Brownsville is a city in Cameron County in the U. S. state of Texas. It located on the western Gulf Coast in South Texas, adjacent to the border with Mexico; the city covers 81.528 square miles and has a population of 183,299 as of 2017. It is 16th-largest in Texas, it is part of the Brownsville–Matamoros conurbation, with a population of 1,136,995 people. The city is known for deep-water seaport and Hispanic culture; the city was founded in 1848 by American entrepreneur Charles Stillman after he developed a successful river boat company nearby. It was named after Major Jacob Brown, who fought and died while serving as a U. S. Army soldier during the Mexican–American War; as the city is the seat of government for the county of Cameron, the city and county government are major employers. Other primary employers fall within the service and manufacturing industries, including a growing aerospace and space transportation sector, it operates international trading through the Port of Brownsville. The city experienced a population increase in the early 1900s.
Brownsville is cited as having one of the highest poverty rates in the United States. Due to significant historical events, the city has multiple houses and battle sites listed under the National Register of Historic Places, it was the scene of several key events of the American Civil War, such as the Battle of Brownsville and the Battle of Palmito Ranch. The city was involved in the Texas Revolution as well as the Mexican–American War. Brownsville's idiosyncratic geographic location has made it a wildlife refuge center. Several state parks and historical sites are protected by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. In 1781, Spanish government officials granted José Salvador de la Garza 59 leagues of land, he used the land to construct a ranch several miles northwest of the area. During the early 1800s, Brownsville was known to residents as los tejidos; the area was inhabited by a few settlers around 1836 when Texas declared its independence from Mexico. On February 4, 1846, President James K. Polk instructed American General Zachary Taylor and his troops to begin moving south towards Brownsville.
Once Taylor arrived, he built Fort Texas. It was renamed Fort Brown in honor of American General Jacob Brown, one of two deceased soldiers during the Siege of Fort Texas. Charles Stillman arrived in Matamoros in 1828 from Connecticut to help his father in the mercantile business. Brownsville became part of Texas after the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. During that year, Stillman formed a partnership with Samuel Belden and Simon Mussina to form the Brownsville Town Company, they sold lots valued at $1,500. The city of Brownsville was established in late 1848 by Stillman, was made the county seat of Cameron County on January 13, 1849; the state incorporated the city on January 24, 1850. This was repealed on April 1, 1852, because of a land-ownership dispute between Stillman and its former owners; the state reincorporated the city on February 7, 1853. The issue of ownership was not decided until 1879 when the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Stillman. On April 25, 1846, Captain Seth B.
Thornton received reports of Mexican troops crossing the Rio Grande river. Thornton and 63 U. S. Dragoons discovered several houses in the area. Mexican General Anastasio Torrejón crossed the Rio Grande the previous day, he commanded 1,600 cavalry and infantry troops to surround Thornton's troops in fractions. Due to heavy force from Torrejón's troops, Thornton's troops surrendered. 11 American casualties were reported. Reports of the incident were sent to President James K. Polk who announced that "American blood has been spilled upon the American territory". On May 13, the United States Congress declared war against Mexico. American General Zachary Taylor retreated from Fort Brown on May 1, 1846. On May 3, Arista and the Mexican Army began the Siege of Fort Texas, during the first active campaign in the Mexican–American War; this was counteracted by the United States 7th Infantry Regiment. Despite heavy strikes, Mexican General Pedro de Ampudia outlined a traditional siege to move forward. General Zachary Taylor began moving towards Fort Brown.
Mexican troops intercepted them near Palo Alto 5 miles north of present-day Brownsville, resulting in the first battle of the war. The following day, Mexican troops had retreated. Taylor's troops charged up to them resulting in the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, which took place within the present city limits; when Taylor arrived at the besieged Fort Texas, he found that two soldiers including the fort's commander Major Jacob Brown, had died. Brown, who suffered an injury when a cannonball hit his leg, died three days after his injury on May 9. In his honor, General Taylor renamed the facility as Fort Brown. An old cannon at the University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College marks the spot where Major Brown received his fatal wound. On July 13, 1859, Juan Cortina saw Brownsville city Marshal Robert Sheers arrest and beat an elderly man, a ranch hand at his mother's ranch. Cortina approached the marshal, questioning his motives, before shooting him twice after he refused to release the man.
The first shot missed Sheers, but the second struck his shoulder causing him to fall t
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall
Abilene is a city in Taylor and Jones counties in Texas, United States. The population was 117,463 at the 2010 census, making it the 27th-most populous city in the state of Texas, it is the principal city of the Abilene Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2017 estimated population of 170,219. It is the county seat of Taylor County. Dyess Air Force Base is located on the west side of the city. Abilene is located between exits 279 on its western edge and 292 on the east. Abilene is 150 miles west of Fort Worth; the city is looped by I-20 to the north, US 83/84 on the west, Loop 322 to the east. A railroad divides the city down the center into south; the historic downtown area is on the north side of the railroad. Established by cattlemen as a stock shipping point on the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881, the city was named after Abilene, the original endpoint for the Chisholm Trail; the T&P had bypassed the town of the county seat at the time. A landowner north of Buffalo Gap, Clabe Merchant, known as the father of Abilene, chose the name for the new town.
According to a Dallas newspaper, about 800 people had begun camping at the townsite before the lots were sold. The town was laid out by Colonel J. Stoddard Johnson, the auction of lots began early on March 15, 1881. By the end of the first day, 139 lots were sold for a total of $23,810, another 178 lots were sold the next day for $27,550. Abilene was incorporated soon after being founded in 1881, Abilenians began to set their sights on bringing the county seat to Abilene, in a three-to-one vote, won the election. In 1888, the Progressive Committee was formed to attract businesses to the area, which became the Board of Trade in 1890. By 1900, 3,411 people lived in Abilene, in that decade, the Board of Trade changed its name to the 25,000 Club in the hope of reaching 25,000 people by the next census. However, this committee failed when the population only hit 9,204 in 1910. Replacing it was the Young Men's Booster Club, which became the Abilene Chamber of Commerce in 1914; the cornerstone was laid for the first of three future universities in Abilene, called Simmons College, in 1891, which became Hardin–Simmons University.
Childers Classical Institute followed in 1906 Abilene Christian University, the largest of the three. In 1923, McMurry College was founded and became McMurry University. Much more Abilene succeeded in bringing Cisco Junior College and Texas State Technical College branches to Abilene, with the Cisco Junior College headquarters being located in Abilene. In 1940, Abilene raised the money to purchase land for a U. S. Army base, southwest of town, named Camp Barkeley, at the time twice the size of Abilene with 60,000 men; when the base closed, many worried that Abilene could become a ghost town, but in the post-World War II boom, many servicemen returned to start businesses in Abilene. In the early-1950s, residents raised $893,261 to purchase 3,400 acres of land for an Air Force base. Today, Dyess Air Force Base is the city's largest employer, with 6,076 employees. Abilene's population nearly doubled in 10 years from 45,570 in 1950 to 90,638. In the same year, a second high school was added, Cooper High School.
In 1966, the Abilene Zoo was created near Abilene Regional Airport. The following year, one of the most important bond elections in the city's history passed for the funding of the construction of the Abilene Civic Center and the Taylor County Coliseum, as well as major improvements to Abilene Regional Airport. In 1969, the Woodson elementary and high school for black students closed as the school system was integrated. In 1982, Abilene became the first city in Texas to create a downtown reinvestment zone. Texas State Technical College opened an Abilene branch three years later; the 2,250-bed French Robertson Prison Unit was built in 1989. A half-cent sales tax earmarked for economic development was created after the decline in the petroleum business in the 1980s. A branch of Cisco Junior College was located in the city in 1990; the Grace Museum and Paramount Theatre revitalizations, along with Artwalk in 1992, sparked a decade of downtown restoration. In 2004, Frontier Texas!, a multimedia museum highlighting the history of the area from 1780 to 1880, was constructed, a new $8 million, 38-acre Cisco Junior College campus was built at Loop 322 and Industrial Boulevard.
Subdivisions and businesses started locating along the freeway, on the same side as the CJC campus, showing a slow but progressive trend for Abilene growth on the Loop. Abilene has become the commercial, retail and transportation hub of a 19-county area more known as "The Big Country", but known as the "Texas Midwest", is part of the Central Great Plains ecoregion. By the end of 2005, commercial and residential development had reached record levels in and around the city. Abilene is located in northeastern Taylor County; the city limits extend north into Jones County. Interstate 20 leads west 148 miles to Midland. Three U. S. highways pass through the city. US 83 runs west of the city center, leading south 55 miles to Ballinger. US 84 runs with US 83 through the southwest part of the city but leads southeast 52 miles to Coleman and west with I-20 40 miles to Sweetwater. US 277 follows US 83 around the northwest side of the city and north to Anson but heads southwest from Abilene 89 miles so San Angelo.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Abilene has a total area of 112.2 square miles, of which 106.8 square miles are land and 5.4 square miles are covered by
Mayor of Fort Worth, Texas
This is a list of mayors who served the city of Fort Worth, Texas, USA. *Dates given as per Fort Worth Mayor's office
McKinney is a city in and the county seat of Collin County, United States. It is Collin County's second-largest city, after Plano. Part of the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, McKinney is about 32 miles north of Dallas; the Census Bureau listed McKinney as the nation's fastest-growing city from 2000 to 2003 and again in 2006, among cities with more than 50,000 people. In 2007, it was ranked second-fastest-growing among cities with more than 100,000 people and in 2008 as third-fastest. In the 2010 census, the city's population was 131,117; the most recent population estimate, produced by the city as of January 1, 2019, is 187,802. As of May 2017, McKinney City was the third-fastest-growing city in the United States. In 2014, McKinney was rated #1 by Money Magazine as "Best Place to Live" in America. On March 24, 1849, William Davis, who owned 3,000 acres where McKinney now stands, donated 120 acres for the townsite. Ten years McKinney incorporated, in 1913, the town adopted the commission form of government.
For the first 125 years of its history, McKinney served as the principal commercial center for the county. The county seat provided farmers with flour and cotton mills, cotton gins, a cotton compress, a cottonseed oil mill, as well as banks, schools and from the 1880s, an opera house. Businesses came to include a textile mill, an ice company, a large dairy, a garment-manufacturing company; the population grew from 35 in 1848 to 4,714 in 1912. By 1953, McKinney had 355 businesses; the town continued to serve as an agribusiness center for the county until the late 1960s. By 1970, McKinney was surpassed in size by Plano. McKinney experienced moderate population growth, from 15,193 in the 1970 census, to 21,283 in the 1990 census. By the mid-1980s, the town had become a commuter center for residents who worked in Plano and Dallas. In 1985, it supported 254 businesses. Since McKinney's rate of increase has been much more dramatic. In the 2000 census, McKinney had grown to 54,369 with 2,005 businesses and in the 2010 census the population had more than doubled to 131,117 residents.
The Census Bureau's most recent estimated population for McKinney is 162,898. The most recent population estimate, produced by the city as of January 1, 2017, is 168,358. Both the city and the county were named for Collin McKinney, signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, a congressman for the Red River district of the Republic of Texas, he was the author of a bill establishing counties in the northern part of the state. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 62.9 square miles, of which 62.2 square miles is land and 0.7 square mile, or 1.07%, is covered by water. McKinney is considered part of the humid subtropical region. On average, the warmest month is July; the highest recorded temperature was 118 °F in 1936. On average, the coolest month is January; the lowest recorded temperature was −7 °F in 1930. The maximum average precipitation occurs in May, it is part of the Texas blackland prairies, which means it gets hot summers because it is in the Sun Belt.
Humidity makes temperatures feel higher, winters are mild and are rainy. Spring is the wettest part of the year; as of the 2010 census McKinney had a population of 131,117. The median age was 33; the racial composition of the population was 74.8% White, 10.5% Black, 0.7% Native American, 4.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.1% reporting two or more races. About 18.6 % of residents were Latino of any race. Of the 28,186 households, 45.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.6% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.2% were not families. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.29. In the city, the population was distributed as 30.9% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 36.4% from 25 to 44, 16.5% from 45 to 64, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $63,366, for a family was $72,133.
Males had a median income of $50,663 versus $32,074 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,185. About 4.9% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.2% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. Between 1970 and 1990, McKinney experienced moderate population growth, from 15,193 in the 1970 census, to 21,283 in the 1990 census. Since McKinney's rate of increase has been much more dramatic. In the 2000 census, McKinney had grown to 131,117 in the 2010 census; as of the 2000 U. S. Census, 64% of the foreign-born residents of McKinney originated from Mexico; as of 2009, 70% of McKinney's total population born outside of the United States had arrived to the U. S. in the 1990s. In May 2017, the US Census Bureau reported that McKinney City, Texas was the third fastest-growing city in the United States, it had a 5.9% growth rate between 2015 and 2016. According to the city's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top 10 employers in the city are: The Comprehensive Annual Financial Report states that the city's various funds had $324.6 million in total revenues, $247.9 million in total expenditures, $1,360.8 million in total assets, $437.6 million in
Fort Worth, Texas
Fort Worth is a city in the U. S. state of Texas. It is fifth-largest city in Texas, it is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly 350 square miles into four other counties: Denton, Johnson and Wise. According to the 2017 census estimates, Fort Worth's population is 874,168. Fort Worth is the second-largest city in the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the United States; the city of Fort Worth was established in 1849 as an army outpost on a bluff overlooking the Trinity River. Fort Worth has been a center of the longhorn cattle trade, it still embraces traditional architecture and design. USS Fort Worth is the first ship of the United States Navy named after the city. Fort Worth is home to the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition and several world-class museums designed by internationally known contemporary architects; the Kimbell Art Museum, considered to have one of the best art collections in Texas, is housed in what is regarded as one of the outstanding architectural achievements of the modern era.
The museum was designed by the American architect Louis Kahn, with an addition designed by world-renowned Italian architect Renzo Piano opening November 2013. Of note is the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, designed by Tadao Ando; the Amon Carter Museum of American Art, designed by Philip Johnson, houses one of the world's most extensive collections of American art. The Sid Richardson Museum, redesigned by David M. Schwarz, has one of the most focused collections of Western art in the U. S. emphasizing Frederic Remington and Charles Russell. The Fort Worth Museum of Science and History, designed by famed architect Ricardo Legorreta of Mexico, engages the diverse Fort Worth community through creative, vibrant programs and exhibits; the city is stimulated by several university communities: Texas Christian University, Texas Wesleyan, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Texas A&M University School of Law, many multinational corporations, including Bell Helicopter, Lockheed Martin, American Airlines, BNSF Railway, Pier 1 Imports, XTO Energy and RadioShack.
The Treaty of Bird's Fort between the Republic of Texas and several Native American tribes was signed in 1843 at Bird's Fort in present-day Arlington, Texas. Article XI of the treaty provided that no one may "pass the line of trading houses" without permission of the President of Texas, may not reside or remain in the Indians' territory; these "trading houses" were established at the junction of the Clear Fork and West Fork of the Trinity River in present-day Fort Worth. At this river junction, the U. S. War Department established Fort Worth in 1849 as the northernmost of a system of 10 forts for protecting the American Frontier following the end of the Mexican–American War; the city of Fort Worth continues to be known as "where the West begins." A line of seven army posts were established in 1848–49 after the Mexican War to protect the settlers of Texas along the western American Frontier and included Fort Worth, Fort Graham, Fort Gates, Fort Croghan, Fort Martin Scott, Fort Lincoln, Fort Duncan.
10 forts had been proposed by Major General William Jenkins Worth, who commanded the Department of Texas in 1849. In January 1849, Worth proposed a line of 10 forts to mark the western Texas frontier from Eagle Pass to the confluence of the West Fork and Clear Fork of the Trinity River. One month Worth died from cholera in South Texas. General William S. Harney assumed command of the Department of Texas and ordered Major Ripley A. Arnold to find a new fort site near the West Clear Fork. On June 6, 1849, advised by Middleton Tate Johnson, established a camp on the bank of the Trinity River and named the post Camp Worth in honor of the late General Worth. In August 1849, Arnold moved the camp to the north-facing bluff, which overlooked the mouth of the Clear Fork of the Trinity River; the United States War Department named the post Fort Worth on November 14, 1849. Native American attacks were still a threat in the area, as this was their traditional territory and they resented encroachment by European-American settlers, but people from the United States set up homesteads near the fort.
E. S. Terrell from Tennessee claimed to be the first resident of Fort Worth; the fort was moved to the top of the bluff. The fort was abandoned September 17, 1853. No trace of it remains; as a stop on the legendary Chisholm Trail, Fort Worth was stimulated by the business of the cattle drives and became a brawling, bustling town. Millions of head of cattle were driven north to market along this trail. Fort Worth became the center of the cattle drives, the ranching industry, it was given the nickname of Cowtown. During the Civil War, Fort Worth suffered from shortages of money and supplies; the population began to recover during Reconstruction. By 1872, Jacob Samuels, William Jesse Boaz, William Henry Davis had opened general stores; the next year, Khleber M. Van Zandt established Tidball, Van Zandt, Company, which became Fort Worth National Bank in 1884. In 1875, the Dallas Herald published an article by a former Fort Worth lawyer, Robert E. Cowart, who wrote that the decimation of Fort Worth's population, caused by the economic disaster and hard winter of 1873, had dealt a severe blow to the cattle industry.
Added to the slowdown due to the railroad's stopping the laying of track 30 miles outside of Fort Worth, Cowart said that Fort Worth was so slow th
Amarillo is the 14th-most populous city in the state of Texas, United States. It is the largest city in the Texas Panhandle, the seat of Potter County. A portion of the city extends into Randall County; the estimated population was 199,826 as of 2017. The Amarillo metropolitan area has an estimated population of 276,020 in four counties as of 2017; the metro population is projected to surpass 310,000 in 2020. Amarillo named Oneida, is situated in the Llano Estacado region; the availability of the railroad and freight service provided by the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad contributed to the city's growth as a cattle-marketing center in the late 19th century. The city was once the self-proclaimed "Helium Capital of the World" for having one of the country's most productive helium fields; the city is known as "The Yellow Rose of Texas", most "Rotor City, USA" for its V-22 Osprey hybrid aircraft assembly plant, as well as "Bomb City". Amarillo operates one of the largest meat-packing areas in the United States.
Pantex, the only nuclear weapons assembly and disassembly facility in the country, is a major employer. The location of this facility gave rise to the nickname Bomb City; the attractions Cadillac Ranch and Big Texan Steak Ranch are located adjacent to Interstate 40. U. S. Highway 66 passed through the city. Large ranches exist in the Amarillo area: among others, the defunct XIT Ranch and the still functioning JA Ranch founded in 1877 by Charles Goodnight and John George Adair. Goodnight continued the partnership for a time after Adair's death with Adair's widow, Cornelia Wadsworth Ritchie Adair, the sole owner from 1887 until her death in 1921. During April 1887, J. I. Berry established a site for a town after he chose a well-watered section along the way of the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad, which had begun building across the Texas Panhandle. Berry and Colorado City, merchants wanted to make their new town site the region's main trading center. On August 30, 1887, Berry's town site won the county seat election and was established in Potter County.
Availability of the railroad and freight service after the county seat election made the town a fast-growing cattle-marketing center. The settlement was called Oneida. Early residents pronounced the city's name more similar to the Spanish pronunciation ah-mə-REE-yoh, displaced by the current pronunciation. On June 19, 1888, Henry B. Sanborn, given credit as the "Father of Amarillo", his business partner Joseph F. Glidden began buying land to the east to move Amarillo after arguing that Berry's site was on low ground and would flood during rainstorms. Sanborn offered to trade lots in the new location to businesses in the original city's site and help with the expense of moving to new buildings, his incentives won over people, who moved their businesses to Polk Street in the new commercial district. Heavy rains flooded Berry's part of the town in 1889, prompting more people to move to Sanborn's location; this led to another county seat election making Sanborn's town the new county seat in 1893. By the late 1890s, Amarillo had emerged as one of the world's busiest cattle-shipping points, its population grew significantly.
The city became a grain elevator and feed-manufacturing center after an increase in production of wheat and small grains during the early 1900s. Discovery of natural gas in 1918 and oil three years brought oil and gas companies to the Amarillo area; the United States government bought the Cliffside Gas Field with high helium content in 1927 and the Federal Bureau of Mines began operating the Amarillo Helium plant two years later. The plant was the sole producer of commercial helium in the world for a number of years; the U. S. National Helium Reserve is stored in the Bush Dome Reservoir at the Cliffside facility. Following the lead of the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad established services to and from Amarillo; each of these three carriers maintained substantial freight and passenger depots and repair facilities in the city through most of the 20th century and were major employers within the community. In 1929, Ernest O. Thompson, a decorated World War I general and a major businessman in Amarillo, was elected mayor to succeed Lee Bivins.
Thompson worked to reduce utility rates. He joined the Texas Railroad Commission by appointment in 1933 and was elected to full terms in 1934, 1940, 1946, 1952, 1958, he became an international expert on conservation. The first Mrs. Thompson, May Peterson Thompson, a former Metropolitan Opera singer, was involved in the arts while in Amarillo and when the couple lived in Austin. Amarillo entered an economic depression. U. S. Routes 60, 87, 287, 66 intersected at Amarillo, making it a major tourist stop with numerous motels and curio shops. World War II led the establishment of Amarillo Army Air Field in east Amarillo and the nearby Pantex Army Ordnance Plant, which produced bombs and ammunition. After the end of the war, both of the facilities were closed; the Pantex Plant produced nuclear weapons throughout the Cold War. In 1949, a deadly F4 tornado devastated much of Amaril