The Thirteen Colonies known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries. They formed the United States of America; the Thirteen Colonies had similar political and legal systems and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which included colonies in Canada, the Caribbean, the Floridas. Between 1625 and 1775, the colonial population grew from 2,000 to over 2.5 million, displacing American Indians. This population included people subject to a system of slavery, legal in all of the colonies prior to the American Revolutionary War. In the 18th century, the British government operated its colonies under a policy of mercantilism, in which the central government administered its possessions for the economic benefit of the mother country; the Thirteen Colonies had a high degree of self-governance and active local elections, they resisted London's demands for more control.
The French and Indian War against France and its Indian allies led to growing tensions between Britain and the Thirteen Colonies. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with one another instead of dealing directly with Britain; these inter-colonial activities cultivated a sense of shared American identity and led to calls for protection of the colonists' "Rights as Englishmen" the principle of "no taxation without representation". Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies collaborated in forming the Continental Congress; the colonists fought the American Revolutionary War with the aid of France and, to a smaller degree, the Dutch Republic and Spain. In 1606, King James I of England granted charters to both the Plymouth Company and the London Company for the purpose of establishing permanent settlements in America; the London Company established the Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 1607, the first permanently settled English colony on the continent.
The Plymouth Company founded the Popham Colony on the Kennebec River. The Plymouth Council for New England sponsored several colonization projects, culminating with Plymouth Colony in 1620, settled by English Puritan separatists, known today as the Pilgrims; the Dutch and French established successful American colonies at the same time as the English, but they came under the English crown. The Thirteen Colonies were complete with the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, although the term "Thirteen Colonies" became current only in the context of the American Revolution. In London beginning in 1660, all colonies were governed through a state department known as the Southern Department, a committee of the Privy Council called the Board of Trade and Plantations. In 1768, a specific state department was created for America, but it was disbanded in 1782 when the Home Office took responsibility. Province of New Hampshire, established in the 1620s, chartered as crown colony in 1679 Province of Massachusetts Bay, established in the 1620s, a crown colony 1692 Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, established 1636, chartered as crown colony in 1663 Connecticut Colony, established 1636, chartered as crown colony in 1662 Province of New York, proprietary colony 1664–1685, crown colony from 1686 Province of New Jersey, proprietary colony from 1664, crown colony from 1702 Province of Pennsylvania, a proprietary colony established 1681 Delaware Colony, a proprietary colony established 1664 Province of Maryland, a proprietary colony established 1632 Colony and Dominion of Virginia, proprietary colony established 1607, a crown colony from 1624 Province of Carolina, a proprietary colony established 1663 Divided into the Province of North-Carolina and Province of South Carolina in 1712, each became a crown colony in 1729 Province of Georgia, proprietary colony established 1732, crown colony from 1752.
The first successful English colony was Jamestown, established May 1607 near Chesapeake Bay. The business venture was financed and coordinated by the London Virginia Company, a joint stock company looking for gold, its first years were difficult, with high death rates from disease and starvation, wars with local Indians, little gold. The colony flourished by turning to tobacco as a cash crop. In 1632, King Charles I granted the charter for Province of Maryland to Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. Calvert's father had been a prominent Catholic official who encouraged Catholic immigration to the English colonies; the charter offered no guidelines on religion. The Province of Carolina was the second attempted English settlement south of Virginia, the first being the failed attempt at Roanoke, it was a private venture, financed by a group of English Lords Proprietors who obtained a Royal Charter to the Carolinas in 1663, hoping that a new colony in the south would become profitable like Jamestown.
Carolina was not settled until 1670, then the first attempt failed because there was no incentive for emigration to that area. However, the Lords combined their remaining capital and financed a settlement mission to the area led by Sir John Colleton; the expedition located fertile and defensible ground at what became Charleston Charles Town for Charles II of England. The Pilgrims were a small group of Puritan separatists who felt that they needed to physically distance themselves from the corrupt Church of England. After moving to the Netherlands, they decided to re-establish themselves in America; the initi
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country. While veterans benefits have been provided since the American Revolutionary War, an veteran-focused federal agency, the Veterans Administration, was not established until 1930, became the cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989; the VA employs 377,805 people at hundreds of Veterans Affairs medical facilities, benefits offices, cemeteries. In Fiscal Year 2016, net program costs for the department were $273 billion, which includes VBA Actuarial Cost of $106.5 billion for compensation benefits. The long-term actuarial accrued liability is $2.491 trillion for compensation benefits. The agency is led by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, who—being a cabinet member—is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. In May 2014, it was revealed that veterans died while waiting for their appointments during extended delays in getting care at the Veterans Health Administration.
An investigation found that VA personnel falsified scheduling data to make it seem as if they had met scheduling targets. The Continental Congress of 1776 encouraged enlistments during the American Revolutionary War by providing pensions for soldiers who were disabled. Direct medical and hospital care given to veterans in the early days of the U. S. was provided by the individual communities. In 1811, the first domiciliary and medical facility for veterans was authorized by the federal government, but not opened until 1834. In the 19th century, the nation's veterans assistance program was expanded to include benefits and pensions not only for veterans, but their widows and dependents. After the end of the American Civil War in 1865, many state veterans' homes were established. Since domiciliary care was available at all state veterans homes, incidental medical and hospital treatment was provided for all injuries and diseases, whether or not of service origin. Indigent and disabled veterans of the Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish–American War, Mexican Border period as well as discharged regular members of the Armed Forces were cared for at these homes.
Congress established a new system of veterans benefits when the United States entered World War I in 1917. Included were programs for disability compensation, insurance for service persons and veterans, vocational rehabilitation for the disabled. By the 1920s, the various benefits were administered by three different federal agencies: the Veterans Bureau, the Bureau of Pensions of the Interior Department, the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers; the establishment of the Veterans Administration came in 1930 when Congress authorized the president to "consolidate and coordinate Government activities affecting war veterans". The three component agencies became bureaus within the Veterans Administration. Brigadier General Frank T. Hines, who directed the Veterans Bureau for seven years, was named as the first Administrator of Veterans Affairs, a job he held until 1945; the close of World War II resulted in not only a vast increase in the veteran population, but a large number of new benefits enacted by Congress for veterans of the war.
In addition, during the late 1940s, the VA had to contend with aging World War I veterans. During that time, "the clientele of the VA increased five fold with an addition of nearly 16,000,000 World War II veterans and 4,000,000 World War I veterans". Prior to World War II, in response to scandals at the Veterans Bureau, programs that cared for veterans were centralized in Washington, D. C; this centralization caused delays and bottlenecks as the agency tried to serve the World War II veterans. As a result, the VA went through a decentralization process, giving more authority to the field offices; the World War II GI Bill was signed into law on 22 June 1944, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt."The United States government began serious consolidated services to veterans in 1930. The GI Bill of Rights, passed in 1944, had more effect on the American way of life than any other legislation - with the possible exception of the Homestead Act."The VA health care system has grown from 54 hospitals in 1930 to include 153 medical centers.
VA health care facilities provide a broad spectrum of medical and rehabilitative care. The responsibilities and benefits programs of the Veterans Administration grew enormously during the following six decades. Further educational assistance acts were passed for the benefit of veterans of the Korean War, the Vietnam Era, the introduction of an "all-volunteer force" in the 1970s, the Persian Gulf War, those who served following the attacks of September 11, 2001; the Department of Veterans Affairs Act of 1988 changed the former Veterans Administration, an independent government agency established in 1930 to see to the needs of World War I veterans, into a Cabinet-level Department of Veterans Affairs. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan on 25 October 1988, but came into effect under the term of
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
An affidavit is a written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law. Such statement is witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. An affidavit is a type of verified statement or showing, or in other words, it contains a verification, meaning it is under oath or penalty of perjury, this serves as evidence to its veracity and is required for court proceedings. Affidavits may be written depending on who drafted the document; the document's component parts are as follows: a commencement which identifies the "affiant of truth" stating that everything in it is true, under penalty of perjury, fine, or imprisonment. If an affidavit is notarized or authenticated, it will include a caption with a venue and title in reference to judicial proceedings. In some cases, an introductory clause, called a preamble, is added attesting that the affiant appeared before the authenticating authority.
On 2 March 2016, the High Court of Australia held that the ACT Uniform Evidence Legislation is neutral in the way sworn evidence and unsworn evidence is treated as being of equal weight. In Indian law, although an affidavit may be taken as proof of the facts stated therein, the Courts have no jurisdiction to admit evidence by way of affidavit. Affidavit is treated as "evidence" within the meaning of Section 3 of the Evidence Act. However, it was held by the Supreme Court that an affidavit can be used as evidence only if the Court so orders for sufficient reasons, the right of the opposite party to have the deponent produced for cross-examination. Therefore, an affidavit cannot ordinarily be used as evidence in absence of a specific order of the Court. In Sri Lanka, under the Oaths Ordinance, with the exception of court marshals, a person may submit an affidavit signed in the presence of a Commissioner for Oaths or a justice of the peace. Affidavits are made in a similar way as to England and Wales, although "make oath" is sometimes omitted.
A declaration may be substituted for an affidavit in most cases for those opposed to swearing oaths. The person making the affidavit does not sign the affidavit; the affidavit concludes in the standard format "sworn before me, a commissioner for oaths, on the at in the county/city of, I know the deponent", it is signed and stamped by the commissioner for oaths. In American jurisprudence, under the rules for hearsay, admission of an unsupported affidavit as evidence is unusual with regard to material facts which may be dispositive of the matter at bar. Affidavits from persons who are dead or otherwise incapacitated, or who cannot be located or made to appear, may be accepted by the court, but only in the presence of corroborating evidence. An affidavit which reflected a better grasp of the facts close in time to the actual events may be used to refresh a witness's recollection. Materials used to refresh recollection are admissible as evidence. If the affiant is a party in the case, the affiant's opponent may be successful in having the affidavit admitted as evidence, as statements by a party-opponent are admissible through an exception to the hearsay rule.
Affidavits are included in the response to interrogatories. Requests for admissions under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 36, are not required to be sworn; some types of motions will not be accepted by the court unless accompanied by an independent sworn statement or other evidence, in support of the need for the motion. In such a case, a court will accept an affidavit from the filing attorney in support of the motion, as certain assumptions are made, to wit: The affidavit in place of sworn testimony promotes judicial economy; the lawyer is an officer of the court and knows that a false swearing by him, if found out, could be grounds for severe penalty up to and including disbarment. The lawyer if called upon would be able to present independent and more detailed evidence to prove the facts set forth in his affidavit; the acceptance of an affidavit by one society does not confirm its acceptance as a legal document in other jurisdictions. The acceptance that a lawyer is an officer of the court is not a given.
This matter is addressed by the use of the apostille, a means of certifying the legalization of a document for international use under the terms of the 1961 Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents. Documents which have been notarized by a notary public, certain other documents, certified with a conformant apostille, are accepted for legal use in all the nations that have signed the Hague Convention, thus most affidavits now require to be apostilled. There are various occasions or circumstances when a person needs an affidavit for a specific purpose and for that reason there are multiple as listed below: Affidavit of Support Affidavit of Residence Affidavit of Small Estate Financial Affidavit Affidavit of Death Affidavit of Name Change Divorce Affidavit Affidavit of Identity Theft Affidavit of Heirship Affidavit of Service Declaration Deposition Fishman Affidavit, a well-
Paul Revere was an American silversmith, early industrialist, Patriot in the American Revolution. He is best known for his midnight ride to alert the colonial militia in April 1775 to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride". At age 41, Revere was a prosperous and prominent Boston silversmith, he had helped organize an alarm system to keep watch on the British military. Revere served as a Massachusetts militia officer, though his service ended after the Penobscot Expedition, one of the most disastrous campaigns of the American Revolutionary War, for which he was absolved of blame. Following the war, Revere returned to his silversmith trade, he used the profits from his expanding business to finance his work in iron casting, bronze bell and cannon casting, the forging of copper bolts and spikes. In 1800 he became the first American to roll copper into sheets for use as sheathing on naval vessels.
Revere was born in the North End of Boston on December 21, 1734, according to the Old Style calendar in use, or January 1, 1735, in the modern calendar. His father, a French Huguenot born Apollos Rivoire came to Boston at the age of 13 and was apprenticed to the silversmith John Coney. By the time he married Deborah Hitchborn, a member of a long-standing Boston family that owned a small shipping wharf, in 1729, Rivoire had anglicized his name to Paul Revere, their son, Paul Revere, was the third of 12 children and the eldest surviving son. Revere grew up in the environment of the extended Hitchborn family, never learned his father's native language. At 13 he became an apprentice to his father; the silversmith trade afforded him connections with a cross-section of Boston society, which would serve him well when he became active in the American Revolution. As for religion, although his father attended Puritan services, Revere was drawn to the Church of England. Revere began attending the services of the political and provocative Jonathan Mayhew at the West Church.
His father did not approve, as a result father and son came to blows on one occasion. Revere relented and returned to his father's church, although he did become friends with Mayhew, returned to the West Church in the late 1760s. Revere's father died in 1754, when Paul was too young to be the master of the family silver shop. In February 1756, during the French and Indian War, he enlisted in the provincial army, he made this decision because of the weak economy, since army service promised consistent pay. Commissioned a second lieutenant in a provincial artillery regiment, he spent the summer at Fort William Henry at the southern end of Lake George in New York as part of an abortive plan for the capture of Fort St. Frédéric, he did not stay long in the army, but returned to Boston and assumed control of the silver shop in his own name. On August 4, 1757, he married Sarah Orne, he and Sarah had eight children, but two died young, only one, survived her father. Revere's business began to suffer when the British economy entered a recession in the years following the Seven Years' War, declined further when the Stamp Act of 1765 resulted in a further downturn in the Massachusetts economy.
Business was so poor that an attempt was made to attach his property in late 1765. To help make ends meet he took up dentistry, a skill set he was taught by a practicing surgeon who lodged at a friend's house. One client was Doctor Joseph Warren, a local physician and political opposition leader with whom Revere formed a close friendship. Revere and Warren, in addition to having common political views, were both active in the same local Masonic lodges. Although Revere was not one of the "Loyal Nine"—organizers of the earliest protests against the Stamp Act—he was well connected with its members, who were laborers and artisans. Revere did not participate in some of the more raucous protests, such as the attack on the home of Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson. In 1765, a group of militants who would become known as the "Sons of Liberty" formed, of which Revere was a member. From 1765 on, in support of the dissident cause, he produced engravings and other artifacts with political themes. Among these engravings are a depiction of the arrival of British troops in 1768 and a famous depiction of the March 1770 Boston Massacre.
Although the latter was engraved by Revere and he included the inscription, "Engraved, Printed, & Sold by Paul Revere Boston", it was modeled on a drawing by Henry Pelham, Revere's engraving of the drawing was colored by a third man and printed by a fourth. Revere produced a bowl commemorating the Massachusetts assembly's refusal to retract the Massachusetts Circular Letter. In 1770 Revere purchased a house on North Square in Boston's North End. Now a museum, the house provided space for his growing family while he continued to maintain his shop at nearby Clark's Wharf. Sarah died in 1773, on October 10 of that year, Revere married Rachel Walker, they had eight children. In November 1773 the merchant ship Dartmouth arrived in Boston harbor carrying the first shipment of tea made under the terms of the Tea Act; this act authorized the British East India Company to ship tea (of which it had huge surplu
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice who painted in the "Rococo" style. He was prolific, worked not only in Italy, but in Germany and Spain. Giovan Battista Tiepolo, together with Giambattista Pittoni, Giovan Battista Piazzetta, Giuseppe Maria Crespi and Francesco Guardi are considered the traditional Old Masters of that period. Successful from the beginning of his career, he has been described by Michael Levey as "the greatest decorative painter of eighteenth-century Europe, as well as its most able craftsman." Born in Venice, he was the youngest of six children of Orsetta Tiepolo. His father was a small shipping merchant who belonged to a family that bore the prestigious patrician name of Tiepolo without claiming any noble descent; some of the children acquired noble godparents, Giambattista was named after his godfather, a Venetian nobleman called Giovanni Battista Dorià. He was baptised on 16 April 1696 in San Pietro di Castello.
His father died about a year leaving his mother to bring up a family of young children in somewhat difficult circumstances. In 1710 he became a pupil of a successful painter with an eclectic style, he was, though, at least strongly influenced by his study of the works of other contemporary artists such as Sebastiano Ricci and Giovanni Battista Piazzetta and those of his Venetian predecessors Tintoretto and Veronese. A biography of his teacher, published in 1732, says that Tiepolo "departed from studied manner of painting, all spirit and fire, embraced a quick and resolute style", his earliest known works are depictions of the apostles, painted in spandrels as part of the decoration of the church of the Ospedoletto in Venice in 1715–6. At about the same time he became painter to the Doge, Giovanni II Cornaro, oversaw the hanging of pictures at his palace, as well as painting many works himself, of which only two portraits have been identified, he painted his first fresco on the ceiling of a church at Biadene, near Treviso.
He left Lazzarini's studio in 1717, the year he was received into the Fraglia or guild of painters. In around 1719–20 he painted a scheme of frescoes for the wealthy, ennobled, publisher Giambattista Baglione in the hall of his villa at Massanzago near Padua. Tiepolo depicted the Triumph of Aurora on the ceiling, the Myth of Phaethon on the walls, creating the kind of fluid spatial illusion, to become a recurring theme in his work. In 1722 he was one of twelve artists commissioned to contribute a painting on canvas of one of the apostles as part of a decorative scheme for the nave of San Stae in Venice; the other artists involved included Ricci and Pellegrini. In 1719, Tiepolo married noblewoman Maria Cecilia Guardi, sister of two contemporary Venetian painters Francesco and Giovanni Antonio Guardi. Together and his wife had nine children. Four daughters and three sons survived childhood. Two of his sons and Lorenzo, painted with him as his assistants and achieved some independent recognition, in particular Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo.
His children painted figures with a design similar to that of their father, but with distinctive, including genre, styles. His third son became a priest. Fabio Canal, Francesco Lorenzi, Domenico Pasquini were among his pupils; some major commissions came from the patrician Dolfin family. Dioniso Dolfin, the Archbishop of Udine in Friuli employed him to decorate a chapel in the cathedral at Udine, to paint another cycle depicting episodes from the lives of Abraham and his descendants from the book of Genesis at his archiepiscopal palace. Despite their elevated subject matter, they are bright in colour, light-hearted in mood: Michael Levey describes the paintings at the palace as "a shimmering set of tableaux, full of wit and elegance. Tiepolo used a much cooler palette than previous Venetian painters, in order to create a convincing effect of daylight, his first masterpieces in Venice were a cycle of ten enormous canvases painted to decorate a large reception room of Ca' Dolfin on the Grand Canal of Venice, depicting battles and triumphs from the history of ancient Rome.
These early masterpieces, innovative amongst Venetian frescoes for their luminosity, brought him many commissions. He painted canvases for churches such as that of Verolanuova, for the Scuola dei Carmini, the Chiesa degli Scalzi in Cannaregio, a ceiling for the Palazzi Archinto and Casati-Dugnani in Milan, the Colleoni Chapel in Bergamo, a ceiling for the Gesuati in Venice of St. Dominic Instituting the Rosary, Palazzo Clerici, decorations for Villa Cordellini at Montecchio Maggiore and for the ballroom of the Palazzo Labia in Venice, showing the Story of Cleopatra. Tiepolo produced two sets of the Capricci and the Scherzi di fantasia; the ten capricci were first published by Anton Maria Zanetti, incorporated into the third edition of a compilation of woodcuts after Parmigiano. They were not published separately until 1785; the subject matter is bizarre and fantastical, the works owe a lot to the example of Salvator Rosa and Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione. The 23 Scherzi were etched over more than ten years and circulated, only being commercially published aft
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is applied in an aqueous solution, may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. Both dyes and pigments are colored. Dyes are soluble in water whereas pigments are insoluble; some dyes can be rendered insoluble with the addition of salt to produce a lake pigment. The majority of natural dyes are derived from plant sources: roots, bark and wood, lichens. Most dyes are synthetic, i.e. are man-made from petrochemicals. Other than pigmentation, they have a range of applications including organic dye lasers, optical media and camera sensors. Textile dyeing dates back to the Neolithic period. Throughout history, people have dyed their textiles using common, locally available materials. Scarce dyestuffs that produced brilliant and permanent colors such as the natural invertebrate dyes Tyrian purple and crimson kermes were prized luxury items in the ancient and medieval world.
Plant-based dyes such as woad, indigo and madder were important trade goods in the economies of Asia and Europe. Across Asia and Africa, patterned fabrics were produced using resist dyeing techniques to control the absorption of color in piece-dyed cloth. Dyes from the New World such as cochineal and logwood were brought to Europe by the Spanish treasure fleets, the dyestuffs of Europe were carried by colonists to America. Dyed flax fibers have been found in the Republic of Georgia in a prehistoric cave dated to 36,000 BP. Archaeological evidence shows that in India and Phoenicia, dyeing has been carried out for over 5,000 years. Early dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral sources, with no to little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, bark and wood, only few of which are used on a commercial scale; the first synthetic dye, was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856. The discovery of mauveine started a surge in organic chemistry in general.
Other aniline dyes followed, such as fuchsine and induline. Many thousands of synthetic dyes have since been prepared. Dyes are classified according to their chemical properties. Acid dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool and modified acrylic fibers using neutral to acid dye baths. Attachment to the fiber is attributed, at least to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fiber. Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibers. Most synthetic food colors fall in this category. Examples of acid dye are Acid red 88, etc.. Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are applied to acrylic fibers, but find some use for wool and silk. Acetic acid is added to the dye bath to help the uptake of the dye onto the fiber. Basic dyes are used in the coloration of paper. Direct or substantive dyeing is carried out in a neutral or alkaline dye bath, at or near boiling point, with the addition of either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate.
Direct dyes are used on cotton, leather, wool and nylon. They are used as pH indicators and as biological stains. Mordant dyes require a mordant, which improves the fastness of the dye against water and perspiration; the choice of mordant is important as different mordants can change the final color significantly. Most natural dyes are mordant dyes and there is therefore a large literature base describing dyeing techniques; the most important mordant dyes are chrome dyes, used for wool. The mordant potassium dichromate is applied as an after-treatment, it is important to note that many mordants those in the heavy metal category, can be hazardous to health and extreme care must be taken in using them. Vat dyes are insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly. However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water-soluble alkali metal salt of the dye; this form is colorless, in which case it is referred to as a Leuco dye, has an affinity for the textile fibre. Subsequent oxidation reforms the original insoluble dye.
The color of denim is due to the original vat dye. Reactive dyes utilize a chromophore attached to a substituent, capable of directly reacting with the fiber substrate; the covalent bonds that attach reactive dye to natural fibers make them among the most permanent of dyes. "Cold" reactive dyes, such as Procion MX, Cibacron F, Drimarene K, are easy to use because the dye can be applied at room temperature. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibers at home or in the art studio. Disperse dyes were developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate, are water-insoluble; the dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and sold as a paste, or spray-dried and sold as a powder. Their main use is to dye polyester, but they can be used to dye nylon, cellulose triacetate, acrylic fibers. In some cases, a dyeing temperature of 130 °C is required, a pressurized dyebath is used; the fine particle size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fiber.
The dyeing rate can be influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the grinding. Azoic dyeing is a technique in which an insoluble Azo dye is produced directly