Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
Fairfax District, Los Angeles
The Fairfax District is a neighborhood in the Central Los Angeles region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The Fairfax District has been a center of the Jewish community in Los Angeles, it is known for the Farmer's Market, The Grove, CBS Television City broadcasting center, the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust in Pan Pacific Park, Fairfax Avenue restaurants and shops. Beverly-Fairfax is a 3.2-square-mile neighborhood bordered by Willoughby Avenue on the north, Wilshire Boulevard on the south, La Brea Avenue on the east, La Cienega Boulevard on the west. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, the Fairfax District is flanked on the north and northeast by the city of West Hollywood, on the northeast by Hollywood, on the east by Hancock Park, on the south by Mid-Wilshire, on the west by Beverly Grove. Street boundaries are Willoughby Avenue or Romaine Street on the north, La Brea Avenue on the east, West Third Street on the south, Fairfax Avenue on the west; the Beverly-Fairfax neighborhood, as it has been called, includes both Fairfax and Beverly Grove.
In the first draft of Mapping L. A. "Beverly Grove" was not included as a distinct neighborhood. The 2000 U. S. census counted 12,490 residents in the 1.23-square-mile Fairfax District—an average of 10,122 people per square mile, about the same population density as all of Los Angeles. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 13,360; the median age for residents was a general average within Los Angeles. The percentage of residents aged 65 and older was among the county's highest. Fifty-four percent of Fairfax residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, a high figure for both the city and the county; the median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $65,938, average in comparison to the rest of Los Angeles. The average household size of two people was low for the city of Los Angeles. Renters occupied 71.5% of the housing stock, house- or apartment owners 28.5%. The percentages of never-married men and never-married women were among the county's highest.
The neighborhood was "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of white people. The breakdown was whites, 84.7%. Ukraine and Mexico were the most common places of birth for the 23.2% of the residents who were born abroad, a low ratio compared to the rest of Los Angeles. The Fairfax District has been a center of the Jewish community in Los Angeles, after the earlier Boyle Heights period, home to largest Jewish community west of Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s. In 1935, there were four synagogues in the Fairfax District. After World War II, more Jews began to populate the area; as more families moved in, religious schools and a Jewish Community Center sprang up. In 1974, Bet Tzedek Legal Services - The House of Justice, a legal aid charity, opened its doors across from the Farmers Market; the Farmers Market at Fairfax Avenue and 3rd Street still retains a 1930s atmosphere, with open-air vegetable stalls and cafes, many Jewish residents of the area still frequent the market as part of their shopping or kibbitzing routine.
The Grove, a commercial retail and entertainment center, opened in 2002 next to the Farmer's Market. The intersection of Fairfax Avenue and Beverly Boulevard is recognized as Raoul Wallenberg Square, in honor of the Swedish diplomat who saved thousand of Hungarian Jews from deportation to Nazi death camps; the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust is located nearby, within Pan Pacific Park. CBS Television City was built in 1952 on the former site of Gilmore Stadium at Fairfax Avenue and Beverly Boulevard; the facility has been used to tape several shows both for CBS and other entities, the most notable being The Price is Right, which has shot in Studio 33 continuously since 1972. In the 90s the strip became much more popular. Today the street is covered with designer clothing stores and popular restaurants, like Animal, a restaurant, it is known for popular street art, street culture. FederalCalifornia's 33rd congressional districtStateCalifornia's 26th State Senate district California's 50th State Assembly districtCityLos Angeles City Council District 4 Los Angeles City Council District 5The Los Angeles Fire Department operates Fire Station 61, serving the Fairfax community.
The schools within Fairfax include: Fairfax High School, LAUSD, 7850 Melrose Avenue. The school was founded in 1924. Most of the original campus facilities were demolished in 1966 because the original Spanish Colonial Revival main building did not meet earthquake safety standards; the historic Dewitt Swann Auditorium and iconic Rotunda, were spared and are in daily use. Greenway Court, built in 1939 as a social hall by the students at Fairfax as a class project, was spared and was moved to Fairfax Avenue, where it was converted into a theater in 1999 by the Greenway Arts Alliance and renamed the Greenway Court Theater; the Otman Center, private secondary, 812 North Fairfax Avenue Yeshiva Ohr Eichonon Chabad, private secondary, 7215 Waring Avenue Westside Community Adult School, LAUSD, 7850 Melrose Avenue Whitman Continuation School, LAUSD, 7795 Rosewood Avenue Bais Yaakov School for Girls, private secondary, 7353 Beverly Boulevard Cheder of Los Angeles, private elementary, 801 North La Brea Avenue Melrose Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 731 North Detroit Street Canter's restaurant.
Los Angeles magazine named Canter's waffles the Best Waffle in Los Angeles. Esquire magazine called
Los Angeles metropolitan area
The Los Angeles metropolitan area known as Metropolitan Los Angeles or the Southland, is the 30th largest metropolitan area in the world and the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States. It is the 3rd largest city by GDP in the world with a $1 trillion+ economy, it is in the southern portion of the U. S. state of California. The tallest building in the Los Angeles metropolitan area is the Wilshire Grand Center at 1,100 feet in Downtown Los Angeles; the metropolitan area is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, consisting of Los Angeles and Orange counties, a metropolitan statistical area used for statistical purposes by the United States Census Bureau and other agencies. Its land area is 4,850 sq. mi and its estimated 2016 population was 13,310,447. Los Angeles and Orange counties are the first and third most populous counties in California and Los Angeles, with 9,819,000 people in 2010, is the most populous county in the United States.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area is the most populous metropolitan area in the western United States and the largest in area in the United States. The metro area has at its core the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim corridor, an urbanized area defined by the Census Bureau with a population 12,150,996 as of the 2010 Census; the Census Bureau defines a wider commercial region based on commuting patterns, the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area, more known as the Greater Los Angeles Area a megapolitan area consisting of three metropolitan areas, with an estimated population of 18,788,800 in 2017. This includes the three additional counties of Ventura and San Bernardino; the total land area of the combined statistical area is 33,955 sq. mi. The counties and county groupings comprising the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area are listed below with 2017 U. S. Bureau of the Census estimates of their populations. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale, CA Metropolitan Division Los Angeles County Anaheim-Santa Ana-Irvine, CA Metropolitan Division Orange County Major divisions of the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, Palos Verdes Peninsula, South Los Angeles, Gateway Cities, North Orange County, South Orange County North: San Fernando Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire In addition to the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the following Metropolitan Statistical Areas are included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area: Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area Ventura County Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area Riverside County, California San Bernardino County, California The Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA is a multicore metropolitan region containing several urban areas.
The combined statistical area is a multicore metropolitan region containing several urban areas. The following is a list of communities with populations over 50,000 in the Los Angeles metropolitan area with 2011 United States Census Bureau estimates of their population. Communities in italics are unincorporated and their populations are from the 2010 Census, while those in bold are considered principal cities of the metropolitan area by the Census Bureau, which represent significant employment centers; the economy of the Los Angeles metropolitan area is famously and based on the entertainment industry, with a particular focus on television, motion pictures, interactive games, recorded music – the Hollywood district of Los Angeles and its surrounding areas are known as the "movie capital of the United States" due to the region's extreme commercial and historical importance to the American motion picture industry. Other significant sectors include shipping/international trade – at the adjacent Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach, together comprising the United States' busiest seaport – as well as aerospace, petroleum and apparel, tourism.
The City of Los Angeles is home to five Fortune 500 companies: energy company Occidental Petroleum, healthcare provider Health Net, metals distributor Reliance Steel & Aluminum, engineering firm AECOM, real estate group CB Richard Ellis. Other companies headquartered in Los Angeles include American Apparel, City National Bank, 20th Century Fox, Latham & Watkins, Metro Interactive, LLC, Premier America, Dunn & Crutcher, DeviantArt, Guess?, O’Melveny & Myers. Korean Air's US passenger and cargo operations headquarters are in two separate offices in Los Angeles. Entertainment and media giant The Walt Disney Company is headquartered in nearby Burbank; the Los Angeles-Orange County metro area alone has an economy of $1.044 trillion, or the total economic output or income of Indonesia's 250 million people. This is evident when comparing the coast with the Inland Empire
Santa Monica Boulevard
Santa Monica Boulevard is a major west-east thoroughfare in Los Angeles County. It runs from Ocean Avenue in Santa Monica near the Pacific Ocean to Sunset Boulevard at Sunset Junction in Los Angeles, it passes through West Hollywood. A portion of it is designated as California State Route 2; the western terminus of Santa Monica Boulevard is at Ocean Avenue near the Pacific Ocean. From there until the San Diego Freeway, Santa Monica Boulevard is a densely urban commercial street, it assumes the designation California State Route 2 between Centinela Avenue at the Santa Monica–Los Angeles border, the Hollywood Freeway. The portion between Centinela Avenue and Lincoln Boulevard in Santa Monica was originally part of California State Route 2. From Centinela Avenue, Santa Monica Boulevard heads northeast through the wealthy areas of West Los Angeles, Century City, Beverly Hills before entering the decidedly urban West Hollywood. Santa Monica Boulevard, being a major street, is for most of its length at least four lanes wide.
Most of the Westside car dealerships are located on Santa Monica Boulevard. After Sepulveda Boulevard, Santa Monica Boulevard passes by Century City and its shopping center, intersects with Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills. After intersecting with Wilshire in Beverly Hills, Santa Monica Boulevard continues northeast towards West Hollywood, spanning Beverly Boulevard and Melrose Avenue. At Holloway Drive, in the middle of West Hollywood, Santa Monica, now north of Melrose Avenue turns to run east. In West Hollywood, between Doheny Drive and Fairfax Avenue along Santa Monica Boulevard, bronze name plaques are embedded in the sidewalks as part of the West Hollywood Memorial Walk; the original southern end of California State Route 170 was at the intersection with Highland Avenue. Santa Monica Boulevard merges on its eastern end with Sunset Boulevard in the Sunset Junction neighborhood of Silver Lake; the south roadway of Santa Monica Boulevard called Little Santa Monica Boulevard in Beverly Hills, runs parallel to the state highway roadway of Santa Monica Boulevard from the city's west limit to Rexford Drive.
After Rexford Drive, Little Santa Monica turns east. Burton Way merges into San Vicente Boulevard at its intersection with La Cienega Boulevard, it is noted that the south roadway of Santa Monica Boulevard in Beverly Hills is a city street while the north roadway of Santa Monica Boulevard is a California state highway, each roadway handling bi-directional traffic. Due to the length of its name, Santa Monica Boulevard is abbreviated to "Sta Mon Blvd." for mailing purposes by the United States Postal Service. Metro Local line 4, Metro Rapid line 704 and Santa Monica Transit Line 1 operate on Santa Monica Boulevard; the Metro Red Line serves an underground station on Santa Monica Boulevard at its intersection with Vermont Avenue
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time, he was known for his unorthodox lifestyle, residing in a private amusement park he called Neverland Ranch, becoming the focus of tabloid scrutiny. Jackson's contributions to music and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades; the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, in the early 1980s, became a dominant figure in popular music, his music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool.
Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Bad was the first album to produce five US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, he continued to innovate throughout the 1990s with videos such as "Black or White" and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized complicated dance techniques such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artist of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide, his other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory rank among the world's best-selling. He won hundreds of awards, has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, is the only pop or rock artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, his other achievements include Guinness world records, 15 Grammy Awards, 26 American Music Awards, 13 number-one US singles. Jackson was the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.
In the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy due to his changing appearance and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation and was settled out of court for $25 million in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol and benzodiazepine given to him by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson's fans around the world expressed their grief, his public memorial service was broadcast live. In 2019, the documentary Leaving Neverland detailed renewed allegations of child sexual abuse and led to an international backlash against Jackson. Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958, he was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street.
His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson, played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, worked part-time at Sears. His father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U. S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income, his father's great-grandfather, July "Jack" Gale, was a Native American medicine man and US Army scout. Michael grew up with five brothers. A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth. Joe acknowledged that he whipped Michael, he recalled that Joe sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes. Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.
In an interview with Oprah Winfrey in 1993, Jackson said that his youth had been lonely and isolating. In 1964, Michael and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by their father which included Jackie and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. In 1965, Michael began sharing lead vocals with Jermaine, the group's name was changed to the Jackson 5; the following year, the group won a talent show. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest; the Jackson 5 performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, at local auditoriums a
Turnbull Canyon is a 4 mile loop trail located near Whittier, California and is part of Puente Hills Preserve. It lies in the northern-central part of the preserve, is an east-west canyon with steep drainage; the canyon has a creek at its bottom that supports a narrow strip of riparian woodland dominated by sycamore trees, while the slopes are covered in coastal sage and native and non-native grasses. The climate in Turnbull Canyon is typical of Southern California, semi-arid; because the Whittier Hills has a close proximity to the ocean, which has an equalizing effect on the climate, it is somewhat cooler here than some of the areas just south of the region. During the winter months, it is not uncommon to see frost on the ground and during summer, it gets hotter than 95 degrees. Turnbull Canyon is known for the view it provides of the Hsi Lai Temple and Rose Hills Memorial Park, it has been the source of rumors regarding paranormal activities and was the scene of the discovery a then-missing person's body.
Puente Hills San Gabriel Valley California Floristic Province California chaparral and woodlands Puente Hills topics Puente Hills Preserve Park Map Puente Hills Preserve Park - activities and homepage The Puente Hills Preserve: Puente - Chino Hills Wildlife Corridor The Puente Hills Preserve: Trails Access info. Puente Hills Landfill Native Habitat Preservation Authority Puente Hills Nature Blog
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a