Elizabeth Ruth Grable was an American actress, pin-up girl, dancer and singer. Her 42 films during the 1930s and 1940s grossed more than $100 million, she set a record of 12 consecutive years in the top 10 of box office stars; the U. S. Treasury Department in 1946 and 1947 listed her as the highest-salaried American woman. Grable began her film career in 1929 at age 12, after which she was fired from a contract when it was learned she signed up under false identification, she had contracts with RKO and Paramount Pictures during the 1930s, appeared in a string of B movies portraying college students. Grable came to prominence in the Broadway musical DuBarry Was a Lady, which brought her to the attention of 20th Century-Fox, she replaced Alice Faye in Down Argentine Way, her first major Hollywood film, became Fox's biggest film star throughout the remaining decade. Fox cast Grable in a succession of Technicolor musicals during the decade that were immensely popular, co-starring with such leading men as Victor Mature, Don Ameche, John Payne, Tyrone Power.
In 1943, she was the number-one box-office draw in the world and, in 1947, she was the highest-paid entertainer in the United States. Two of her biggest film successes were the musical Mother Wore Tights and the comedy How to Marry a Millionaire, one of her last films. Grable retired from screen acting in 1955 after she withdrew from her Fox contract, although she continued to perform on the stage and on television. Throughout her career, Grable was a celebrated sex symbol, her bathing suit poster made her the number-one pin-up girl of World War II, surpassing Rita Hayworth. It was included in the Life magazine project "100 Photographs That Changed the World". Hosiery specialists of the era noted the ideal proportions of her legs as thigh and ankle. Grable's legs were insured by her studio for $1 million as a publicity stunt. Describing her film career, Grable said "I became a star for two reasons, I'm standing on them." Elizabeth Ruth Grable was born on December 18, 1916, in St. Louis, the youngest of three children of Lillian Rose and John Charles Grable, a stockbroker.
She was of Dutch, English and Irish ancestry. Nicknamed "Betty" as a child, she was pressured by her mother to become a performer, she was entered in multiple beauty contests, many of which she won or for which she achieved considerable attention. Despite her success, she suffered from a fear of crowds and sleepwalking. A 12-year-old Grable and her mother traveled to Hollywood in 1929, shortly after the stock market crash, hoping to achieve stardom. In Hollywood, Betty Grable studied at the Hollywood Professional High School and the Ernest Blecher Academy of Dance. To get her daughter jobs, Lillian Grable lied about her daughter's age, claiming she was 15 to movie producers and casting agents; the same year, she made her uncredited film debut as a chorus girl in the Fox Studios all-star revue Happy Days. This led to her having chorus girl jobs in Let's Go Places and New Movietone Follies of 1930. In 1930, at age 13, Grable signed with producer Samuel Goldwyn; as a member of the ensemble group of attractive young chorines, Grable appeared in a series of small parts in movies, among them the mega-hit Whoopee!, starring Eddie Cantor.
Although she received no on-screen credit for her performance, she led the film's opening musical number,titled "Cowboys". In 1932, she signed a contract with RKO Radio Pictures, she was assigned to a succession of acting and dancing classes at the studio's drama school, her first film for the studio, provided the 14-year-old Grable with her first credited screen role. Over the next few years, she was again relegated to uncredited minor roles in a series of films, many of them that became worldwide successes, like the 1933 hit Cavalcade, she Follow the Fleet. After her brief stint as an RKO contract player, Grable signed with Paramount Pictures. Paramount lent her to 20th Century-Fox to co-star in the adolescent comedy Pigskin Parade, which first exposed Grable to the public. Despite the studio's effort to introduce Grable to the mainstream movie audience, her performance was overlooked by audiences and critics in favor of newcomer Judy Garland; when Grable returned to Paramount, she began a new phase in her career.
These films included the moderately popular This Way College Swing. Though Grable played the leading roles in these films, they led to her being typecast as an innocent and not-so-bright college student. In 1939, she appeared opposite her then-husband Jackie Coogan in Million Dollar Legs, a B-movie comedy that gave Grable her famous nickname; when the film did not become the hit, Paramount had hoped for, the studio released her from her contract, Grable began preparing to leave Hollywood for a simpler life. However, she decided to take her chance on Broadway; the play was an instant critical and audience success, Grable was branded a new-found star. In a 1940 interview, Grable stated she was "sick and tired" of show business and that she was considering retirement. Soon th
Log flumes are amusement rides consisting of a water flume and artificial hollow logs or boats. Passengers sit in the logs; the ride culminates with a rapid descent and splashdown into a body of water, which may happen more than once. It provides people with an entertaining way to get wet and cool off on a hot summer day, with certain seating sections being splashed with more water for a more fun and wet ride. Log flumes are a variant of the chute rides and old mill rides that were popular in the United States in the early 20th century. Shoot the Chute rides continue to be built today. Both of these types of rides took rather simple approaches to handling water flow, it was not until Karl Bacon of Arrow Development got involved and studied hydrodynamics that the use of water flow in an amusement ride was exploited. The first modern day log flume amusement ride constructed by Arrow was El Aserradero at Six Flags Over Texas in Arlington, which opened in 1963 and is still in operation; the Mill Race, Arrow Log Flume number two, opened just a few weeks at Cedar Point.
Log flumes proved to be popular and became staples at amusement and theme parks throughout the world. The ride was so popular that some parks started adding second flume rides to help reduce the long lines. Cedar Point added Shoot the Rapids in 1967, Six Flags Over Texas and Six Flags Over Georgia both added second flumes in 1968; when Six Flags Over Mid America opened in 1971, it featured twin flumes. In the 1960s and early 1970s Arrow had a monopoly on the log flume business, producing over 50 flumes by 1979. In 1976, the French company Reverchon Industries started building flumes and in 1979 Hopkins Rides entered the flume building business. Other manufacturers followed with Intamin building its first log flume in 1986 and Mack Rides in 1987. Log flumes are out in the open, though some may contain enclosed or tunneled sections; the flume is made of fiberglass, concrete or galvanized steel. In a typical course, the boatful of riders floats through a small section of channel upon leaving the station engages a lift hill that takes them on a winding course in the water-filled trough.
A second lifthill culminates with an exciting drop and a splashdown finale. The amount of splash can be controlled by using rubber belting of differing widths and differing heights. To increase the chance of being soaked, the flume can be designed to be turbulent, or to run underneath waterfalls. Water cannons aimed along the path are sometimes installed alongside the flume. Additionally, the exit path from the ride may cross over or go near to the flume, such that departing riders are drenched by the boat en route. One of the first elaborately-themed flumes was Timber Mountain Log Ride at Knott's Berry Farm. Built as a concession run by Hurlbut Amusement Company, most of the ride is inside a man-made mountain. Bud Hurlbut and his right-hand man Harry Suker were responsible for the theme of the ride. Upon his retirement, Hurlbut sold the ride to Knott's Berry Farm. Log Chute at Mall of America's indoor park Nickelodeon Universe contains sections within a large rocky structure and some out in the open.
Disney's Splash Mountain consists of a single trough running in a continuous circuit through the middle of a show building with Audio-Animatronic scenes playing on the left and right of the main flume, with only the largest drops and a few turns positioned placed outside the show building. Luna Park's Wild River contains a few turns a lifthill which holds the riders upwards for 15 seconds the log turns left and drops down; the second lifthill lifts up higher with audio playing in the back and an exciting drop occurs and the riders return. ABC Rides Arrow Dynamics Barr Engineering Bear Rides Big Country Motioneering D. P. V. Rides Fabbri Group Hafema Hopkins Rides I. E Park Intamin Interlink L&T Systems Mack Rides Mimafab Preston & Barbieri Reverchon Industries Rides and Fun S. D. C. SBF Visa Group Schwarzkopf Senyo Kogyo Soquet Technical Park Van Egdom Venture Rides WGH Transportation Engineering Zamperla Old Mill Log flume
Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. The scope of space warfare therefore includes ground-to-space warfare, such as attacking satellites from the Earth; as of 2020 no actual warfare has taken place in space, though a number of tests and demonstrations have been performed. International treaties are in place that regulate conflicts in space and limit the installation of space weapon systems nuclear weapons. From 1985 to 2002 there was a United States Space Command, which in 2002 merged with the United States Strategic Command, leaving the United States Space Force as the primary American military space force; the Russian Space Force, established on August 10, 1992, which became an independent section of the Russian military on June 1, 2001, was replaced by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces starting December 1, 2011, but was reestablished as a component of the Russian Aerospace Forces on August 1, 2015. In 2019 India conducted a test of the ASAT missile making it the fourth country with that capability.
In April 2019, the government established the Defence Space Agency, or DSA. Early efforts to conduct space warfare were directed at space-to-space warfare, as ground-to-space systems were considered to be too slow and too isolated by Earth's atmosphere and gravity to be effective at the time; the history of active space warfare development goes back to the 1960s when the Soviet Union began the Almaz project, a project designed to give them the ability to do on-orbit inspections of satellites and destroy them if needed. Similar planning in the United States took the form of the Blue Gemini project, which consisted of modified Gemini capsules that would be able to deploy weapons and perform surveillance. One early test of electronic space warfare, the so-called Starfish Prime test, took place in 1962, when the United States exploded a ground-launched nuclear weapon in space to test the effects of an electromagnetic pulse; the result was a deactivation of both American and Soviet. The deleterious and unfocused effects of the EMP test led to the banning of nuclear weapons in space in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967.
In the early 1960s the U. S. military produced a film called National Security which depicted space warfare. Through the 1970s, the Soviet Union continued their project and test-fired a cannon to test space station defense; this was considered too dangerous to do with a crew on board, however, so the test was conducted after the crew had returned to Earth. A 1976 Soviet report suggested that the design of the space shuttle had been guided by a requirement to deliver a payload- such as a bomb- over Russia and return to land after a single orbit; this may have been a confusion based on requirements 3A and 3B for the shuttle's design, which required the craft to be able to deploy or retrieve an object from a polar orbit in a single pass. Both the Soviets and the United States developed anti-satellite weaponry designed to shoot down satellites. While early efforts paralleled other space-to-space warfare concepts, the United States was able in the 1980s to develop ground-to-space laser anti-satellite weapons.
None of these systems are known to be active today. In 1984 the Strategic Defence Initiative was proposed, it was nicknamed Star Wars after the popular science fiction franchise Star Wars. In 1985 a USAF pilot in an F-15 shot down the P78-1, an American research satellite, in a 345-mile orbit; the People's Republic of China tested a ballistic missile-launched anti-satellite weapon on January 11, 2007. This resulted in harsh criticism from the United States of America and Japan; the U. S. developed an interceptor missile, the SM-3, testing it by hitting ballistic test targets while they were in space. On February 21, 2008, the U. S. used a SM-3 missile to destroy a spy satellite, USA-193, while it was 247 kilometers above the Pacific Ocean. Japan fields the U. S.-made SM-3 missile, there have been plans to base the land-based version in Romania and Vietnam. In March 2019, India shot down a satellite orbiting in a Low Earth orbit using an ASAT missile during an operation code named Mission Shakti, thus making its way to the list of space warfare nations, establishing the Defense Space Agency the following month, followed by its first-ever simulated space warfare exercise on 25 July which would inform a joint military space doctrine.
In July 2019 Emmanuel Macron "called for a space high command to protect" France's satellites. This was followed by a plan released by military officials. French Defense Minister, Florence Parly, announced a space weapons program that would move the country's space surveillance strategy towards active protection of its assets in space, e.g. satellites. The projects outlined include: patrolling nano-satellites swarms, ground-based laser systems to blind spying satellites, machine guns mounted on satellites. In the late 1970s and through the 1980s the Soviet Union and the United States theorized, designed and in some cases tested a variety of weaponry designed for warfare in outer space. Space warfare was seen as an extension of nuclear warfare, so many theoretical systems were based around the destruction or defense of ground and sea-based missiles. Space-based missiles were not attempted due to the Outer Space Treaty, which banned the use, testing or storage of nuclear weapons o
The Gloucestershire Northern Senior League is a football competition based in England founded in 1922. The league is affiliated to the Gloucestershire County FA, it has two divisions, Division One and Division Two, with Division One sitting at level 12 of the English football league system. This league is a feeder to the Gloucestershire County League; the Cheltenham League and District League and North Gloucestershire League are feeders to the GNSL. In the 2018–19 season, Sharpness won the Division One title, while Woolaston were top of Division Two; the league was formed in 1922 and the founder members included Cheltenham Town, Gloucester City and Forest Green Rovers. A number of clubs in the NSL have played in the Gloucestershire County League or higher but have dropped back into lower tier football. Notable clubs include: Harrow Hill joined the County League in 1982/83 and gained promotion to the Hellenic Football League. Stonehouse Town were original member of the County League and competed in the competition for 20 years until 1988.
From 1947 until 1960 the club played in the Western Football League. Among the clubs that have left the Gloucestershire Northern Senior League and now compete at a higher level are: Sources Source Official Website TheFA.com
Schola Gladiatoria is a historical European martial arts group based in Ealing, west London, Great Britain, founded in 2001 and led by Matt Easton. It provides organized instruction in the serious study and practice of historical European swordplay. Schola seeks to be consistent with the methodology of the ancient European fencing schools by combining scholarship and research into the teachings of the historical masters, with the practical knowledge gained through solo and partnered drilling, free play. Schola Gladiatoria was founded in 2001, though the founding members had been training with other HEMA organizations; the director of SG had first trained with the Company of Maisters, a group established in 1997 and led by Terry Brown, one of the HEMA pioneers in Great Britain. Matt Easton joined The Exiles and had been its co-director; the group has two chapters: SG1 Classes vary each week between four main subjects - Medieval longsword fencing according to Fiore dei Liberi. This chapter is taught by Matt Easton.
SG6 Concentrates on longsword according to various German sources in the Liechtenauer lineage, Georgian military sabre according to Charles Roworth, rapier from a variety of sources. Classes sometimes cover Tomahawk & Bowie and buckler and dagger; this chapter is taught by Chris Bentley, Richard Scholefield and Stephen Shepherd. There have been other chapters over the years, some of which have now been closed, amalgamated or formed independent collaborative groups. Schola uses ranks for its teachers; these are intended to help people focus on self-improvement, have something to aim towards, reward hard work, give more official responsibility to the experienced members and help classes run more smoothly. The following rankings are used: Novice, Free Scholar and Senior Provost equating to the ranks of the London Company of Masters of Defence of the 16th century; these ranks represent a combination of understanding of the art and ability to use it - the balance being more on knowledge and experience, rather than pure fighting ability.
New students begin as Novices. Ranks are awarded with advice from the higher ranks. A degree of testing may be applied, involving theoretical and fighting parts: for instance in order to attain Free Scholar rank students are required to participate in a modern version of Prize Playing. Scholars are those students who are no longer considered beginners and have attained a certain level of knowledge and competency, they should be safe, have learned the basic principles of the art, be able to perform basic techniques and should be able to explain what they are doing and why. Free Scholars are able to assist with teaching due to having trained for much longer and learned much more, they should be able to convey that knowledge. Their martial abilities should be proven. Provosts are able to lead classes, present to large groups of people and exhibit notably deeper and broader levels of knowledge, they should have demonstrated their martial abilities widely. Programs and services provided by Schola Gladiatoria: mentoring new HEMA clubs.
Members of Schola Gladiatoria have a good track record in martial arts tournaments: Glorianna Cup, BFHS longsword competition, HEMAC-Dijon longsword competition, FightCamp cutting competition, FightCamp Assault at Arms, HEMAC-Dijon rapier competition and Swordfish. Matt Easton and other members of Schola Gladiatoria have lectured and demonstrated at the Royal Armouries, the Tower of London, the Wallace Collection and the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, amongst other places. In 2000 Schola was a founding part of HEMAC, a pan-European organization of martial artists and researchers dedicated to the study of traditional European fighting arts and martial traditions. In 2006 SG joined the BFHS, it was among seven WMA groups. Schola has featured in several videos on longsword training, Victorian sabre sparring, created by WOMA TV. FightCamp is run by Matt Easton of Schola Gladiatoria, it has been running since 2004 and has grown from a small informal gathering at a historical site between a handful of groups to one of the largest international HEMA events in the world.
In 2010 it was moved to a commercial site in the Midlands developed for such events. The event now attracts over up to 200 students every year. FightCamp is a three-day event - starting on Friday morning and ending on Sunday afternoon - providing classes, competitions and the opportunity for free exchange of European martial arts and related subjects. Classes cover subjects such as medieval knightly combat - using weapons like longswords and pollaxes - th
The Cougar II Handicap is an American Thoroughbred horse race run annually in late July/early August at Del Mar Racetrack in Del Mar, California. A Grade III event open to horses age three and older, it is contested on dirt over a distance of a mile and a half; the winner automatically qualified for a berth in the Breeders' Cup Marathon before that race was discontinued. Inaugurated in 1937 as the Escondido Handicap, it was renamed in honor of National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame inductee Cougar II; the race was run as an overnight stakes from 1997 to 2007. Over the years, it has been contested at various distances and in two divisions. Three horses have won this race more than once: Dowty, Big John A, Richard's Kid. 2018 - Beach View 2017 - Curlin Road 2016 - Hard Aces 2015 - Big John B 2014 - Irish Surf 2013 - Richard's Kid 2012 - Richard's Kid.17 off the mark set in 2011 by Bourbon Bay. 2011 - Bourbon Bay A new track record for the distance. 2010 - Temple City 2009 - Unusual Suspect 2008 - Zappa From 2008 until the present time, this race has been run at 12 furlongs.
From 1989 to 2007, it was run at 11 furlongs. 2007 - Atlando Called the Escondido Handicap from inception in 1937 to 2006. 2006 - Runaway Dancer 2005 - Lauras Lucky Boy 2004 - Sarafan 2003 - Bonus Pack 2002 - Dance Dreamer 2001 - Cagney 2000 - Alvo Certo 1999 - Astarabad 1998 - Dowty 1997 - Dowty 1996 - Dernier Empereur 1995 - Varadavour 1994 - Sir Mark Sykes 1993 - Luazur 1992 - Navarone 1991 - Berillon 1990 - Rial 1989 - Brisque 1988 - Mazalier Run at 8 1/2 furlongs 1987 - Captain Vigors Run at 8 1/2 furlongs 1986 - Truce Maker Run at 8 1/2 furlongs 1985 - NOT RUN 1984 - Go Dancer Run at 7 1/2 furlongs FIRST DIVISION 1984 - Pair of Deuces Run at 7 1/2 furlongs SECOND DIVISION 1983 - Pin Puller Run at 8 1/2 furlongs 1982 - Rock Softly Run at 8 1/2 furlongs 1981 - Advocatum 1980 - Nain Bleu 1979 - Uniformity 1978 - Bywayofchicago 1977 - Authorization Run at 8 1/2 furlongs FIRST DIVISION 1977 - Pike Hall Run at 8 1/2 furlongs SECOND DIVISION 1976 - Silver Saber Run at 8 1/2 furlongs 1975 - Buck Price Run at 7 1/2 furlongs 1974 - Flighting Run at 7 1/2 furlongs on the turf FIRST DIVISION 1974 - Bensadream Run at 7 1/2 furlongs SECOND DIVISION 1973 - Tannyhill Run at 9 furlongs 1972 - Mongos Pride Run at 9 furlongs on the turf 1971 - Born Wild Run at 9 furlongs on the turf 1970 - Cougar II Run at 9 furlongs 1969 - Big John A Run at 9 furlongs on the turf 1968 - Big John A FIRST DIVISION 1968 - Til Morrow Run at 9 furlongs on the turf SECOND DIVISION 1967 - Strawberry Drive Run at 9 furlongs on the turf FIRST DIVISION 1967 - Estambul Run at 9 furlongs on the turf SECOND DIVISION 1966 - Quicken Tree Run at 9 furlongs on the turf FIRST DIVISION 1966 - Amerigos Fancy Run at 9 furlongs on the turf SECOND DIVISION 1965 - Switchback 1964 - Desert Chief FIRST DIVISION 1964 - Victory Beauty Run at 9 furlongs SECOND DIVISION 1963 - Braganza FIRST DIVISION 1963 - Moon Mad Run at 9 furlongs SECOND DIVISION 1962 - Hardware Run at 9 furlongs 1961 - Top Double 1960 - Cleave 1959 - I Step 1958 - Solid Fleet 1957 - Hi Pardner 1956 - Poona 1955 - Arrogate Run at 8 1/2 furlongs 1954 - NOT RUN 1953 - NOT RUN 1952 - NOT RUN 1951 - Caruso Run at 6 furlongs 1950 - Pats Own Run at 5 1.2 furlongs 1949 - Great Dream Run at 6 furlongs 1938 - Happy Bolivar Run at 6 furlongs 1937 - Clean Out Run at 6 furlongs The 2009 Cougar II Handicap at Breeders' Cup.com