Perry Mason (radio series)
Perry Mason is a radio crime serial based on the novels of Erle Stanley Gardner. Broadcast weekdays on CBS Radio from 1943 to 1955, the series was adapted into The Edge of Night which ran on television for an additional 30 years; the 15-minute continuing series Perry Mason aired weekdays October 18, 1943 – December 30, 1955, on CBS Radio. Geared more towards action than courtroom drama, it mixed mystery and soap opera, with attorney Perry Mason sometimes exchanging gunfire with criminals. Erle Stanley Gardner's literary success with the Perry Mason novels convinced Warner Bros. to try its hand, with some motion pictures. However, the Perry Mason radio show stayed on the air for 12 years; as The Edge of Night, it ran for another 30 years on television, but Gardner disliked the proposed daytime television version due to a lack of his own creative control. He withheld his endorsement of the daytime TV show, forcing the name change; the actors portraying Mason switched over the first three years of the show's run, starting with Bartlett Robinson followed by Santos Ortega and Donald Briggs.
John Larkin took over the starring role March 31, 1947, portrayed Perry Mason until the end of the series. Larkin played the equivalent character on The Edge of Night; the guest cast included Mercedes McCambridge. Principal cast members are listed in order of portrayal. Radio's Perry Mason has more in common, in all but name, with the daytime serial The Edge of Night than the subsequent prime-time Perry Mason television show; as many radio serials moved to television, so was to be the destiny of Perry Mason. However, Gardner pulled his support; the sponsor, Procter & Gamble hired the writers and staff of the Perry Mason radio series, the show was retooled, it became The Edge of Night. The characters and setting were renamed. Gardner aligned himself with the nighttime courtroom drama; the Edge of Night was conceived as the daytime-TV version of Perry Mason. Mason's creator, Erle Stanley Gardner, was to create and write the show, but a last-minute tiff between him and CBS caused Gardner to pull his support.
CBS insisted that Mason be given a love interest to placate daytime soap opera audiences, but Gardner flatly refused to take Mason in that direction. Gardner would patch up his differences with CBS and Perry Mason would debut in prime time in 1957. Two actors who played Perry Mason on radio, Bartlett Robinson and John Larkin, appeared in episodes of the CBS-TV series, Perry Mason, starring Raymond Burr. Perry Mason, an American legal drama broadcast on CBS Television 1957–66 Perry Mason at the Internet Archive Streaming episodes of Perry Mason from Old Time Radio Researchers Group Library
General Electric Theater
General Electric Theater was an American anthology series hosted by Ronald Reagan, broadcast on CBS radio and television. The series was sponsored by General Electric's Department of Public Relations. After an audition show on January 18, 1953, entitled The Token, with Dana Andrews, the radio series, a summer replacement for The Bing Crosby Program, debuted on CBS on July 9, 1953, with Ronald Colman in Random Harvest. With such guest stars as Cary Grant, Irene Dunne, Van Johnson, Jane Wyman, William Holden, Alan Young, Dorothy McGuire, John Hodiak, Ann Blyth, James Mason, Joan Fontaine, Judy Garland, the series continued until October 1, 1953. Jaime del Valle directed the show. Ken Carpenter was the announcer. Wilbur Hatch supplied the music. Known as G. E. Stereo Theater, the program "was the first network radio series to be broadcast on FM in stereo." The television version of the program, produced by MCA-TV/Revue, was broadcast every Sunday evening at 9:00 pm EST, beginning February 1 1953, ending May 27 1962.
Each of the estimated 209 television episodes was an adaptation of a novel, short story, film, or magazine fiction. An exception was the 1954 episode "Music for Christmas", which featured choral director Fred Waring and his group The Pennsylvanians performing Christmas music. On September 26, 1954, Ronald Reagan debuted as the only host of the program. GE added a host to provide continuity in the anthology format; the show's Nielsen ratings improved from #27 in the 1953-1954 season to #17 in 1954-1955, followed #11 in 1955-1956, #3 in 1956-1957, #7 in 1957-1958, #26 in 1958-1959, #23 in 1959-1960, #20 in 1960-1961. General Electric Theater made the well-known Reagan, who had appeared in many films as a "second lead" throughout his career, due to his part ownership of the show. After eight years as host, Reagan estimated he had visited 135 GE research and manufacturing facilities, met over a quarter-million people. During that time, he would speak at other forums such as Rotary clubs and Moose lodges, presenting views on economic progress that in form and content were similar to what he said in introductions and closing comments on the show as a spokesman for GE.
Reagan, who would be known as "The Great Communicator" because of his oratorical prowess credited these engagements as helping him develop his public-speaking abilities. Among the guest stars on the anthology were: Michael Reagan, adopted son of Ronald Reagan and Jane Wyman, contends that Attorney General of the United States Robert F. Kennedy pressured GE to cancel The General Electric Theater or at least to fire Reagan as the host if the program were to continue; the series was not dropped because of low ratings but political intervention, the younger Reagan still maintains. Michael claimed that Robert Kennedy told GE officials that the company would receive no federal contracts so long as Reagan was host of the series. Michael noted the irony that his father's dismissal propelled Reagan into the political arena, eighteen years afterwards, Reagan would take the oath of office as the oldest person to become U. S. President up to that time. Kennedy's directive is another example of the "law of unintended consequences."
Had Kennedy stayed out of GE contract matters, there would have been no Governor or President Reagan. This statement by Michael Reagan is unsupported by any evidence, not a reference to a conversation with Ronald Reagan, the only possible source of this information. Reagan biographies and autobiographies tell a rather different story, none mention Robert F. Kennedy. From Reagan: The Life, H. W. Brands, Anchor Books, New York 2015 pg 124–125 Reagan's jeremiads against encroaching government cited the Tennessee Valley Authority as a case in point – until he got wind that TVA executives were listening and wondering to General Electric's boss, Ralph Cordiner, why they shouldn't shift their purchases to a more appreciative company. Cordiner said. Reagan recalled saying: “Mr Cordiner, what would you say if I could make my speech just as without mentioning TVA?” “Well, it would make my job easier.” Reagan concluded the story “Dropping TVA from my speech was no problem.” Pg 131, In 1961 the Justice Department launched a probe into price-fixing in the electrical equipment industry.
General Electric was a prime target. Corporate management decided prudence lay in avoiding anything that raised the company's profile needlessly. Reagan's attacks on big government did just that. …. The company offered to keep him on pitching commercial products if he would stop talking politics.... He decided. From An American Life and Schuster, New York, 1990, pg 137, “In 1962 there was a change in management at General Electric that brought an end to my satisfying eight-year relationship with the company. Ralph Cordiner was retiring and the new management asked me asked me, in addition to continuing as host of the GE Theater, to go on the road and become a pitchman for General Electric products – in other words, become a salesman. I told them that after developing such a following by speaking out about the issues I believed in, I wasn't going to go out and peddle toasters. From When Character was King, Peggy Noonan, New York, 2001, pg 84, New management asked him to stay on....but go on the road and pitch GE products.
They insisted. He said no, they cancelled. Don Herbert, a television personality well known as the host of Wat
Car 54, Where Are You?
Car 54, Where Are You?, an American sitcom that ran on NBC from 1961 to 1963, is the story of two New York City police officers based in the fictional 53rd precinct in The Bronx. Car 54 was their patrol car; the series was filmed in black-and-white and had a rotating group of directors, including Al De Caprio, Stanley Prager and series creator Nat Hiken - who helmed several episodes. Filming was on location, at Biograph Studios in the Bronx; the series follows the adventures of New York City Police Department officers Gunther Toody and Francis Muldoon, assigned to Patrol Car 54. Toody is short, stocky and not bright and lives with his loud, domineering wife, Lucille. College educated, Muldoon is tall and more intelligent. A shy bachelor, he lives with his mother and two younger sisters and eschews the notion of being married. Joe E. Ross as Officer Gunther Toody Fred Gwynne as Officer Francis Muldoon Ruth Masters as Mrs. Muldoon Hank Garrett as Officer Ed Nicholson Jim Gormley as Officer Nelson Albert Henderson as Officer Dennis O'Hara Bruce Kirby as Officer Kissel Al Lewis as Officer Leo Schnauser Beatrice Pons as Lucille Toody Charlotte Rae as Sylvia Schnauser Paul Reed as Capt. Paul Block Joe Warren as Officer Steinmetz Nipsey Russell as Officer Anderson Ossie Davis as Officer Omar Anderson Frederick O'Neal as Officer Wallace Patricia Bright as Mrs. Claire Block Nathaniel Frey as Sergeant Abrams Many of the scripts were written by Nat Hiken, who won an Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Comedy Emmy Award for his work on the series.
Hiken had produced The Phil Silvers Show, which featured Joe E. Ross and Beatrice Pons as a married couple. Car 54 was sponsored by Procter & Gamble; the police cars used for the series were bright red and white, which appeared as the proper shade of gray for an NYPD car on black-and-white film. NYPD cars of that era were green with a white roof and trunk. Two Plymouth Savoys were used as the title vehicle during the series – a 1961 Savoy during the first season and a 1963 Savoy during the second. During the closing credits of episodes in the second season, a "futuristic" police car was seen driving on the streets of New York City; the theme song's lyrics were written by series creator and director Nat Hiken, with music by John Strauss. The line "Khrushchev's due at Idlewild" referred to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev arriving a year before the series began in September 1960 at New York's Idlewild Airport, to attend the United Nations General Assembly. Car 54, Where Are You? Originally aired Sunday at 8:30–9:00 p.m. on NBC, following Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color and preceding Bonanza.
Several celebrities, including Hugh Downs, Mitch Miller, Jan Murray, Sugar Ray Robinson, appeared as themselves. Among others cast in various episodes are: Car 54, Where Are You? was nominated for four Primetime Emmy Awards, earning one. 1961–1962 Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Comedy: Nat Hiken—Won Outstanding Program Achievement in the Field of Humor—Nominated Outstanding Writing Achievement in Comedy: Nat Hiken, Tony Webster, Terry Ryan—Nominated 1962–1963 Outstanding Writing Achievement in Comedy: Nat Hiken—Nominated Car 54, Where Are You? First entered into syndication in January 1964, it began airing on the cable channel Nick at Nite in 1987 and ran on the network until 1990. It was seen for less than one year on the short-lived Ha! Channel in 1990-91 and aired on another Viacom-owned cable channel, Comedy Central, in the early 1990s; the show airs early Sundays mornings on MeTV, airs on its sister network Decades. Car 54, Where Are You? was made into a 1994 film, filmed in Toronto, starring John C.
McGinley as Muldoon, David Johansen as Toody, Rosie O'Donnell. The film was made in 1990 but not released until 1994 due to the bankruptcy of Orion Pictures, it was a box office bomb when it was poorly reviewed by critics. Original cast members Russell appeared in the film. In the early 1990s, Republic Pictures Home Video releases some episodes on VHS. Shanachie Entertainment said in 2010 it was releasing the first season on DVD in Region 1 on February 22, 2011; the second and final season was released on April 24, 2012. The show had each with 30 episodes. List of television shows filmed in New York City Notes Car 54, Where Are You?, by Martin Grams, Jr.. Albany: BearManor Media. ISBN 1-59393-340-1. Car 54, Where Are You? on IMDb Car 54, Where Are You? at TV.com A Tribute to Nat Hiken's Car 54 Where Are You
Adventures in Paradise (TV series)
Adventures in Paradise is an American television series created by James Michener which ran on ABC from 1959 until 1962, starring Gardner McKay as Adam Troy, the captain of the schooner Tiki III, which sailed the South Pacific looking for passengers and adventure. USA Network aired reruns of this series between 1984 and 1988; the plots deal with the romantic and detective adventures of Korean War veteran Troy. The supporting cast, varying from season to season, featured George Tobias, Guy Stockwell, Linda Lawson. Gardner McKay as Capt. Adam Troy, 91 episodes Weaver Levy as Oliver Lee George Tobias as Trader Penrose James Holden as Clay Baker Lani Kai as Kelly Sondi Sodsai as Sondi Henry Slate as Bulldog Lovey Linda Lawson as Renee Guy Stockwell as Chris Parker Marcel Hillaire as Inspector Bouchard "Theme from Adventures in Paradise" was composed by Lionel Newman, it has been recorded by numerous artists, including Arthur Lyman, Santo & Johnny, Rob E. G; the Atlantics, Johnnie Spence and his Orchestra.
Newman was a senior music director for Twentieth Century Fox Films and was conductor and music supervisor for the Adventures in Paradise series. Lyrics to the theme were written by Dorcas Cochran, are heard on the version recorded by Bing Crosby. Cochran is credited as writer alongside Newman on some instrumental recordings. A 45 rpm single of "Theme from Adventures in Paradise" by Jerry Byrd and his Steel Guitar charted in the United States, peaking in August 1960 at No. 97 in Billboard magazine and No. 80 in Cash Box Adventures in Paradise on IMDb Adventures in Paradise at TV.com
The Campbell Playhouse (radio series)
The Campbell Playhouse was a live CBS radio drama series directed by and starring Orson Welles. Produced by Welles and John Houseman, it was a sponsored continuation of The Mercury Theatre on the Air; the series offered hour-long adaptations of classic plays and novels, as well as adaptations of popular motion pictures. When Welles left at the end of the second season, The Campbell Playhouse changed format as a 30-minute weekly series that ran for one season; as a direct result of the front-page headlines Orson Welles generated with his 1938 Halloween production "The War of the Worlds", Campbell's Soup signed on as sponsor. The Mercury Theatre on the Air made its last broadcast December 4, 1938, The Campbell Playhouse began December 9, 1938; the series made its debut with Welles's adaptation of Rebecca, with guest stars Margaret Sullavan and Mildred Natwick. The radio drama was the first adaptation of the 1938 novel by Daphne Du Maurier. Bernard Herrmann had time to compose a complete score for "Rebecca".
"It was beautiful," said associate producer Paul Stewart, "and it was the first time to me that Benny was something more than a guy who could write bridges." Herrmann used the main theme as the basis of his score for the film Jane Eyre. Although the same creative staff stayed on, the show had a different flavor under sponsorship; this was due to a guest star policy which relegated the Mercury Players to supporting roles. There was a growing schism between Welles, still reaping the rewards of his Halloween eve notoriety, Houseman, who became an employee rather than a partner. Houseman worked as supervising editor on the radio shows. Howard E. Koch remained on the writing staff through "The Glass Key", he was succeeded by Howard Teichmann. After signing a film contract with RKO in August 1939, Welles began commuting from Hollywood to New York for the two Sunday broadcasts of The Campbell Playhouse. In November 1939, production of the show moved from New York to Los Angeles. Screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz was put on the Mercury payroll and wrote five scripts for Campbell Playhouse shows broadcast between November 12, 1939, March 17, 1940.
Mankiewicz proved to be useful working with Houseman as editor. The episode "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town" includes an inside joke: the Viennese doctor asked to certify Deeds insane is named Dr. Herman Mankiewicz. After an argument over finances December 16, 1939, John Houseman resigned from the Mercury Theatre and returned to New York. Two months Welles hired him back to work with Mankiewicz on a new venture, Welles's first film project, Citizen Kane. After 20 shows, Campbell began to exercise more creative control over The Campbell Playhouse, had complete control over story selection. Diana Bourbon, an account executive from the Ward Wheelock agency, was appointed as liaison between Welles and Campbell. Bourbon acted as de facto producer, she and Welles clashed over story and casting. One notable dispute came after the broadcast of "Algiers", which employed a crafted tapestry of sound to create the world of the Casbah. Challenged on why the background sounds were so loud, Welles responded, "Who told you it was the background?"Amiable classics were chosen over many of Welles's story suggestions, including Of Human Hearts.
As his contract with Campbell came to an end, Welles determined not to sign on for another season. "I'm sick of having the heart torn out of a script by radio censorship," he said. After the broadcast of March 31, 1940 — a reprise of Jane Eyre, after Welles's suggestion of Alice Adams was not accepted — Welles and Campbell parted amicably; the Campbell Playhouse returned to radio November 29, 1940, as a 30-minute weekly CBS series, last broadcast June 13, 1941. The program was produced by Diana Bourbon; the series' focus shifted away from classic play and novel adaptations to lighter, more popular fare, still with casts drawn from the ranks of film actors. The Campbell Playhouse is the title of an American anthology series and television drama that aired on NBC June 6, 1952 – May 28, 1954. Sponsored by the Campbell Soup Company, the series aired under the title Campbell Soundstage. In June 1954 the title of the series was changed to Campbell Summer Soundstage, filmed presentations were featured until the show left the air in September 1954.
Campbell Playhouse at the Internet Archive The Campbell Playhouse: Script of A Christmas Carol Mercury Theatre site with Campbell Playhouse shows Campbell Summer Soundstage on IMDb The Definitive: Guide to The Campbell Playhouse Frank M. Passage's Campbell Playhouse log Zoot Radio, free old time radio show downloads of The Campbell Playhouse
Film noir is a cinematic term used to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas those that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywood's classical film noir period is regarded as extending from the early 1920s to the late 1950s. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key, black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography. Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Great Depression; the term film noir, French for "black film" or "dark film", was first applied to Hollywood films by French critic Nino Frank in 1946, but was unrecognized by most American film industry professionals of that era. Cinema historians and critics defined the category retrospectively. Before the notion was adopted in the 1970s, many of the classic film noir were referred to as "melodramas". Whether film noir qualifies as a distinct genre is a matter of ongoing debate among scholars.
Film noir encompasses a range of plots: the central figure may be a private investigator, a plainclothes policeman, an aging boxer, a hapless grifter, a law-abiding citizen lured into a life of crime, or a victim of circumstance. Although film noir was associated with American productions, the term has been used to describe films from around the world. Many films released from the 1960s onward share attributes with film noirs of the classical period, treat its conventions self-referentially; some refer to such latter-day works as neo-noir. The clichés of film noir have inspired parody since the mid-1940s; the questions of what defines film noir, what sort of category it is, provoke continuing debate. "We'd be oversimplifying things in calling film noir oneiric, erotic and cruel..."—this set of attributes constitutes the first of many attempts to define film noir made by French critics Raymond Borde and Étienne Chaumeton in their 1955 book Panorama du film noir américain 1941–1953, the original and seminal extended treatment of the subject.
They emphasize that not every film noir embodies all five attributes in equal measure—one might be more dreamlike. The authors' caveats and repeated efforts at alternative definition have been echoed in subsequent scholarship: in the more than five decades since, there have been innumerable further attempts at definition, yet in the words of cinema historian Mark Bould, film noir remains an "elusive phenomenon... always just out of reach". Though film noir is identified with a visual style, unconventional within a Hollywood context, that emphasizes low-key lighting and unbalanced compositions, films identified as noir evidence a variety of visual approaches, including ones that fit comfortably within the Hollywood mainstream. Film noir embraces a variety of genres, from the gangster film to the police procedural to the gothic romance to the social problem picture—any example of which from the 1940s and 1950s, now seen as noir's classical era, was to be described as a melodrama at the time.
While many critics refer to film noir as a genre itself, others argue. Foster Hirsch defines a genre as determined by "conventions of narrative structure, characterization and visual design". Hirsch, as one who has taken the position that film noir is a genre, argues that these elements are present "in abundance". Hirsch notes that there are unifying features of tone, visual style and narrative sufficient to classify noir as a distinct genre. Others argue. Film noir is associated with an urban setting, but many classic noirs take place in small towns, rural areas, or on the open road. While the private eye and the femme fatale are character types conventionally identified with noir, the majority of film noirs feature neither. Nor does film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the horror film, the speculative leaps of the science fiction film, or the song-and-dance routines of the musical. An analogous case is that of the screwball comedy accepted by film historians as constituting a "genre": the screwball is defined not by a fundamental attribute, but by a general disposition and a group of elements, some—but and never all—of which are found in each of the genre's films.
Because of the diversity of noir, certain scholars in the field, such as film historian Thomas Schatz, treat it as not a genre but a "style". Alain Silver, the most published American critic specializing in film noir studies, refers to film noir as a "cycle" and a "phenomenon" as he argues that it has—like certain genres—a consistent set of visual and thematic codes. Other critics treat film noir as a "mood", characterize it as a "series", or address a chosen set of films they regard as belonging to the noir "canon". There is no consensus on the matter; the aesthetics of film noir are influenced by German Expressionism, an artistic movement of the 1910s and 1920s that involved theater, painting and architecture, as well as cinema. The opportunities offered by the booming Hollywood film industry and the threat of Nazism, led to the emigration of many film artists working in Germany, involved in the Expressionist movement or studied wit
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed