Robert Neil Harvey is an Australian former cricketer who represented the Australian cricket team between 1948 and 1963, playing in 79 Test matches. He was the vice-captain of the team from 1957 until his retirement. An attacking left-handed batsman, sharp fielder and occasional off-spin bowler, Harvey was the senior batsman in the Australian team for much of the 1950s and was regarded by Wisden as the finest fielder of his era. Upon his retirement, Harvey was the second-most prolific Test run-scorer and century-maker for Australia. One of six cricketing brothers, four of whom represented Victoria, Harvey followed his elder brother Merv into Test cricket and made his debut in January 1948, aged 19 and three months. In his second match, he became the youngest Australian to score a Test century, a record that still stands. Harvey was the youngest member of the 1948 Invincibles of Don Bradman to tour England, regarded as one of the finest teams in history. After struggling in English conditions, he made a century on his Ashes debut.
Harvey started his career with six centuries in his first thirteen Test innings at an average over 100, including four in 1949–50 against South Africa, including a match-winning 151 not out on a sticky wicket. As Bradman's team broke up in the 1950s due to retirements, Harvey became Australia's senior batsman, was named as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year in 1954, in recognition of his feat in scoring more than 2,000 runs during the 1953 tour of England. In 1957 he was passed over for the captaincy and was named as the deputy of Ian Craig, who had played just six matches, as Australia sought to rebuild the team with a youth policy following a decline in the team. Craig offered to demote himself due to poor form, but Harvey prevented him from doing so. Craig fell ill the following season, but Harvey moved interstate and Richie Benaud was promoted to the captaincy ahead of him. Harvey continued in the deputy's role until the end of his career, was captain for only one Test match. In the Second Test at Lord's in 1961, when Benaud was injured, Harvey led the team in the "Battle of the Ridge" on an erratic surface, grinding out a hard fought victory.
Only Bradman had scored more centuries for Australia at the time of Harvey's retirement. Harvey was best known for his extravagant footwork and flamboyant stroke play, as well as his fielding. Harvey was known for his innings in conditions unfavourable to batting, performing when his colleagues struggled, such as his 151 not out in Durban, his 92 not out in Sydney in 1954–55 and his 96 on the matting in Dhaka. In retirement, he became a national selector for twelve years but in recent times is best known for his strident criticism of modern cricket. In 2000, he was inducted into the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame in and selected in the Australian Cricket Board's Team of the Century. In 2009, Harvey was one of the 55 inaugural inductees into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. Harvey was the fifth of six boys born to Horace Harvey. Despite his small build, Harvey was born weighing in at 4.5 kilograms. The family lived in Broken Hill, where Horace was a miner, before moving to Sydney, to Melbourne in 1926, where they settled in the inner northern industrial suburb of Fitzroy.
There the six boys were taught cricket under the guidance of their father. In conditions conducive to producing batsmen rather than bowlers, they played cricket using a tennis ball on cobblestones or a marble rebounding from the backyard pavement; the boys went to Falconer Street Central School. Cricket and cricket talk was an integral part of the daily family life. Horace held the family batting record with 198 for Broken Hill, continued to play in Melbourne club cricket. Harvey's eldest brother Merv went on to play one Test for Australia, while Mick and Ray both played for Victoria. All six brothers, the other two being Brian and Harold played for Fitzroy in district cricket. Except for Harold, all five represented Victoria in baseball. Harvey played his first game aged nine as a wicket-keeper in the North Fitzroy Central School team, the average age of, 14. In a school final, he once made 112 of the total of 140. Aged twelve, he rose to the first grade team when he was fourteen. By this stage he had transferred to Collingwood Technical School.
On the advice of the Victorian coach, Arthur Liddicut, Harvey stopped wicket-keeping to focus on his batting. Joe Plant another Fitzroy veteran gave advice on batting. Both Liddicut and Plant identified Harvey's potential as a batsman." What they liked about him was his modesty, his eagerness to pick up every point in the game, his willingness to listen to the old hands." Playing for Fitzroy Football Club, Harvey gave up the sport and played baseball during winter. After leaving school, Harvey worked as an apprentice fitter and turner for the Melbourne City Council; the apprenticeship was supposed to take three years, but it took six years because Harvey's cricket career caused frequent absences. First-class cricket had been cancelled during World War II and resumed in 1945–46. At the start of the season, Harvey was selected for a trial match; the Victorian state team played against the Rest of Victoria, Harvey represented the latter. However, he made a duck in his only innings and was not selected for the senior state side during the season.
An aggressive 113 for Fitzroy against Melbourne Cricket Club in 1946–47 saw Harvey selected for the Victorian team at the age of 18. He made 18 in his only innings during his first-class debut against Tasmania. In the next match against Tasmania, Harvey made his maiden first-class century, scoring 154, he said that his effort was inspired by elder brother
George Giffen was a cricketer who played for South Australia and Australia. An all-rounder who batted in the middle order and opened the bowling with medium-paced off-spin, Giffen captained Australia during the 1894–95 Ashes series and was the first Australian to score 10,000 runs and take 500 wickets in first-class cricket, he was inducted into the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame on 26 February 2008. Giffen was born in the Adelaide neighbourhood of Norwood in 1859 to Richard Giffen, a carpenter and his wife Elizabeth, he played cricket with enthusiasm as a boy and attracted the notice of two brothers and James Gooden, who coached him. He started his cricket career with Norwood Cricket Club moving to the West Adelaide club. Early in 1877 he played for South Australia against a visiting East Melbourne team making 16 and 14, the highest score in each innings, but South Australian cricket was much below the standard of the two eastern colonies. In November 1877 he made his first-class cricket debut against Tasmania.
Giffen took 4 wickets for 16 runs in the Tasmanian first innings. Tasmania was forced to follow-on and in the second innings Giffen managed to capture another 2 wickets, it was not until November 1880 that the first regular match between South Australia and Victoria took place at Melbourne. Giffen took two wickets for 47 in the first innings. In the follow-up match in Adelaide that season, Giffen took 5 wickets for 59 runs, he became a regular member of the South Australian team and although he took a few seasons to develop his full powers, if he failed as a bat he made up for it with a good bowling performance. Giffen, only 22 years old, made his Test debut in Melbourne against England in 1881–82. Having just joined the postal service, Giffen was hesitant to ask for leave. Giffen was unable to take a wicket. Left out of the side for the Second Test in Sydney, he returned for the Third Test. Australia won the match by five wickets by Giffen made only two runs and was not given a chance to bowl. In the final Test of the series, Giffen captured his first Test wicket—William Scotton stumped by Jack Blackham for 27.
He, with the bat, made 14 in a drawn match. Australia won the series two Tests to nil. Giffen was selected to tour England with the Australian team in 1882, he was moderately successful, taking 32 wickets at an average of 21.84 and making 699 runs averaging 19.02. In the celebrated match against England—later designated a Test match—Giffen made 2 runs in the first innings but was dismissed by Ted Peate for a "duck" in the second. Australia, through a magnificent bowling effort from Fred Spofforth and Harry Boyle, won the match by seven runs; the match was the origin of the term "The Ashes" for Test series between the two nations. A mock obituary placed in The Sporting Times lamented "the death of English cricket" and noted that "The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia."Ivo Bligh and his English team arrived in Australia in 1882–83 determined to win back "the Ashes". In the First Test at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, Giffen made 36 runs, his highest Test score to date, he followed this with his best figures with the ball, capturing 4/38 in the England second innings, helping Australia to a nine wicket victory.
In the Second Test, Giffen made a "golden duck", dismissed first ball without scoring but took 4/89 in England's only innings. Giffen was promoted to open the batting for the Third Test at the Sydney Cricket Ground, where he made 41 and 7 England won the Test by 69 runs, winning the first Ashes series 2–1. In February 1884, Giffen became the first Australian to take all ten wickets in a first-class innings, taking 10/66 for an Australian XI against the Rest; that year, he was once again included in the Australian team to tour England, led by Billy Murdoch. The Australians lost the three Test series one Test to nil, but had the best of the two drawn matches. In the Second Test at Lord's, Giffen top-scored in the first innings. England won the Test by 5 runs. Giffen took 81 wickets in England at an average of 19.60, however he "tended to be expensive". His best batting performance for the tour was 118 against Lancashire. An English team led by Alfred Shaw toured Australia in 1884–85 to contest the Ashes.
England won the First Test by eight wickets but the match was overshadowed by a dispute between the teams. As a result, most of the Australian team, including Giffen, made themselves unavailable for the next two Tests; this action was unpopular with the Australian public. Charles Kingston South Australian Attorney-General, said "the Australian eleven would have the reputation of having sacrificed the cricketing honour of their nation to monetary considerations". Giffen and the others returned for the Fourth Test in Sydney. England won the Fifth Test by 98 runs, retaining the Ashes in a 3 -- 2 series victory. Giffen, in a sign of things to come, made a remarkable double for South Australia against Victoria in March 1886, he made over 100 runs. Five years against Victoria in November 1891, he repeated the feat more impressively, scoring 271 runs in South Australia's innings and taking 9/96 and 7/70 in Victoria's two innings; the Australian team touring England in 1886 did not meet with much success, los
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average
Allan Robert Border AO is an Australian cricket commentator and former international cricketer. A batsman, Border was for many years the captain of the Australian team, his playing nickname was "A. B.". He played 156 Test matches in his career, a record until it was passed by fellow Australian Steve Waugh. Border held the world record for the number of consecutive Test appearances of 153, before it was surpassed in June 2018 by Alastair Cook, is second on the list of number of Tests as captain, he was a left hand batsman, but had occasional success as a part-time left arm orthodox spinner. Border amassed 11,174 Test runs, he hit 27 centuries in his Test career. He retired as leading run-scorer in both Tests and ODIs, his Australian record for Test Match runs stood for 15 years before Ricky Ponting overtook him during the Third Ashes Test against England in July 2009. Border was one of the 55 inaugural inductees of the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, Allan Border was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for his role as a "sports legend".
In 2016, Border was a recipient of the Queensland Greats Awards. Born in Cremorne, a North Shore suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Border grew up with three brothers in the nearby suburb of Mosman, his father John, from Coonamble in rural New South Wales, was a wool classer and his mother Sheila was the proprietor of a corner store. The family had a spacious backyard for playing games, Mosman Oval, the home of district cricket and baseball clubs, was across the street. Border attended North Sydney Boys High School, earned his leaving certificate in 1972. Throughout his early years, Border played in cricket teams two or three years older than his age group, he played for Mosman Baseball Club, where he developed his fielding and horizontal-bat shots. Aged sixteen, he made his début for Mosman in Sydney Grade Cricket as a left arm orthodox spinner and batted at number nine, he won selection for the 1972–73 Combined High Schools team in the intrastate carnival. During this time, he was coached by a former England international.
Border accumulated more than 600 runs in grade cricket in 1975–76, at the start of the following season, he made two consecutive centuries to earn selection for NSW. In the absence of a number of Test players, Border made his debut against Queensland at the SCG in January 1977, he took the last three catches of the match, as his team claimed victory. Border resigned from his job as a clerk in the film library of BHP to spend the 1977 English season playing for Downend in the Gloucestershire Western League; the highlight of his stay was 159 not out in an invitational match against Cambridge University. In Australia, Border compiled 617 runs at 36.29 average during the 1977–78 Sheffield Shield season. He returned to England and played for East Lancashire Cricket Club in the Lancashire League, scoring 1191 runs at 56.71 and taking 54 wickets at 18.60. In 1977, the breakaway professional competition World Series Cricket signed many players who were banned from first-class and Test cricket, thus leaving many vacancies in the Australian team.
Border started the 1978–79 season with his maiden first-class century, 135 against Western Australia at Perth, followed up with 114 against Victoria at the SCG. After Australia lost the first two Tests in the Ashes series, Border was selected for his Test debut at the MCG. Making a nervous start, he took more than half an hour to score three runs, he was run out for a duck in the second innings while attempting a single. In the following Test at Sydney, he was in a "lonely class of his own" by top-scoring in both innings with 60 not out and 45 not out as Australia lost the match and the Ashes, he used his feet to the spinners. However, after scores of 11 and 1 in the Fifth Test at Adelaide he was dropped for the Sixth Test. Recalled for the First Test against Pakistan at the MCG, Border batted at No. 3 and hit his maiden Test century as Australia reached 3/305, chasing 382 for victory. Border's dismissal for 105 triggered a major collapse of seven wickets for five runs as the other batsmen were unable to cope with the swing of Sarfraz Nawaz.
Australia lost by 71 runs. Border made 66 not out as Australia squared the series with a victory in Perth. In his second Test series, he had topped the batting aggregates and averages with 276 runs at 92.00. In May 1979, the ACB announced an agreement with WSC, which allowed the WSC players to return to international cricket at the start of the 1979–80 Australian season. In the meantime, Australia made two tours, giving the incumbent players an opportunity to press for places in a reunited team; the first tour, to England for the 1979 Cricket World Cup, ended with Australia being eliminated in the first round. Border scored 59 runs in two innings; this was followed by a three-month-long, six-Test tour of India, on which Australia failed to win a single match. Border scored 521 runs at 43.42 in the Test series, including 162 in the First Test at Madras, where he displayed excellent footwork and handled the Indian spinners much more than his teammates. As a result of his performances in India, he was one of only three players to retain their places for the 1st Test against West Indies at Brisbane in December 1979, the 1st Test when the WSC players returned to the official Australian team.
In the next test against England at Perth Border scored 115 in the second innings to secure victory and in doing so passed 1,000 Test runs. He had done so in only 354 days, the fastest by an Australian, made more runs in his
Scarborough, North Yorkshire
Scarborough is a town on the North Sea coast of North Yorkshire, England. Part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, the town lies between 10–230 feet above sea level, rising steeply northward and westward from the harbour on to limestone cliffs; the older part of the town is protected by a rocky headland. With a population of just over 61,000, Scarborough is the largest holiday resort on the Yorkshire coast; the town has fishing and service industries, including a growing digital and creative economy, as well as being a tourist destination. People who live in the town are known as Scarborians; the most striking feature of the town's geography is the high rocky promontory pointing eastward into the North Sea. The promontory supports the 11th-century ruins of Scarborough Castle and divides the seafront into two bays and south; the South Bay was the site of the original medieval harbour, which form the old town. This remains the main tourist area, with a sandy beach, cafés, arcades and entertainment facilities.
The modern commercial town centre has migrated 440 yards north-west of the harbour area and 100 feet above it and contains the transport hubs, main services and nightlife. The harbour has undergone major regeneration including the new Albert Strange Pontoons, a more pedestrian-friendly promenade, street lighting and seating; the North Bay has traditionally been the more peaceful end of the resort and is home to Peasholm Park which, in June 2007, was restored to its Japanese-themed glory, complete with reconstructed pagoda, a new boat house was added in 2018. For many years a mock maritime battle has been re-enacted on the boating lake with large model boats and fireworks throughout the summer holiday season; the North Bay Railway is a miniature railway running from the park through Northstead Manor Gardens to the Sea Life Centre at Scalby Mills. The North Bay Railway has what is believed to be the oldest operational diesel-hydraulic locomotive in the world. Neptune was built in 1931 by Hudswell Clarke of Leeds and is appropriately numbered 1931.
Northstead Manor Gardens include the North Bay Railway and three other attractions: a water chute, a boating lake with boats for hire during the summer season and an open-air theatre. The water chute is now grade II listed and is one of the oldest surviving water chutes in Britain, with the ride of today being the same as when it was opened in the 1930s; the Lord Mayor of London opened the theatre in 1932 and audiences flocked to see Merrie England, the first production to be staged at the outdoor venue. Productions were put on during the summer seasons until musicals ceased in 1968 after West Side Story, apart from a YMCA production in 1982. In 1997 the dressing rooms and stage set building on the island were demolished and the seating removed; the last concert to be held at the open-air theatre before it closed in 1986 was James Last and his orchestra. Scarborough's open-air theatre was reopened on Friday 23 July 2010 by Queen Elizabeth II with an operatic concert starring José Carreras and Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, accompanied by the Opera North Orchestra, concluding with a firework display.
North Bay and South Bay are linked by Marine Drive, an extensive Victorian promenade, built around the base of the headland. Overlooking both bays is Scarborough Castle, bombarded by the German warships SMS Derfflinger and SMS Von der Tann in the First World War. Both bays have numerous rock-pools at low tide; the South Cliff Promenade above the Spa and South Cliff Gardens has excellent views of the South Bay and old town. Its splendid Regency and Victorian terraces are still intact, with a mix of quality hotels and flats; the ITV television drama The Royal and its recent spin-off series, The Royal Today were both filmed in the area. The South Bay has the largest illuminated'star disk' anywhere in the UK, it is 85 feet across and fitted with subterranean lights representing the 42 brightest stars and major constellations that can be seen from Scarborough in the northern skies. To the south-west of the town, beside the York to Scarborough railway line, is an ornamental lake known as Scarborough Mere.
In the 20th century the Mere was a popular park, with rowing boats, canoes and a miniature pirate ship – the Hispaniola – on which passengers were taken to'Treasure Island' to dig for doubloons. Since the late 1990s the Mere has been redesigned as a natural space for picnics and walkers. In 2012 a new snack bar was built alongside the Mere; the lake is now part of the Oliver's Mount Country Park and the Hispaniola now sails out of Scarborough harbour during the summer season. Surrounding the River Derwent as it converges into the sea are high hills with tall, dense grasses and fertile soil, due to the stream'Sea Cut' leading from the River Derwent to the estuary at the North Sea; the area has crop growth. The town was founded around 966 AD as Skarðaborg by Thorgils Skarthi, a Viking raider, though there is no archaeological evidence to support these claims, made during the 1960s, as part of a pageant of Scarborough events; the origin of this belief is a fragment of an Icelandic Saga. In the 4th century there had been a Roman signal station on Scarborough headland and there is evidence of much earlier Stone Age and Bronze Age settlements.
However any new settlement was soon burned to the ground by a rival band of Vikings under Tosti, Lord of Falsgrave, Harald III of Norway. The destruction and massacre meant that little remained to be recorded in the Domesday survey of 1085; the original inland village of Falsgrave was Saxon rather than Viking. Scarborough re
Victor Thomas Trumper was an Australian cricketer known as the most stylish and versatile batsman of the Golden Age of cricket, capable of playing match-winning innings on wet wickets his contemporaries found unplayable. Archie MacLaren said of him, "Compared to Victor I was a cab-horse to a Derby winner". Trumper was a key figure in the foundation of rugby league in Australia, he was 8 centuries in Test match cricket. Trumper was born in Sydney. Trumper's parents are believed to be Charles Thomas Trumper and his wife Louisa Alice "Louie", née Coghlan. Trumper showed early ability as a batsman; when only 17 years old Trumper made 67 runs for a team of promising juniors against Andrew Stoddart's touring English team at Sydney Cricket Ground. In 1894/95 he played for New South Wales against South Australia but made only 11 and 0 runs in his two innings. At his next attempt he failed with the bat and was left out of representative cricket for two years, he resumed first class cricket in 1897-98, making 192 runs at an average of 16.5 with a top score of 68.
Trumper's breakthrough season was in 1898-99, when he made 873 runs at 62.35 with a top score of 292 not out. M. A. Noble, always a good judge, was confident about young Vic's ability, but it was only after some controversy that Trumper was made a last minute selection for the 1899 Australian team to England, he soon showed his ability, scoring 135 not out against England at Lord's Cricket Ground and 300 not out against Sussex. After the Lord's innings in June 1899, the great English batsman W. G. Grace approached the Australian dressing room and presented Trumper with his own bat, declaring, "From the present champion to the future champion." That bat now belongs to the Australian Museum collection in Canberra. In Trumper's test debut, he scored 0 and 11. In the second test, his innings of 135 was crucial in helping set up an Australian victory. In the third test, Trumper scored 12 and 32. In the 4th he made the latter helping stave off an Australian defeat. In the fifth test, Trumper scored 6 and 7.
Trumper made 1,556 runs that tour at 34.57. Trumper maintained his good form over the 1899-1900 Australian season, scoring 721 first class runs at 72.1 with a top score of 208. The following summer Trumper made 458 runs at 65.42 with a top score of 230. In the 1901-02 Ashes, Trumper played all five tests. In the first he made 34, in a game Australia lost by an innings. In the second he scored 0 and 16. In the third he made 65 and 25. In the fourth he made 7 and 25. In the fifth he scored 27 and 18, he made only 486 first class runs that summer at 27 with a top score of 73. Trumper's most remarkable Test season was played in England in 1902, it was one of the wettest summers on record, yet Trumper in 53 innings scored 2,570 runs, without a single not out had an average of 48.49. Harry Altham wrote: "From start to finish of the season, on every sort of wicket, against every sort of bowling, Trumper entranced the eye, inspired his side, demoralized his enemies, made run-getting appear the easiest thing in the world."C. B.
Fry added, "He had no style, yet he was all style. He had no fixed canonical method of play, he defied all orthodox rules, yet every stroke he played satisfied the ultimate criterion of style – the minimum of effort, the maximum of effect." "No one," wrote Plum Warner, "ever played so naturally. Batting seemed just part of himself, he was as modest as he was magnificent." Trumper was modest and generous. A teetotaller and non-smoker, his general conduct was an example to his fellow players, he was a great favourite with the public both in England and Australia. Monty Noble had no hesitation in calling him a genius without compare, he did not bat in the second test. In the third test he made 1 and 62. In the fourth test, in arguably his greatest innings, he became the first player to achieve the rare feat of making a century on the first morning of a Test match, scoring 103 before lunch against England at Old Trafford, he only scored 4 in the second innings. In the final test, narrowly won by England, he scored 42 and 2.
He made 2,570 first class runs at 48.49 with 11 centuries and a top score of 128. Australia stopped off in South Africa on the way home to play three tests against South Africa. Trumper made 18 and 13 and 70 and 38 not out, he scored 307 first class runs at 43.85. That summer, Trumper played 5 first class games at home, scoring 446runs at 49.55 with a top score of 178. Trumper played all five tests during the 1903-04 Ashes. In the first test he scored 1 in the first innings but 185 in the second. In the second he made Australia's top score in both innings, his good form continued in the third test where he made 113 and 59. In the fourth test he scored 7 and 12, made 88 and 0 in the last game, he made 990 first class runs that summer at 55, with a top score of 185. In August 1904, with Hanson Carter, opened a sports store in Market Street, Sydney; the following summer Trumper only played two first class games in Australia making 198 runs at 49.5. He played four first class games in New Zealand, making 436 runs at 109 with a top score of 172.
Trumper made 13 retired hurt, 31, 8 and 0, 11 and 30 and 4 and 28. He made 1,597 first class runs at 36.29, with two centuries. At home, Trumper made 250 first class runs at 41.66 with one century. The following summer he made 23 runs at 7.66 only playing two games. Although he is best known for his prowess as a cricketer, Trumper was a competent rugby player and can lay claim to being the prime mover in the developme