Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch/Netherlandish Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic and theologian. Erasmus was a scholar and wrote in a pure Latin style. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet Prince of the Humanists, and has called the crowning glory of the Christian humanists. He wrote On Free Will, The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works. Erasmus remained a member of the Roman Catholic Church all his life, remaining committed to reforming the Church and he held to the Catholic doctrine of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination. His middle road approach disappointed and even angered scholars in both camps, Erasmus died suddenly in Basel in 1536 while preparing to return to Brabant, and was buried in Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city. A bronze statue of him was erected in his city of birth in 1622, Desiderius Erasmus is reported to have been born in Rotterdam on 28 October in the late 1460s.
He was named after Saint Erasmus of Formiae, whom Erasmuss father Gerard personally favored, a 17th-century legend has it that Erasmus was first named Geert Geerts, but this is unfounded. He was born in Rotterdam, but there are insufficient records to confirm that, a well-known wooden picture indicates, Goudæ conceptus, Roterodami natus. According to an article by historian Renier Snooy, Erasmus was born in Gouda, the exact year of his birth is debated, with most biographers citing the year as 1466. Some evidence confirming 1466 can be found in Erasmuss own words, of twenty-three statements Erasmus made about his age, all and he was christened Erasmus after the saint of that name. Although associated closely with Rotterdam, he lived there for four years. Information on his family and early life comes mainly from vague references in his writings and his parents were not legally married. His father, was a Catholic priest and curate in Gouda, little is known of his mother other than that her name was Margaretha Rogerius and she was the daughter of a physician from Zevenbergen, she may have been Gerards housekeeper.
Erasmus was given the highest education available to a man of his day. During his stay there the curriculum was renewed by the principal of the school, for the first time ever Greek was taught at a lower level than a university in Europe, and this is where he began learning it. He gleaned there the importance of a relationship with God but eschewed the harsh rules. His education there ended when plague struck the city about 1483, and his mother, in 1492, poverty forced Erasmus into the consecrated life
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss members of the cabinet. In most systems, the minister is the presiding member. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the minister is the presiding and actual head of government. In such systems, the head of state or the head of states official representative usually holds a ceremonial position. The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may exercise powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown. The first actual usage of the prime minister or Premier Ministre was used by Cardinal Richelieu when in 1625 he was named to head the royal council as prime minister of France. Louis XIV and his descendants generally attempted to avoid giving this title to their chief ministers, the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole.
Over time, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century, the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII, William Cecil, Lord Burghley under Elizabeth I, Clarendon under Charles II and these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as the minister, the chief minister, the first minister and finally the prime minister. The power of ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the skills of holding high office. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse, Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful, late in Annes reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and St John shared power.
The monarch could no longer any law or impose any tax without its permission. It is at point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714, George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government
A whirlpool is a body of swirling water produced by the meeting of opposing currents. The vast majority of whirlpools are not very powerful and very small whirlpools can easily be seen when a bath or a sink is draining, more powerful ones in seas or oceans may be termed maelstroms. Vortex is the term for any whirlpool that has a downdraft. Smaller whirlpools appear at the base of waterfalls and can be observed downstream from manmade structures such as weirs. In the case of waterfalls, like Niagara Falls, these whirlpools can be quite strong. Moskstraumen is a system of whirlpools in the open seas in the Lofoten Islands off the Norwegian coast. It is the second strongest whirlpool in the world with flow currents reaching speeds as high as 32 km/h and it finds mention in several books and movies. The maelstrom of Saltstraumen is the Earths strongest maelstrom, and is located close to the Arctic Circle,33 km round the bay on the Highway 17, south-east of the city of Bodø, Norway. The strait at its narrowest is 150 m in width and water funnels through the four times a day.
It is estimated that 400 million cubic meters of water passes the narrow strait during this event, the water is creamy in colour and most turbulent during high tide, which is witnessed by thousands of tourists. It reaches speeds of 40 km/h, with speed of about 13 km/h. As navigation is dangerous in this only a small slot of time is available for large ships to pass through. Its impressive strength is caused by the worlds strongest tide occurring in the location during the new. A narrow channel of 3 km length connects the outer Saltfjord with its extension, the Corryvreckan is a narrow strait between the islands of Jura and Scarba, in Argyll and Bute, on the northern side of the Gulf of Corryvreckan, Scotland. It is the third-largest whirlpool in the world, though it was initially classified as non-navigable by the British navy it was categorized as extremely dangerous. A documentary team from Scottish independent producers Northlight Productions once threw a mannequin into the Corryvreckan with a life jacket, the mannequin was swallowed and spat up far down current with a depth gauge reading of 262 metres with evidence of being dragged along the bottom for a great distance.
Old Sow whirlpool is located between Deer Island, New Brunswick and Moose Island, Maine and it is given the epithet pig-like as it makes a screeching noise when the vortex is at its full fury. The smaller whirlpools around this Old Sow are known as Piglets. the Naruto whirlpools are located in the Naruto Strait near Awaji Island in Japan, which have speeds of 26 km/h
In Greek mythology, Scylla was a monster that lived on one side of a narrow channel of water, opposite her counterpart Charybdis. The two sides of the strait were within a range of each other—so close that sailors attempting to avoid Charybdis would pass too close to Scylla. Scylla made her first appearance in Homers Odyssey, where Odysseus and his crew encounter her, myth gave her an origin story as a beautiful nymph who gets turned into a monster. The strait where Scylla dwelled has been associated with the Strait of Messina between Italy and Sicily, the idiom between Scylla and Charybdis has come to mean being forced to choose between two equally dangerous situations. The parentage of Scylla varies according to author, Other authors have Hecate as Scyllas mother. The Hesiodic Megalai Ehoiai gives Hecate and Phorbas as the parents of Scylla, while Acusilaus says that Scyllas parents were Hecate and Phorkys. Perhaps trying to reconcile these accounts, Apollonius of Rhodes says that Crataeis was another name for Hecate.
Likewise, Semos of Delos says that Crataeis was the daughter of Hecate and Triton, Stesichorus names Lamia as the mother of Scylla, possibly the Lamia who was the daughter of Poseidon, while according to Hyginus, Scylla was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna. A similar story is found in Hyginus, according to whom Scylla was loved by Glaucus and her body consisted of 12 tentacle-like legs and a cats tail, while four to six dog-heads ringed her waist. In this form, she attacked the ships of passing sailors, in a late Greek myth, recorded in Eustathius commentary on Homer and John Tzetzes, Heracles encountered Scylla during a journey to Sicily and slew her. Her father, the sea-god Phorcys, applied flaming torches to her body, in Homers Odyssey XII, Odysseus is advised by Circe to sail closer to Scylla, for Charybdis could drown his whole ship, Hug Scyllas crag—sail on past her—top speed. Better by far to lose six men and keep your ship than lose your entire crew, She tells Odysseus to ask Scyllas mother, the river nymph Crataeis, to prevent Scylla from pouncing more than once.
According to Ovid, the fisherman-turned-sea-god Glaucus fell in love with the beautiful Scylla, when he went to Circe to ask for a love potion to win her, the sorceress herself fell in love with him. Meeting with no success, she became jealous of her rival, prepared a vial of poison and poured it in the sea-pool where Scylla bathed. In vain she offers herself to run And drags about her what she strives to shun. The story was adapted into a five-act tragic opera, Scylla et Glaucus. In John Keats loose retelling of Ovids version of the myth of Scylla and Glaucus in Book 3 of Endymion, Glaucus takes her corpse to a crystal palace at the bottom of the ocean where lie the bodies of all lovers who have died at sea. After a thousand years, she is resurrected by Endymion and reunited with Glaucus, at the Carolingian abbey of Corvey in Westphalia, a unique ninth-century wall painting depicts, among other things, Odysseus fight with Scylla, an illustration not noted elsewhere in medieval arts
Gasteig is a cultural center in Munich, opened in 1985, which hosts the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The Richard Strauss Conservatory, the Volkshochschule, and the library are all located in the Gasteig. Most of the events of the Filmfest München, and many of the events of the Munich Biennale take place here, the smaller hall Kleiner Konzertsaal offers slightly better acoustics for chamber music. g. The Pappnase offering a selection of dramatic requisites, and the branch of the Municipal Library with its extensive stock of books. When famed conductor Leonard Bernstein was asked on his opinion of the hall, he remarked, the estate behind the Gasteig was until its demolition in 1979 the location of the Bürgerbräukeller, stage for the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch and the 1939 Hitler assassination attempt by Georg Elser. A showcase visible from outside of the Gasteig commemorates Elsers history
Henry Fuseli RA was a Swiss painter and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain. Many of his works, such as The Nightmare, deal with supernatural subject-matter and he painted works for John Boydells Shakespeare Gallery, and created his own Milton Gallery. He held the posts of Professor of Painting and Keeper at the Royal Academy and his style had a considerable influence on many younger British artists, including William Blake. Fuseli was born in Zürich, the second of 18 children and his father was Johann Caspar Füssli, a painter of portraits and landscapes, and author of Lives of the Helvetic Painters. He intended Henry for the church, and sent him to the Caroline college of Zurich, one of his schoolmates there was Johann Kaspar Lavater, with whom he became close friends. After taking orders in 1761 Fuseli was forced to leave the country as a result of having helped Lavater to expose an unjust magistrate and he travelled through Germany, and then, in 1765, visited England, where he supported himself for some time by miscellaneous writing.
Eventually, he acquainted with Sir Joshua Reynolds, to whom he showed his drawings. Following Reynolds advice, he decided to devote entirely to art. In 1770 he made an art-pilgrimage to Italy, where he remained until 1778, Early in 1779 he returned to Britain, taking in Zürich on his way. In London he found a commission awaiting him from Alderman Boydell, Fuseli painted a number of pieces for Boydell, and published an English edition of Lavaters work on physiognomy. He gave William Cowper some valuable assistance in preparing a translation of Homer, in 1788 Fuseli married Sophia Rawlins, and he soon after became an associate of the Royal Academy. Fuseli said I hate clever women, in 1790 he became a full Academician, presenting Thor Battering the Midgard Serpent as his diploma work. In 1799 Fuseli was appointed professor of painting to the Academy, four years he was chosen as Keeper, and resigned his professorship, but resumed it in 1810, continuing to hold both offices until his death. As Keeper, he was succeeded by Henry Thomson, in 1799 Fuseli exhibited a series of paintings from subjects furnished by the works of John Milton, with a view to forming a Milton gallery comparable to Boydells Shakespeare gallery.
There were 47 Milton paintings, many of them very large, the exhibition proved a commercial failure and closed in 1800. In 1805 he brought out an edition of Pilkingtons Lives of the Painters, which did little for his reputation. Antonio Canova, when on his visit to England, was taken with Fuselis works. As a painter, Fuseli favoured the supernatural and he pitched everything on an ideal scale, believing a certain amount of exaggeration necessary in the higher branches of historical painting
The Police were an English new wave band formed in London in 1977. For most of their history the band consisted of Sting, Andy Summers and they are considered one of the leaders of the Second British Invasion of the United States. They disbanded in 1986, but reunited in early 2007 for a world tour that ended in August 2008. Their 1978 debut album, Outlandos dAmour, reached No.6 in the UK and their second album Reggatta de Blanc became the first of five consecutive UK No.1 albums with its lead single, Message in a Bottle, their first UK number one. Their next two albums, Zenyatta Mondatta and Ghost in the Machine, saw further critical and commercial success and their final studio album, was No.1 in both the UK and the US, selling over 8 million copies in the US alone. Every Breath You Take became their fifth UK number one single, the Police have sold over 75 million records, making them one of the worlds best-selling artists of all time. They were the worlds highest-earning musicians in 2008, thanks to their reunion tour, four of their five studio albums appeared on Rolling Stones list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.
The Police were included among both Rolling Stones and VH1s lists of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time, on 12 January 1977, Sting relocated to London and the very same day of his arrival, he sought out Copeland for a jam session. Curved Air had recently split up and Copeland, inspired by the then-current punk rock movement, was eager to form a new band and join the burgeoning London punk scene. While less keen, Sting acknowledged the commercial opportunities, so the duo formed the Police as a power trio with Corsican guitarist Henry Padovani recruited as the third member. After their debut concert on 1 March 1977 at Alexanders in Newport and their first single Fall Out, recorded at Pathway Studios in Islington, North London on 12 February 1977 with a budget of £150, was released in May 1977 by Illegal Records. Also in May 1977, former Gong musician Mike Howlett invited Sting to join him in the band project Strontium 90, the drummer Howlett had in mind, Chris Cutler, was unavailable to play, so Sting brought Copeland.
The bands fourth member was guitarist Andy Summers from Lancashire in northwest England, a decade older than Sting and Copeland, Summers was a music industry veteran who had played with Eric Burdon and the Animals and Kevin Ayers among others. Strontium 90 performed at a Gong reunion concert in Paris on 28 May 1977, the band recorded several demo tracks, these were released 20 years in 1997 on the archive album Strontium 90, Police Academy. Summers musicality impressed Sting, who was becoming frustrated with Padovanis rudimentary abilities, shortly after the Strontium 90 gig, Sting approached Summers to join the band. He agreed, on the condition the band remain a trio, shortly after these two gigs, Summers delivered an ultimatum and Padovani was dismissed from the band. The Polices power trio line-up of Copeland and Summers performed for the first time on 18 August 1977 at Rebeccas club in the English city of Birmingham in the West Midlands. A trio was unusual for the time, and this line-up endured for the rest of the bands history, few punk bands were three-pieces, while contemporary bands pursuing progressive rock, symphonic rock and other sound trends usually expanded their line-ups with support players
Sir John Tenniel was an English illustrator, graphic humourist, and political cartoonist prominent in the second half of the 19th century. He was knighted for his achievements in 1893. Tenniel was born in Bayswater, West London, to John Baptist Tenniel, Tenniel had five siblings, two brothers and three sisters. One sister, was to marry Thomas Goodwin Green, Tenniel was a quiet and introverted person, both as a boy and as an adult. He was content to remain out of the limelight and seemed unaffected by competition or change. His biographer Rodney Engen wrote that Tenniels life and career was that of the supreme gentlemanly outside, in 1840 Tenniel, while practising fencing with his father, received a serious eye wound from his fathers foil, which had accidentally lost its protective tip. Over the years Tenniel gradually lost sight in his eye, he never told his father of the severity of the wound. Tenniel became a student of the Royal Academy of Arts in 1842 by probation—he was admitted because he made copies of classical sculptures to provide the necessary admission portfolio.
So, it was here that Tenniel returned to his earlier independent education, Tenniel studied classical sculptures through painting, Tenniel was frustrated that he was never taught how to draw. It was in these studies that Tenniel learned to love detail, Tenniel was blessed with a photographic memory, undermining his early training and seriously restricting his artistic ambitions. Another formal means of training was Tenniels participation in an artists group, in the mid-1840s Tenniel joined the Artists Society or Clipstone Street Life Academy, and it could be said here that Tenniel first emerged as a satirical draftsman. Tenniels first book illustration was for Samuel Carter Halls The Book of British Ballads, Tenniel planned to enter the 1845 House of Lords competition amongst artists to win the opportunity to design the mural decoration of the new Palace of Westminster. Despite missing the deadline, he submitted a 16-foot cartoon, An Allegory of Justice, for this he received a £200 premium and a commission to paint a fresco in the Upper Waiting Hall in the House of Lords.
At Christmas 1850 he was invited by Mark Lemon to fill the position of joint cartoonist on Punch and he had been selected on the strength of his recent illustrations to Aesops Fables. He contributed his first drawing in the initial letter appearing on p.224 and his first cartoon was Lord Jack the Giant Killer, which showed Lord John Russell assailing Cardinal Wiseman. Tenniels cartoons published in the 1860s made popular the portrait of the Irishman as a subhuman being, wanton in his appetites and most resembling an orangutan in both facial features and posture. In his career Tenniel contributed around 2,300 cartoons, innumerable minor drawings, many cartoons for Punchs Almanac and other special numbers. By 1866 he was able to command ten to fifteen guineas for the reworking of a single Punch cartoon as a pencil sketch, according to the Bank of England inflation calculator, £800 in 1866 would buy goods and services worth over £85,000 in 2015
Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. He was the first and to date only President in American history to serve two terms in office. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation and his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance, and he fought political corruption and bossism. As a reformer Cleveland had such prestige that the wing of the Republican Party, called Mugwumps, largely bolted the GOP presidential ticket. As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a national depression. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian, the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era.
Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, and he drew corresponding criticism, critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nations economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. Even so, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term, biographer Allan Nevins wrote, n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities. He had no endowments that thousands of men do not have and he possessed honesty, firmness and common sense. But he possessed them to a degree other men do not, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader, generally ranked among the second tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18,1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey to Richard Falley Cleveland, Clevelands father was a Presbyterian minister who was originally from Connecticut. His mother was from Baltimore and was the daughter of a bookseller, on his fathers side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635.
On his mothers side, he was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and he was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell and he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, neighbors described him as full of fun and inclined to play pranks, and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Clevelands father took a pastorate in Clinton, Oneida County, New York, despite his fathers dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
The Greek underworld, in mythology, is an otherworld where souls go after death, and is the original Greek idea of afterlife. At the moment of death the soul is separated from the corpse, taking on the shape of the former person, the Underworld itself is described as being either at the outer bounds of the ocean or beneath the depths or ends of the earth. It is considered the counterpart to the brightness of Mount Olympus. Hades is an invisible to the living, made solely for the dead. There are five rivers that are visible both in the living world and the underworld. Their names were meant to reflect the emotions associated with death, the Styx is generally considered to be one of the most prominent and central rivers of the Underworld and is the most widely known out of all the rivers. Its known as the river of hatred and is named after the goddess Styx and this river circles the underworld seven times. The Acheron is the river of pain and its the one that Charon, known as the Ferryman, rows the dead over according to many mythological accounts, though sometimes it is the river Styx or both.
The Lethe is the river of forgetfulness and it is associated with the goddess Lethe, the goddess of forgetfulness and oblivion. In accounts, a poplar branch dripping with water of the Lethe became the symbol of Hypnos, the Phlegethon is the river of fire. According to Plato, this leads to the depths of Tartarus. The Cocytus is the river of wailing, oceanus is the river that encircles the world, and it marks the east edge of the underworld, as Erebos is west of the mortal world. In front of the entrance to the underworld live Grief, Diseases, Hunger, Death and Sleep live in front of the entrance, together with Guilty Joys. On the opposite threshold is War, the Erinyes, and Eris, close to the doors are many beasts, including Centaurs, the Lernaean Hydra, the Chimera, and Harpies. In the midst of all this, an Elm can be seen where false dreams cling under every leaf, the souls that enter the Underworld carry a coin under their tongue to pay Charon to take them across the river. Charon may make exceptions or allowances for those carrying a certain Golden Bough.
Charon is appallingly filthy, with eyes like jets of fire, a bush of unkempt beard upon his chin, although Charon embarks now one group now another, some souls he grimly turns away. These are the unburied which cant be taken across from bank to bank until they receive a proper burial, across the river, guarding the gates of the Underworld, is Cerberus