Filmmaking is the process of making a film in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques, it involves a large number of people, can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five major stages: Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be obtained. Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot. Post-production: The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. Distribution: The completed film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, characters. This has little dialogue and stage direction, but contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment. Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months.
The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, characters and overall style. However, producers skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed no approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account; the producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, present it to potential financiers. They will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to "attach" them to the project.
Many projects fail to enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a "green light", meaning someone offers financial backing: a major film studio, film council, or independent investor; the parties involved negotiate a sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, it is rare for a full-length screenplay to exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production a screenwriter is brought in to prepare the screenplay. Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments, it includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk.
The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses. In pre-production, every step of creating the film is designed and planned; the production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents; the nature of the film, the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine; these are typical crew positions: Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
Director: is primarily
Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, trading as Fujifilm, or Fuji, is a Japanese multinational photography and imaging company headquartered in Tokyo. Fujifilm's principal activities are the development, production and servicing of business document solutions, medical imaging and diagnostics equipment, regenerative medicine, stem cells, biologics manufacturing, optical films for flat panel displays, optical devices and printers, digital cameras, color film, color paper, photofinishing equipment, photofinishing chemicals, graphic arts equipment and materials. Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd. was established in 1934 with the aim of being the first Japanese producer of photographic films. Over the following 10 years, the company produced photographic films, motion-picture films and X-ray films. In the 1940s, Fuji Photo entered the optical glasses and equipment markets. After the Second World War, Fuji Photo diversified, penetrating the medical, electronic imaging and magnetic materials fields. In 1962, Fuji Photo and U.
K.-based Rank Xerox Limited launched Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd. through a joint venture. From the mid-1950s, Fuji Photo accelerated the establishment of overseas sales bases. In the 1980s, Fuji Photo expanded its production and other bases overseas, stepping up the pace of its business globalization. Meanwhile, Fuji Photo developed digital technologies for its photo-related and printing businesses. Like its rival Eastman Kodak which dominated in the US, Fuji Photo enjoyed a longtime near-monopoly on camera film in Japan. By becoming one of the title sponsors of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, offering cheaper camera film, establishing a film factory in the US, Fuji gained considerable market share there, while Kodak had little success in penetrating Japan. In May 1995, Kodak filed a petition with the US Commerce Department under section 301 of the Commerce Act arguing that its poor performance in the Japanese market was a direct result of unfair practices adopted by Fuji; the complaint was lodged by the US with the World Trade Organization.
On January 30, 1998, the WTO announced a "sweeping rejection of Kodak's complaints" about the film market in Japan. The new millennium witnessed the rapid spread of digital technology, demand for photographic films plunged in line with the growing popularity of digital cameras. In response, Fuji Photo implemented management reforms aimed at drastic transformation of its business structures; as early as the 1980s, the company had foreseen the switch from film to digital, so "it developed a three-pronged strategy: to squeeze as much money out of the film business as possible, to prepare for the switch to digital and to develop new business lines." While both film manufacturers recognized this fundamental change, Fuji Photo adapted to this shift much more than Eastman Kodak. Fuji Photo's diversification efforts succeeded while Kodak's had failed. In September 19, 2006, Fujifilm announced plans to establish a holding company, Fujifilm Holdings Corp. Fujifilm and Fuji Xerox would become subsidiaries of the holding company.
A representative of the company reconfirmed its commitment to film. On January 31, 2018, Fujifilm announced that it would acquire a 50.1% controlling stake in Xerox for US$6.1 billion, which will be amalgamated into its existing Fuji Xerox business. The deal was subsequently dropped after intervention by activist investors Carl Icahn and Darwin Deason. Fuji Xerox is Xerox Corporation of North America. Fujifilm bought Sericol Ltd. a UK-based printing ink company specializing in screen, narrow web, digital print technologies in March 2005. Fujifilm de México is a Fujifilm subsidiary in Mexico that sells Fujifilm products since 1934 and has been recognized as one of The Best Mexican Companies from 2012 to 2015, a recognition promoted by Banamex, Deloitte México and Tecnológico de Monterrey. Fujifilm Holdings Fujifilm Fujifilm Imaging Systems Fujifilm Medical Fujifilm Pharma Fujifilm RI Pharma Fujifilm Photo Manufacturing Fujifilm Fine Chemicals Fujifilm Electronics Materials Fujifilm Engineering Fujifilm Optics Fujifilm Opto Materials Fujifilm Global Graphic Systems Fujifilm Computer Systems Fujifilm Software Fujifilm Techno Services Fujifilm Techno Products Fujifilm Business Supply Fujifilm Digital Press Fujifilm Media Crest Fujifilm Sonosite, Inc.
Fujifilm Shizuoka Fujifilm Kyushu Fujifilm Logistics Fuji Xerox Fuji Xerox Printing Systems Sales Fuji Xerox Information Systems Fuji Xerox System Service Fuji Xerox Interfield Fuji Xerox Advanced Technologies Fuji Xerox Manufacturing Fuji Xerox Service Creative Fuji Xerox Service Link Fuji Xerox Learning Institute Toyama Chemical Taisho Toyama Pharmaceutical Fujifilm Business Expert Fuji Color Photo Center Fujifilm photographic films Motion picture film stock. Fujichrome color reversal films. Velvia: one of the most saturated and fine-grained slide films, valued by nature and landscape photographers. Provia: a slide film giving more natural colors than Velvia Astia: a fined grained, low contrast slide film used for studio or portrait applications Sensia: a low-contrast consumer slide film. Fortia: consumer slide film, featuring vivid color rendering suitable for flower photography and other high-saturation applications. Fujicolor color negative (pr
Roger Fan is an American film and television actor best known for his collaborations with Justin Lin and his appearances in the films Annapolis, Finishing the Game and Better Luck Tomorrow. Fan, a Taiwanese American, was born in Baltimore and raised in Southern California, growing up in Upland, California, a suburb of Los Angeles, he graduated from the Webb Schools of California and graduated with a degree in economics from Brown University. He worked on Wall Street and in San Francisco as a financial consultant, but spent his off time acting in theatre. Fan is most known for his role as Daric Loo in Justin Lin's seminal Asian American film, Better Luck Tomorrow, he appeared as Bruce Lee's rival "Breeze Loo" in Lin's Finishing the Game. Fan has appeared in Lin's Annapolis as Loo, in Lin's Fast & Furious as an FBI Agent. Fan has appeared in the films Drillbit Taylor, Jessica Yu's Ping Pong Playa, Corky Romano, Gene Rhee's The Trouble with Romance and Rush Hour. Fan has appeared on the TV shows Arli$$, Party of Five, NewsRadio, Martial Law, Bull, ER, Karaoke Nights, American Dad!, the web series Easy to Assemble.
Fan has appeared in Judy Soo Hoo's play Solve for X for the Next Stage Festival at the Cleveland Playhouse, opposite Kelvin Han Yee and Elaine Kao. The following is a list of Fan's filmography: Hollywood Adventures... Agent Li The King of Fighters Fast & Furious... FBI Agent #3 Drillbit Taylor... Bodyguard with Knives Ping Pong Playa... Michael Wang The Trouble With Romance... Jimmy Finishing the Game... Breeze Loo Annapolis... Loo D. E. B. S.... News Anchor #1 Stuck On You... Executive #1 Better Luck Tomorrow... Daric Loo Corky Romano... Agent Bob Cox Backyard Dogs... Rick Rush Hour... Soo Yung's Bodyguard Roger Fan blog Roger Fan - Official MySpace Site Roger Fan on IMDb Twitch Film Review Interview with Roger Fan Roger Fan Enrolls In "Annapolis" Roger Fan - Loving Every Minute Of It! Media related to Roger Fan at Wikimedia Commons
Gerald Patrick Mathers is an American actor. Mathers is best known for his role in the television sitcom Leave It to Beaver broadcast from 1957 to 1963, in which he played Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver, the younger son of the suburban couple June and Ward Cleaver and the brother of Wally Cleaver. Mathers was born in Sioux City, Iowa, in 1948, the son of a high school principal, grew up in Rock Rapids, about 75 miles north, in the San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles, California. Jerry has three siblings, one sister and two brothers, including Susie Mathers McSweeney and Jimmy Mathers. Mathers began his career at the age of 2 when he appeared as a child model for a department store ad. Soon after, he starred in a commercial for PET Milk opposite vaudeville comedian Ed Wynn, his early movies included This is My Love, Men of the Fighting Lady, The Seven Little Foys and The Trouble with Harry. Mathers states that he got the role of Beaver Cleaver after telling the show's producers he would rather be at his Cub Scout meeting than auditioning for the part.
The producers found his candidness perfect for the role. Mathers played the Beaver for six years, he was the first child actor to make a deal to get a percentage of the merchandising revenue from a television show. The Leave It to Beaver show still generates merchandise revenue today, many years after its original production run ended; the original sitcom has been shown in over 80 countries in 40 languages. Mathers has noted. "I can go anywhere in the world, people know me," Mathers has said. "In Japan the show's called'The Happy Boy and His Family.' So I'll be walking through the airport in Japan, people will come up and say,'Hi, Happy Boy!'"When asked in a 2014 television interview whether he had known at the time of the filming of the Leave it to Beaver series that the show was special, would be in perpetual syndication, Mathers responded: "No, not at all. I had worked. I did movies. I didn't do any other series, but I had done a lot of movies and things like that so, in fact, every year it was a question whether we would come back for the next year'cause you had to be picked up.
So you would do 39 shows and we would go to New York and meet all the press, we'd go to Chicago to meet the ad people we'd come back and take about five to six weeks off, if we got picked up we'd start again. So we did that for six years because, the length of the contracts at those times. So that's why there are 39 for six years, it was off the air. Not off the air, but we didn't film any new ones "Mathers remained friends with Barbara Billingsley, who played his TV mother, June Cleaver, remembered her after her death as "a good friend and an better mentor. For me she was like the favorite teacher that we all had in school." In 1962, near the end of the run of Leave It to Beaver, Mathers recorded two songs for a single 45rpm: "Don't'Cha Cry," and for the flip side, the twist ditty, "Wind-Up Toy." During his high school years, Mathers had a band called the Trappers. As he moved into his teenage years, Mathers retired from acting to concentrate on high school, he attended Notre Dame High School, in California.
During this time he led a musical band called the Trappers. While he was still in high school, Mathers joined the United States Air Force Reserve, in 1966. Wearing his dress uniform and child actress Angela Cartwright presented an Emmy award to Gene Kelly in 1967. After graduating from high school in 1967, Mathers continued to serve in the Reserve and made the rank of Sergeant. In December 1969, a rumor began. Although the origin of the rumor is unclear, Mathers never saw action and was never stationed outside of the United States. Years in 1980, Mathers and Dow appeared with Bill Murray on Saturday Night Live's Weekend Update segment, making fun of the Vietnam War death rumor. In 1973, Mathers attended the University of California and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy, he worked as a commercial loan officer at a bank before using well-invested savings from his acting career, which began at $500 a week, to begin a career in real estate development. In 1978, he reentered the entertainment industry.
That year, he and Tony Dow starred in a production of the comedy play Boeing, Boeing which ran for ten weeks in Kansas City. Mathers and Dow toured the dinner theater circuit in a production of So Long, Stanley for 18 months. In 1981, he worked as a disc jockey at KEZY-AM radio in California. In 1983, Mathers reprised his role in the television reunion film Still the Beaver, which featured the majority of the original Leave It to Beaver cast; the success of the television film led to the development of a sequel series of the same title. The series began airing on the Disney Channel in 1984 went on to be picked up by TBS and broadcast syndication, where it was retitled The New Leave It to Beaver and ran until 1989. Mathers has since continued his career in films and television roles. In the 1990s, he guest starred on episodes of Parker Lewis Can't Lose, Vengeance Unlimited, Diagnosis Murder, as himself on Married... with Children. In 1998, Mathers released his memoirs. On June 5, 2007, he made his Broadway debut with a starring role as Wilbur Turnblad in the Tony winning best musical Hairspray at the Neil Simon Theater.
In November 2018, Mathers was seen promoting the Leave It To Beaver television series a
Crime films, in the broadest sense, are a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre involve various aspects of crime and its detection. Stylistically, the genre may overlap and combine with many other genres, such as drama or gangster film, but include comedy, and, in turn, is divided into many sub-genres, such as mystery, suspense or noir. Crime films are based on real events or are adaptations of plays or novels. For example, the 1957 film version of Witness for the Prosecution is an adaptation of a 1953 stage play of that name, in turn based on Agatha Christie's short story published in 1933; the film version was remade in 1982, there have been other adaptations. However, each of these media has its own advantages and limitations, which in the case of cinema is the time constraint. Witness for the Prosecution is a classic example of a "courtroom drama". In a courtroom drama, a charge is brought against one of the main characters, who claims to be innocent.
Another major part is played by the lawyer representing the defendant in court and battling with the public prosecutor. He or she may enlist the services of a private investigator to find out what happened and who the real perpetrator is. However, in most cases it is not clear at all whether the accused is guilty of the crime or not—this is how suspense is created; the private investigator storms into the courtroom at the last minute in order to bring a new and crucial piece of information to the attention of the court. This type of literature lends itself to the literary genre of drama focused more on dialogue and little or no necessity for a shift in scenery; the auditorium of the theatre becomes an extension of the courtroom. When a courtroom drama is filmed, the traditional device employed by screenwriters and directors is the frequent use of flashbacks, in which the crime and everything that led up to it is narrated and reconstructed from different angles. In Witness for the Prosecution, Leonard Vole, a young American living in England, is accused of murdering a middle-aged lady he met in the street while shopping.
His wife hires the best lawyer available because she is convinced, or rather she knows, that her husband is innocent. Another classic courtroom drama is U. S. playwright Reginald Rose's Twelve Angry Men, set in the jury deliberation room of a New York Court of Law. Eleven members of the jury, aiming at a unanimous verdict of "guilty", try to get it over with as as possible, and they would succeed in achieving their common aim if it were not for the eighth juror, who, on second thoughts, considers it his duty to convince his colleagues that the defendant may be innocent after all, who, by doing so, triggers a lot of discussion and anger. A hybrid of action films and crime films and a subgenre of action films as well. Most films of this kind fall in the category of heist films, prison films and sometimes cop and gangster films. Car chases and shootouts are featured. Example include Police Story, The Dark Knight, Baby Driver, Master and Heat. A hybrid of crime and comedy films. Mafia comedy looks at organized crime from a comical standpoint.
Humor comes from the incompetence of the criminals and/or black comedy. Examples include Analyze This, The Pope of Greenwich Village, Lock and Two Smoking Barrels, In Bruges, Mafia!, Tower Heist and Pain & Gain. A combination of crime and drama films. Examples include such films as Straight Badlands. A thriller in which the central characters are involved in crime, either in its investigation, as the perpetrator or, less a victim. While some action films could be labelled as such for having criminality and thrills, the emphasis in this genre is the drama and the investigative/criminal methods. Examples include Untraceable, The Silence of the Lambs, Seven, Memories of Murder, The Call, Running Scared. A genre of Indian cinema revolving around dacoity; the genre was pioneered by Mehboob Khan's Mother India. Other examples include Gunga Jumna and Bandit Queen. A genre popular in the 1940s and 1950s fall into the crime and mystery genres. Private detectives hired to solve a crime are in such films as The Maltese Falcon, The Big Sleep, Kiss Me Deadly, L.
A. Confidential, The Long Goodbye, Chinatown. Neo-noir refers to modern films influenced by film noir such as Sin City. A genre of film that focuses on gangs and organized crime. Examples include Goodfellas, The Godfather, Casino; this film deals with a group of criminals attempting to perform a theft or robbery, as well as the possible consequences that follow. Heist films that are lighter in tone are called "Caper films". Examples include The Killing, Oceans 11, Dog Day Afternoon, Reservoir Dogs, The Town. A Hong Kong action cinema crime film genre; the genre was pioneered by John Woo's A Better Tomorrow and Ringo Lam's City on Fire, starring Chow Yun-fat. Elements of the genre can be seen in Hollywood crime films since the 1990s, such as the work of John Woo and Quentin Tarantino. Film dealing with African-American urban issues and culture, they do not always revolve around crime, but criminal activity features in the storyline. Examples include Menace II Boyz n the Hood. Not concerned with the actual crime so much as the trial in the aftermath.
A typical plot would involve a lawyer trying to prove the innocence of his or her cli
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Lee Jun-fan, known professionally as Bruce Lee, was a Hong Kong-American actor, martial artist, martial arts instructor, philosopher. He was the founder of the hybrid martial arts. Lee was the son of Cantonese opera star Lee Hoi-chuen, he is considered by commentators, critics and other martial artists to be the most influential martial artist and a pop culture icon of the 20th century, who bridged the gap between east and west. He is credited with helping to change the way Asians were presented in American films. Lee was born in the Chinatown area of San Francisco, California, on November 27, 1940, to parents from Hong Kong, was raised with his family in Kowloon, Hong Kong, he appeared in several films as a child actor. Lee moved to the United States at the age of 18 to receive his higher education at the University of Washington in Seattle, it was during this time that he began teaching martial arts, his Hong Kong and Hollywood-produced films elevated the traditional Hong Kong martial arts film to a new level of popularity and acclaim, sparking a surge of interest in Chinese martial arts in the West in the 1970s.
The direction and tone of his films changed and influenced martial arts and martial arts films in the US, Hong Kong, the rest of the world. He is noted for his roles in five feature-length films: Lo Wei's The Big Boss and Fist of Fury. Lee became an iconic figure known throughout the world among the Chinese, based upon his portrayal of Chinese nationalism in his films and among Asian Americans for defying stereotypes associated with the emasculated Asian male, he trained in the art of Wing Chun and combined his other influences from various sources into the spirit of his personal martial arts philosophy, which he dubbed Jeet Kune Do. Lee held dual nationality in Hong Kong and the US, he died in Hong Kong on July 20, 1973 at the age of 32, was buried in Seattle. Bruce Lee was born on November 27, 1940, in Chinatown, San Francisco. According to the Chinese zodiac, Lee was born in both the hour and the year of the Dragon, which according to tradition is a strong and fortuitous omen. Lee and his parents returned to Hong Kong.
Bruce's father, Lee Hoi-chuen, was Han Chinese, his mother, Grace Ho, was of Eurasian ancestry. Grace Ho was the adopted daughter of Ho Kom-tong and the half-niece of Sir Robert Ho-tung, both notable Hong Kong businessmen and philanthropists. Bruce was the fourth of five children: Phoebe Lee, Agnes Lee, Peter Lee, Robert Lee. Grace's parentage remains unclear. Linda Lee, in her 1989 biography The Bruce Lee Story, suggests that Grace had a German father and was a Catholic. Bruce Thomas, in his influential 1994 biography Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit, suggests that Grace had a Chinese mother and a German father. Lee's relative Eric Peter Ho, in his 2010 book Tracing My Children’s Lineage, suggests that Grace was born in Shanghai to a Eurasian woman named Cheung King-sin. Eric Peter Ho said that Grace Lee was the daughter of a mixed race Shanghainese woman and her father was Ho Kom Tong. Grace Lee said her mother was English and her father was Chinese. Fredda Dudley Balling said. In the 2018 biography Bruce Lee: A Life, Matthew Polly identifies Lee's maternal great-grandfather as Mozes Hartog Bosman, a Dutch-Jewish businessman from Rotterdam.
Bosman moved to Hong Kong with the Dutch East India Company and served as the Dutch consul to Hong Kong at one time. He had a Chinese concubine named Sze Tai with whom he had six children, including Lee's grandfather Ho Kom Tong. Bosman subsequently immigrated to California. Ho Kom Tong became a wealthy businessman with a wife, 13 concubines, a British mistress who gave birth to Grace Ho. Lee's Cantonese birth name was Lee Jun-fan; the name homophonically means "return again", was given to Lee by his mother, who felt he would return to the United States once he came of age. Because of his mother's superstitious nature, she had named him Sai-fon, a feminine name meaning "small phoenix"; the English name "Bruce" is thought to have been given by the hospital attending physician, Dr. Mary Glover. Lee had three other Chinese names: a family/clan name. Lee's given name Jun-fan was written in Chinese as 震藩, the Jun Chinese character was identical to part of his grandfather's name, Lee Jun-biu. Hence, the Chinese character for Jun in Lee's name was changed to the homonym 振 instead, to avoid naming taboo in Chinese tradition.
Lee's father, Lee Hoi-chuen, was one of the leading Cantonese opera and film actors at the time and was embarking on a year-long opera tour with his family on the eve of the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong. Lee Hoi-chuen had been touring the United States for many years and performing in numerous Chinese communities there. Although many of his peers decided to stay in the US, Lee Hoi-chuen returned to Hong Kong after Bruce's birth. Within months, Hong Kong was invaded and the Lees lived for three years and eight months under Japanese occupation. After the war ended, Lee Hoi-chuen resumed his acting career and became a more p