-Semitism in America. It received 8 Oscar nominations and 3 wins, including Kazans first for Best Director and it was followed by Pinky, one of the first films in mainstream Hollywood to address racial prejudice against black people. In 1954, he directed On the Waterfront, a film about corruption on the New York harbor waterfront. A Streetcar Named Desire, an adaptation of the play which he had directed, received 12 Oscar nominations, winning 4. In 1955, he directed John Steinbecks East of Eden, which introduced James Dean to movie audiences and his testimony helped end the careers of former acting colleagues Morris Carnovsky and Art Smith, along with ending the work of playwright Clifford Odets. Kazan justified his act by saying he took only the more tolerable of two alternatives that were either way painful and wrong, nearly a half-century later, his anti-Communist testimony continued to cause controversy.
When Kazan was awarded an honorary Oscar in 1999, dozens of actors not to applaud as 250 demonstrators picketed the event. Kazan influenced the films of the 1950s and 60s with his provocative, Director Stanley Kubrick called him, without question, the best director we have in America, capable of performing miracles with the actors he uses. Film author Ian Freer concludes that if his achievements are tainted by political controversy, in 2010, Martin Scorsese co-directed the documentary film A Letter to Elia as a personal tribute to Kazan. Elia Kazan was born in the Fener district of Istanbul, to Cappadocian Greek parents originally from Kayseri in Anatolia and his parents and Athena Kazantzoglou, emigrated to the United States when he was four years old. He was named after his grandfather, Elia Kazantzoglou. His maternal grandfather was Isaak Shishmanoglou, elias brother, was born in Berlin and became a psychiatrist. As a young boy, he was remembered as being shy, much of his early life was portrayed in his autobiographical book, America America, which he made into a film in 1963