Marmorera is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. On 1 January 2016 the former municipalities of Bivio, Marmorera, Riom-Parsonz, Savognin and Tinizong-Rona merged to form the new municipality of Surses; until the end of the 19th century, its population was exclusively Romansh-speaking. This figure has however since been in decline, with its 2000 census reporting that 57% of the population now declared German as a first language; the old village was flooded when the Marmorera dam was constructed. The current village was built above Lai da Marmorera. Marmorera is first mentioned about 840 as ad Marmoraria. Marmorera had an area, as of 2006, of 19 km2. Of this area, 35.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 23% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1% is settled and the remainder is non-productive; the former municipality is located in the Surses sub-district of the Albula district. Until 1950 it was a linear village on the Septimer-Julier-Route, but was destroyed and flooded when the Marmorera dam was constructed.
Today it is located on the eastern shore of the Lai da Marmorera. Until 1902 Marmorera was known as Marmels. Marmorera had a population of 31; as of 2008, 2.1% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -11.1%. Most of the population speaks German, with Romansh being second most Italian being third; as of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 47.9% male and 52.1% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Marmorera is. 4 people or 8.2% are 10 to 14, 4 people or 8.2% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, 2 people or 4.1% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 5 people or 10.2% are 30 to 39, 8 people or 16.3% are 40 to 49, 9 people or 18.4% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 9 people or 18.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 4 people or 8.2% are 70 to 79, there are 2 people or 4.1% who are 80 to 89. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 51.2% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SPS and the FDP. In Marmorera about 85.2% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Marmorera has an unemployment rate of 0%; as of 2005, there were 2 people employed in the primary economic sector and 1 business involved in this sector. No one is employed in the secondary sector. 7 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 2 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the following table: The 2007 Swiss mystery film Marmorera was filmed in Marmorera and at the dam reservoir; the ruins of old Marmorera are listed as a Swiss heritage sites of national significance. Official website Marmorera in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
2015 Swiss federal election
Federal elections were held in Switzerland on 18 October 2015 for the National Council and the first round of elections to the Council of States, with runoff elections to the Council of States being held in various cantons until 22 November. Results showed a shift, due to voter concerns regarding refugee immigration, to the right and increased support for the three largest parties, with the strong showing of Swiss People's Party and FDP; the Liberals affecting future reforms of energy, social security and tax issues, as well as the make-up of the seven-member government. The Swiss People's Party won a record number of seats; the SVP received the highest proportion of votes of any Swiss political party since 1919, when proportional representation was first introduced, it received more seats in the National Council than any other political party since 1963, when the number of seats was set at 200. The federal election was followed by the 2015 Swiss Federal Council election on 9 December 2015, where the SVP won a second seat on the Federal Council.
The 200 members of the National Council were elected by plurality in six single-member constituencies, by proportional representation in 20 multi-member constituencies, with the 26 constituencies being the 26 cantons. The elections were held using the open list system where voters could cross out names on party lists, with voters able to split their vote between parties or draw up their own list on a blank ballot. Seats are allocated using the Hagenbach-Bischoff system; the 46 members of the Council of States were elected in 20 two-seat constituencies and six single-member constituencies. In Jura and Neuchâtel the elections were held using proportional representation, whilst the other 24 use the majority system. Compulsory voting was in force in the canton of Schaffhausen for both elections; the parties contesting the elections were: Global media commented on the gains of the Swiss People's Party, linking it to concerns of the electorate on the European migrant crisis. Combined together, right-of-centre parties received a slim 101-seat majority in the National Council.
While the right-of-centre SVP and FDP made gains and left-of-centre parties lost seats in the National Council. The FDP increased its share of the popular vote for the first time since the 1979 federal election. In the Swiss capital Bern, a group of activists in favour of settling refugees held a demonstration on the day of the election, prohibited by law. A total of 110 were arrested; the election results elicited various responses from the Swiss media, such as that the election represented "a return to normality" after a period when the legislative makeup was not as clear, or that it represented "a divided country." Newspapers, both in Switzerland and in other countries noted the SVP's historic gains. The 2015 federal election was followed by the 2015 Swiss Federal Council election on 9 December 2015. Due to the results of the federal election, Federal Councillor Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf, a member of the Conservative Democratic Party, announced she would not run for re-election, as the Swiss People's Party won a record percentage of the vote, while her own party decreased its share.
The SVP was expected to fill her seat in the election, it chose Thomas Aeschi, Guy Parmelin and Norman Gobbi as candidates for the seat, with Aeschi being the favorite at the time. Guy Parmelin, of the SVP, was elected on 9 December. Parmelin, a farmer and winegrower from Bursins in canton Vaud, was the first member of the Federal Council, a member of the Swiss People's Party from the French-speaking part of Switzerland. There was a minor cabinet reshuffle after the election, as newly elected Parmelin was selected to become head of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports, replacing fellow SVP-member Ueli Maurer, who became head of the Federal Department of Finance; the SVP gained its second seat in the Federal Council, which it had lost in 2008, when the newly created BDP split from the SVP. Media related to Swiss federal election 2015 at Wikimedia Commons "Elections 2015 - In Depth". Swissinfo. Retrieved December 12, 2016
2007 Swiss federal election
Elections to the Swiss Federal Assembly, the federal parliament of Switzerland, were held on Sunday, 21 October 2007. In a few cantons, a second round of the elections to the Council of States was held on 11 November, 18 November, 25 November 2007. For the 48th legislative term of the federal parliament, voters in 26 cantons elected all 200 members of the National Council as well as 43 out of 46 members of the Council of States; the other three members of the Council of States for that term of service were elected at an earlier date. On 12 December 2007, the newly elected legislature elected the Swiss federal government, the Swiss Federal Council, for a four-year-term; the results reflected yet another rise in support for the strongest party, the right-wing populist Swiss People's Party, at 29% of the popular vote, the growth of the Green and Green Liberal parties at the expense of the Social Democrats. The Swiss People's Party came out of the election as the strongest party, rising another 2.3% to 29.0% of the popular vote.
Among the left-wing parties, support of the Social Democrats eroded to the benefit of the Green and Green Liberal parties. The right-wing parties won 64 seats made up of the SVP with 62 seats and a single seat of the Christian right Federal Democratic Union and the regional Ticino League respectively; the left-wing parties won 65 seats, with 43 of the Social Democrats, 20 of the Green party, the Christian-left Christian Social Party and the far-left Labour Party with a single seat each. The centrist parties won 71 seats, with the CVP and the centre-right FDP each having won 31 seats, the remaining 9 seats won by minor parties: Liberals, 4 seats. 59 of 200 seats were won by women, as compared to 50 in 2003. Ricardo Lumengo is notable as the first black Swiss national councillor. 23 incumbents did not get re-elected and lost their mandate, among them Zürich right wing politician Ulrich Schlüer. The turnout of the election was 48,9% a rise of 3,7% from the previous elections in 2003. Contrary to the developments in the National Council, the Council of States remains dominated by the traditional centrist parties FDP and CVP.
Robert Cramer is the first member of the Green Party to be elected to the Council of States, joined in the second round by Luc Recordon of Vaud. Verena Diener of the Green Party, wins a Council of States seat for the newly founded Green Liberal Party. Christine Egerszegi of Aargau is the first woman councillor elected in that canton. "Political Map of Switzerland" "Hermann, M. und Leuthold, H.: Die politische Landkarte des Nationalrats 1999-2003. In: Tages-Anzeiger, 11. Oktober, 2003, Zürich." Swiss Federal Statistical Office. "Nationalratswahlen 2007. Der Wandel der Parteienlandschaft seit 1971". NSD: European Election Database - Switzerland publishes regional level election data.
Silvaplana is a municipality in the Maloja Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden and the name of a lake in the municipality. The first sign of a settlement in the borders of the municipality are some Roman-era broken pillars on the Julier Pass; the village church was first mentioned in 1356. A new, late gothic church was built in 1491. In 1556 the village converted to the Protestant Reformation. Silvaplana has an area, as of 2006, of 44.7 km2. Of this area, 19.6 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 2.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. Silvaplana is located on Lake Silvaplana in the Upper Engadine German: Oberengadin. Before 2017, it was located in the Oberengadin sub-district of the Maloja, after 2017 it was part of the Maloja Region. Above the village at 2,284 m, the Julier Pass connects the Engadine valley to the rest of Graubünden and the Rhine watershed. While the stream Ova dal Vallun, which connects Lake Silvaplana and Lake Champfèr, runs through the village, it consists of the village of Silvaplana and the hamlets of Surlej and Albana, as well as part of the village of Champfèr.
Silvaplana has a population of 1,117. As of 2008, 27.9% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 11.1%. As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 50.3 % female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Silvaplana is. 35 teenagers or 3.8% are 10 to 14, 38 teenagers or 4.2% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, 127 people or 13.9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 188 people or 20.6% are 30 to 39, 140 people or 15.3% are 40 to 49, 149 people or 16.3% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 88 people or 9.6% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 49 people or 5.4% are 70 to 79, there are 18 people or 2.0% who are 80 to 89, there are 2 people or 0.2% who are 90 to 99. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 36% of the vote; the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the SP and the CVP. In Silvaplana about 75.2% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education.
Silvaplana has an unemployment rate of 1.74%. As of 2005, there were 21 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 5 businesses involved in this sector. 95 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 11 businesses in this sector. 492 people are employed with 72 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the following table: Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Romansh being third; until the mid 19th Century, the entire population spoke the Upper-Engadine Romansh dialect of Puter. Due to increasing trade with the outside world, Romansh usage began to decline. In 1880 about 73.3% spoke Romansh as a first language, while in 1910 it was only 48.61%. The last time that Romansh was the majority language was in 1941. By 1970 Romansh was a minority language with only 200 out of 714 speaking the language. Due to Romansh instruction in the village school, in 2000 there were 34.1% who at least understand Romansh. The lake is well known for its predictable winds and is therefore a popular venue for water-sailsports including windsurfing and dinghy-sailing.
There is a major watersports centre on the SW shore. An advantage of this location is that spectators are never far from the action, as they might be for more conventional maritime locations. In August 2007 the International Fireball Dinghy sailing class conducted a World Championship event at Silvaplana. While there was high local media interest since the 2006 World Champions were a Swiss pair that won in Vancouver, British Columbia, the 2007 winners were Richard Estaugh and Rob Gardner from Great Britain; the 2006 world champion Swiss team came in 11th in 2007
Sur is a village and former municipality in the Sursés in the district of Albula in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland. On 1 January 2016 the former municipalities of Bivio, Marmorera, Riom-Parsonz, Savognin and Tinizong-Rona merged to form the new municipality of Surses; the majority of its population are Romansh-speaking, with the 2000 census reporting that some 75% claimed it as their first language. The nearby Burg Spliatsch was built around the beginning of the 13th Century by the Marmels family. In 1663 the Capuchin friars built the baroque church of S. Catregna on the ruined foundations of the medieval church of St. Bartholomäus. Today this church, together with the villages of Marmorera form a parish; until 1850 Sur was part of the municipality of Oberhalbstein in the League of God's House. Before the construction of the Rhaetian Railway Sur was a cluster of farm houses and a major side industry was providing guides to travellers. Sur had an area, as of 2006, of 23.2 km2. Of this area, 42.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 13.2% is forested.
Of the rest of the land, 0.5% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The former municipality is located in the sub-district of Surses of the Albula district, it consists of the hamlets of Tgacrest as well as four alpine herding camps in Flix. Sur had a population of 68; as of 2008, 16.7% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -4%; as of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 46.9% male and 53.1% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Sur is. 5 people or 5.4% are 10 to 14, people or 0.0% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population, 7 people or 7.5% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 15 people or 16.1% are 30 to 39, 7 people or 7.5% are 40 to 49, 14 people or 15.1% are 50 to 59. The senior population distribution is 14 people or 15.1% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 14 people or 15.1% are 70 to 79, there are 3 people or 3.2% who are 80 to 89, there are 2 people or 2.2% who are 90 to 99.
In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 35.3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SPS and the FDP. In Sur about 58.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Sur has an unemployment rate of 1.35%. As of 2005, there were 12 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 4 businesses involved in this sector. 18 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 2 businesses in this sector. 24 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 7 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the following table: Most of the population speaks Rhaeto-Romance, with German being second most common and Italian being third. Official website Sur in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the central offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors, 2500 historians and 100 translators; the encyclopedia is being edited in three national languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002; the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in: Biographies Articles on families and genealogy Articles on places Subject articles The on-line edition has been available since 1998, it makes accessible, for free, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered. Lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.
It includes articles not available in the other languages. The first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Schwabe AG, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1900-8 Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive, ISBN 2-88256-133-4 Dizionario storico della Svizzera, Armando Dadò editore, Locarno, ISBN 88-8281-100-X Lexicon Istoric Retic, Kommissionsverlag Desertina, Chur, ISBN 978-3-85637-390-0, ISBN 978-3-85637-391-7 Media related to Historical Dictionary of Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons DHS/HLS/DSS online edition in German and Italian Lexicon Istoric Retic online edition in Romansh