George Bernard Shaw
He wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman and Saint Joan. With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, born in Dublin, Shaw moved to London in 1873, where he established himself as a writer and novelist. By the mid-1880s he was a theatre and music critic. Following a political awakening, he joined the gradualist Fabian Society, Shaw had been writing plays for years before his first public success, 1894s Arms and the Man. Influenced by Henrik Ibsen, he sought to introduce a new realism into English-language drama, using his plays as vehicles to disseminate his political and religious ideas. By the early twentieth century his reputation as a dramatist was secured with a series of critical and popular successes that included Major Barbara, The Doctors Dilemma and Caesar, Shaws expressed views were often contentious, he promoted eugenics and alphabet reform while opposing vaccination and organised religion.
He courted unpopularity by denouncing both sides in the First World War as equally culpable and he castigated British policy on Ireland in the postwar period, and became a citizen of the Irish Free State in 1934, maintaining dual citizenship. He was prolific, finishing during the years a series of often ambitious plays which achieved varying degrees of popular success. Since Shaws death, opinion has varied about his works and he has at times been rated as second only to William Shakespeare among English-language dramatists, analysts recognise his extensive influence on generations of playwrights. The word Shavian has entered the language as encapsulating Shaws ideas, Shaw was born at 3 Upper Synge Street in Portobello, a lower-middle-class part of Dublin. He was the youngest child and only son of George Carr Shaw and his elder siblings were Lucinda Frances and Elinor Agnes. The Shaw family was of English descent and belonged to the dominant Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland, George Carr Shaw and his relatives secured him a sinecure in the civil service, from which he was pensioned off in the early 1850s, thereafter he worked irregularly as a corn merchant.
In 1852 he married Bessie Gurly, in the view of Shaws biographer Michael Holroyd she married to escape a tyrannical great-aunt, if, as Holroyd and others surmise, Georges motives were mercenary, he was disappointed, as Bessie brought him little of her familys money. She came to despise her ineffectual and often drunken husband, with whom she shared what their son described as a life of shabby-genteel poverty. By the time of Shaws birth, his mother had become close to George John Lee, Shaw retained a lifelong obsession that Lee might have been his biological father, there is no consensus among Shavian scholars on the likelihood of this. The young Shaw suffered no harshness from his mother, but he recalled that her indifference. He found solace in the music that abounded in the house, Lee was a conductor and teacher of singing, Bessie had a fine mezzo-soprano voice and was much influenced by Lees unorthodox method of vocal production. The Shaws house was filled with music, with frequent gatherings of singers and players
Kaj Harald Leininger Munk was a Danish playwright and Lutheran pastor, known for his cultural engagement and his martyrdom during the Occupation of Denmark of World War II. He is commemorated as a martyr in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 14 August and he was born Kaj Harald Leininger Petersen on the island of Lolland and raised by a family named Munk after the death of his parents. From 1924 until his death, Munk was the vicar of Vedersø in Western Jutland, Munks plays were mostly performed and made public during the 1930s, although many were written in the 1920s. Much of his work concerns the philosophy-on-life debate which marked much of Danish cultural life during this period. On one occasion, in the early 1930s, in a comment that came back to haunt him in years, Munk expressed admiration for Hitler. However, Munks attitude towards Hitler turned to outspoken disgust, as he witnessed Hitlers persecution of the German Jewish community, in 1938 the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published on its front page an open letter to Benito Mussolini written by Kaj Munk criticising the persecutions against Jews.
His plays Han sidder ved Smeltediglen and Niels Ebbesen were direct attacks on Nazism, despite friends who urged Munk to go underground, he continued to preach against Danes who collaborated with the Nazis. The Gestapo arrested Munk on the night of 4 January 1944, Munks body was found in a roadside ditch in rural Hørbylunde near Silkeborg the next morning with a note saying Swine, you worked for Germany just the same. Four thousand Danes attended Munks funeral, Munks body was returned to his parish church, Vedersø, where it is buried outside the choir. A simple stone cross was erected on a small hill overlooking the site where Munks body was dumped. Half of the January 1944 issue of the resistance newspaper De frie Danske was dedicated to Kaj Munk with his portrait filling the front page, the obituary Danmarks store Søn - Kaj Munk filled the next page, followed by excerpts from a new years sermon he had given. Next came a description of his murder and a reportage from his funeral. The Danish government allowed his widow, Lise, to live at the house until she died in 1998.
The church and parish house were restored as a memorial and opened to the public in 2010, Munk often used a historical background for his plays—among his influences were William Shakespeare, Adam Oehlenschläger, Henrik Ibsen, and George Bernard Shaw. As a playwright, Munk became known for strong characters—integrated people who fight wholeheartedly for their ideals and his 1925 play Ordet is often said to have been his best work, it is an investigation of miracles from the unique viewpoint of one who was not prepared to dismiss them. A family of farmers—of differing degrees of faith—find themselves reconciled to their neighbours through a miracle, a 1943 film adaptation titled The Word was directed by Gustaf Molander. Www. kajmunk. dk www. kajmunk. hum. aau. dk Commemorating Kaj Munk by Sarah Heinrich
A revue is a type of multi-act popular theatrical entertainment that combines music and sketches. The revue has its roots in 19th century popular entertainment and melodrama, though most famous for their visual spectacle, revues frequently satirized contemporary figures, news or literature. Similar to the related subforms of operetta and musical theatre, the art form brings together music, dance. In contrast to these, revue does not have an overarching storyline, rather, a general theme serves as the motto for a loosely-related series of acts that alternate between solo performances and dance ensembles. George Lederers The Passing Show is usually held to be the first successful American review, the English spelling was used until 1907 when Florenz Ziegfeld popularized the French spelling. Follies is now employed as an analog for revue, though the term was proprietary to Ziegfeld until his death in 1932. Other popular proprietary revue names included George Whites Scandals and Earl Carrolls Vanities, Revues are most properly understood as having amalgamated several theatrical traditions within the corpus of a single entertainment.
Minstrelsys olio section provided a map of popular variety presentation. Theatrical extravaganzas, in particular, moving panoramas, demonstrated a vocabulary of the spectacular, itself a bawdy hybrid of various theatrical forms, lent to classic revue an open interest in female sexuality and the masculine gaze. Revues enjoyed great success on Broadway from the World War I years until the Great Depression, the high ticket prices of many revues helped ensure audiences distinct from other live popular entertainments during their height of popularity. In 1914, the Follies charged $5.00 for an opening night ticket, at time, many cinema houses charged from $0.10 to 0.25. Among the many producers of revues, Florenz Ziegfeld played the greatest role in developing the classical revue through his glorification of a new theatrical type. Revues took advantage of their revenue stream to lure away performers from other media. Performers such as Eddie Cantor, Anna Held, W. C, Bert Williams, the Marx Brothers and the Fairbanks Twins found great success on the revue stage.
One of Cole Porters early shows was Raymond Hitchcocks revue Hitchy-Koo, composers or lyricists such as Richard Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, Irving Berlin, and George M. Cohan enjoyed a tremendous reception on the part of audiences. Sometimes, an appearance in a revue provided a key early entry into entertainment, largely due to their centralization in New York City and adroit use of publicity, revues proved particularly adept at introducing new talents to the American theatre. Rodgers and Hart, one of the great composer/lyricist teams of the American musical theatre, comedian Fanny Brice, following a brief period in burlesque and amateur variety, bowed to revue audiences in Ziegfelds Follies of 1910. Specialist writers and composers of revues have included Sandy Wilson, Noël Coward, John Stromberg, George Gershwin, Earl Carroll, in Britain predominantly, Tom Arnold specialised in promoting series of revues and his acts extended to the European continent and South Africa
Royal Danish Playhouse
The Royal Danish Playhouse is a theatre building for the Royal Danish Theatre, situated on the harbour front in the Frederiksstaden neighbourhood of central Copenhagen, Denmark. The theatre is designed by the Danish architectural practice Lundgaard & Tranberg and it is built in a long, deep-brown brick that was specially developed for the project. The exterior is dominated by a continuous glass-encased top story with offices, above the glass band is the dark copper-clad cube of the scene tower. The glazed foyer facing the water runs along the length of the building. It affords panoramic views of the harbour and contains a restaurant, architecture of Denmark KLG teater, Denmark
Betty Nansen was a Danish actress and theatre director of the theater that carries her name, the Betty Nansen Theatre. She was born on 19 March 1873 and she had her debut in the fall of 1893 in Copenhagens Casino Theater as the title character in Victorien Sardous Dora. She went on to play Magda in Hermann Sudermanns Homeland as well as the character in Alexandre Dumas The Lady of the Camellias. In the fall of 1896 she changed to the Royal Danish Theatre, in 1913 to 1916, she went to the United States to try to make a career as a movie actress. She starred in a number of films by J. Gordon Edwards, e. g. Anna Karenina The Song of Hate, Should a Mother Tell, A Womans Resurrection. After this failed attempt at movie stardom, she took over management of the Alexandra Theatre in Frederiksberg and she managed the theatre for 26 seasons until her death in 1943. In 1896, she married the writer and director of Gyldendal and her second marriage was to the actor Henrik Bentzon. She died on 15 March 1943, just 4 days shy of her 70th birthday
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602. Set in the Kingdom of Denmark, the play dramatises the revenge Prince Hamlet is called to wreak upon his uncle, Claudius, by the ghost of Hamlets father, Claudius had murdered his own brother and seized the throne, marrying his deceased brothers widow. It has inspired many other writers—from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Charles Dickens to James Joyce and he almost certainly wrote his version of the title role for his fellow actor, Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeares time. In the 400 years since its inception, the role has been performed by highly acclaimed actors in each successive century. Three different early versions of the play are extant, the First Quarto, the Second Quarto, each version includes lines and entire scenes missing from the others. The plays structure and depth of characterisation have inspired much critical scrutiny, the protagonist of Hamlet is Prince Hamlet of Denmark, son of the recently deceased King Hamlet, and nephew of King Claudius, his fathers brother and successor.
Claudius hastily married King Hamlets widow, Hamlets mother, Denmark has a long-standing feud with neighboring Norway, which culminated when King Hamlet slew King Fortinbras of Norway in a battle years ago. Although Denmark defeated Norway, and the Norwegian throne fell to King Fortinbrass infirm brother, Denmark fears that an invasion led by the dead Norwegian kings son, Prince Fortinbras, is imminent. On a cold night on the ramparts of Elsinore, the Danish royal castle and they vow to tell Prince Hamlet what they have witnessed. As the court gathers the next day, while King Claudius and Queen Gertrude discuss affairs of state with their elderly adviser Polonius, after the court exits, Hamlet despairs of his fathers death and his mothers hasty remarriage. Learning of the ghost from Horatio, Hamlet resolves to see it himself, as Poloniuss son Laertes prepares to depart for a visit to France, Polonius gives him contradictory advice that culminates in the ironic maxim to thine own self be true.
Poloniuss daughter, admits her interest in Hamlet, and that night on the rampart, the ghost appears to Hamlet, telling the prince that he was murdered by Claudius and demanding that Hamlet avenge him. Hamlet agrees and the ghost vanishes, the prince confides to Horatio and the sentries that from now on he plans to put an antic disposition on and forces them to swear to keep his plans for revenge secret. Privately, however, he remains uncertain of the ghosts reliability, soon thereafter, Ophelia rushes to her father, telling him that Hamlet arrived at her door the prior night half-undressed and behaving crazily. Polonius blames love for Hamlets madness and resolves to inform Claudius, as he enters to do so, the king and queen finish welcoming Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two student acquaintances of Hamlet, to Elsinore. The royal couple has requested that the students investigate the cause of Hamlets mood, additional news requires that Polonius wait to be heard, messengers from Norway inform Claudius that the King of Norway has rebuked Prince Fortinbras for attempting to re-fight his fathers battles.
The forces that Fortinbras conscripted to march against Denmark will instead be sent against Poland, Polonius tells Claudius and Gertrude his theory regarding Hamlets behavior, and speaks to Hamlet in a hall of the castle to try to uncover more information. Hamlet feigns madness but subtly insults Polonius all the while, when Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive, Hamlet greets his friends warmly, but quickly discerns that they are spies
Taastrup Teater is a theatre in Taastrup in the western suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Taastrup Theatre was founded by a group of residents in 1970. It received its current name and engaged an artistic director in 1987, the theatre is based in a community centre from the 1970s which was expanded several times during the 1990s. COBE was expanded the theatre with a new foyer and it consists of a curtain that slope away from the existing building. It consists of translucent and clear acrylic triangles which are illuminated by red lights from within when the theatre is sold out
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
A beer garden is an outdoor area in which beer and local food are served, typically at shared tables. Common entertainment include music and games, enjoyed in an atmosphere of Gemütlichkeit, Beer gardens originated in Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria, in the 19th century, and remain common in Southern Germany. Beer garden popularity is increasing worldwide in the 21st century and it is unknown which Munich brewery opened the first Bavarian Biergärten, but it was likely one of Munichs big six, Löwenbräu, Hofbräuhaus, Augustinerbräu, Hacker-Pschorr and Spaten. What is known is that developed in the Kingdom of Bavaria in the 19th century. The cool seasons were chosen to minimize the risk of fire when boiling mashed grain into wort, numerous conflagrations had occurred, resulting in the prohibition of brewing during the summer months. In response, large breweries dug cellars in the banks of the River Isar to keep their beer cool during storage, Beer cellars for consuming beer on premises naturally followed.
To further reduce the temperature during the warm seasons, 19th century brewers covered the river banks with gravel. Soon after that, serving beer in a pleasant shaded setting emerged. Simple tables and benches were set up among the trees, creating the beer garden we know today. Food service followed, aggrieving smaller breweries that found it difficult to compete and they petitioned Maximilian I to forbid it. In compromise, beer gardens allowed their patrons to bring their own food, as a rule of thumb, beer gardens offer clothed tablesets, whose guests must buy food from the house. If you bring your own food, you must use the bare table sets, with the advent of widespread lagering in the 19th century, beer gardens grew more popular than ever. Maximilians decree is no longer in force, and many beer gardens serve food, usually common Bavarian fare such as Radi, Obatzda, halbes Hendl and Steckerlfisch. Equally important to the garden is an atmosphere of Gemütlichkeit, conveying a feeling of warmth, friendliness.
Reinforced by shared tables, it is accompanied by music, song. The term beer garden has become a term for open-air establishments where beer is served. The characteristics of a beer garden include trees, wooden benches, a gravel bed. Some modern beer gardens use plastic chairs, fast food, the largest traditional beer garden in the world is the Hirschgarten in Munich, which seats 8,000