Tuskegee University is a private black university located in Tuskegee, United States. It was established by Booker T. Washington; the campus is designated as the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site by the National Park Service and is the only one in the U. S. to have this designation. The university was home to World War II's Tuskegee Airmen. Tuskegee University offers 40 bachelor's degree programs, 17 master's degree programs, a 5-year accredited professional degree program in architecture, 4 doctoral degree programs, the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine; the university is home to over 3,100 students from the U. S. and 30 foreign countries. Tuskegee University was ranked among 2018's best 379 colleges and universities by The Princeton Review and 6th among the 2018 U. S. News & World Report best HBCUs; the university's campus was designed by architect Robert Robinson Taylor, the first African American to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in conjunction with David Williston, the first professionally trained African-American landscape architect.
The school was founded on July 1881, as the Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers. This was a result of an agreement made during the 1880 elections in Macon County between a former Confederate Colonel, W. F. Foster, running on the democratic ticket and a local Black Leader and Republican, Lewis Adams. W. F. Foster propositioned that if Adams could persuade the Black constituents to vote for Foster, if elected, Foster would push the state of Alabama to establish a school for Black people in the county. At the time the majority of Macon County population was Black, thus Black constituents had political power. Adams succeeded and Foster followed through with the school; the school became a part of the expansion of higher education for blacks in the former Confederate states following the American Civil War, with many schools founded by the northern American Missionary Association. A teachers' school was the dream of Lewis Adams, a former slave, George W. Campbell, a banker and former slaveholder, who shared a commitment to the education of blacks.
Despite lacking formal education, Adams could read and speak several languages. He was an experienced tinsmith, harness-maker, shoemaker and was a Prince Hall Freemason, an acknowledged leader of the African-American community in Macon County, Alabama. Adams and Campbell had secured $2,000 from the State of Alabama for teachers' salaries but nothing for land, buildings, or equipment. Adams, M. B. Swanson formed Tuskegee's first board of commissioners. Campbell wrote to the Hampton Institute, a black college in Virginia, requesting the recommendation of a teacher for their new school. Samuel C. Armstrong, the Hampton principal and a former Union general, recommended 25-year-old Booker T. Washington, an alumnus and teacher at Hampton; as the newly hired principal in Tuskegee, Booker Washington began classes for his new school in a rundown church and shanty. The following year, he purchased a former plantation of 100 acres in size. In 1973 the Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, did an oral history interview with Annie Lou "Bama" Miller.
In that interview she indicated that her grandmother sold the original 100 acres of land to Booker T. Washington; that oral history interview is located at the Tuskegee University archives. The earliest campus buildings were constructed on that property by students as part of their work-study. By the start of the 20th century, the Tuskegee Institute occupied nearly 2,300 acres. Based on his experience at the Hampton Institute, Washington intended to train students in skills and religious life, in addition to academic subjects. Washington urged the teachers he trained "to return to the plantation districts and show the people there how to put new energy and new ideas into farming as well as into the intellectual and moral and religious life of the people." Washington's second wife Olivia A. Davidson, was instrumental to the success and helped raise funds for the school. A rural extension program was developed, to take progressive ideas and training to those who could not come to the campus. Tuskegee alumni founded smaller colleges throughout the South.
As a young free man after the Civil War, Washington sought a formal education. He worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute and attended college at Wayland Seminary in Washington, DC, he returned to Hampton as a teacher. Hired as principal of the new normal school in Tuskegee, Booker Washington opened his school on July 4, 1881, on the grounds of the Butler Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church; the following year, he bought the grounds of a former plantation, out of which he expanded the institute in the decades that followed. The school expressed Washington's dedication to the pursuit of self-reliance. In addition to training teachers, he taught the practical skills needed for his students to succeed at farming or other trades typical of the rural South, where most of them came from, he wanted his students to see labor as practical, but as beautiful and dignified. As part of their work-study programs, students constructed most of the new buildings. Many students earned all or part of their expenses through the construction and domestic work associated with the campus, as they reared livestock and raised crops, as well as producing other goods.
The continuing expansion of black education took place against a background o
University of California, Santa Barbara
The University of California, Santa Barbara is a public research university in Santa Barbara, California. It is one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system. Tracing its roots back to 1891 as an independent teachers' college, UCSB joined the University of California system in 1944 and is the third-oldest general-education campus in the system. UCSB is one of America's Public Ivy universities, a designation that recognizes top public research universities in the U. S; the university is a comprehensive doctoral university, is organized into five colleges and schools offering 87 undergraduate degrees and 55 graduate degrees. UCSB was ranked 30th among "National Universities", fifth among U. S. public universities, 37th among Best Global Universities by U. S. News & World Report's 2019 rankings; the university was ranked 48th worldwide for 2016–17 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 45th worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017. UC Santa Barbara is a high-activity research university with 10 national research centers, including the renowned Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Center for Control, Dynamical-Systems and Computation.
Current UCSB faculty includes six Nobel Prize laureates, one Fields Medalist, 39 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 34 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. UCSB was the No. 3 host on the ARPAnet and was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1995. The world-class faculty includes two Academy and Emmy Award winners, recipients of a Millennium Technology Prize, an IEEE Medal of Honor, a National Medal of Technology and Innovation and a Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics; the UC Santa Barbara Gauchos compete in the Big West Conference of the NCAA Division I. The Gauchos have won NCAA national championships in men's water polo. UCSB traces its origins back to the Anna Blake School, founded in 1891, offered training in home economics and industrial arts; the Anna Blake School was taken over by the state in 1909 and became the Santa Barbara State Normal School, which became the Santa Barbara State College in 1921.
In 1944, intense lobbying by an interest group in the City of Santa Barbara led by Thomas Storke and Pearl Chase persuaded the State Legislature, Gov. Earl Warren, the Regents of the University of California to move the State College over to the more research-oriented University of California system; the State College system sued to stop the takeover. A state constitutional amendment was passed in 1946 to stop subsequent conversions of State Colleges to University of California campuses. From 1944 to 1958, the school was known as Santa Barbara College of the University of California, before taking on its current name; when the vacated Marine Corps training station in Goleta was purchased for the growing college, Santa Barbara City College moved into the vacated State College buildings. The regents envisioned a small, several thousand–student liberal arts college, a so-called "Williams College of the West", at Santa Barbara. Chronologically, UCSB is the third general-education campus of the University of California, after Berkeley and UCLA.
The original campus the regents acquired in Santa Barbara was located on only 100 acres of unusable land on a seaside mesa. The availability of a 400-acre portion of the land used as Marine Corps Air Station Santa Barbara until 1946 on another seaside mesa in Goleta, which the regents could acquire for free from the federal government, led to that site becoming the Santa Barbara campus in 1949. Only 3000–3500 students were anticipated, but the post-WWII baby boom led to the designation of general campus in 1958, along with a name change from "Santa Barbara College" to "University of California, Santa Barbara," and the discontinuation of the industrial arts program for which the state college was famous. A chancellor, Samuel B. Gould, was appointed in 1959. All of this change was done in accordance with the California Master Plan for Higher Education. In 1959, UCSB professor Douwe Stuurman hosted the English writer Aldous Huxley as the university's first visiting professor. Huxley delivered a lectures series called "The Human Situation".
In the late'60s and early'70s, UCSB became nationally known as a hotbed of anti–Vietnam War activity. A bombing at the school's faculty club in 1969 killed Dover Sharp. In the spring of 1970, multiple occasions of arson occurred, including a burning of the Bank of America branch building in the student community of Isla Vista, during which time one male student, Kevin Moran, was shot and killed by police. UCSB's anti-Vietnam activity impelled then-Gov. Ronald Reagan to order the National Guard to enforce it. Armed guardsmen were a common sight in Isla Vista during this time. In 1995, UCSB was elected to the Association of American Universities, an organization of leading research universities, with a membership consisting of 59 universities in the United States and two universities in Canada. On May 23, 2014, a killing spree occurred in Isla Vista, California, a community in close proximity to the campus. All six people killed during the rampage were students at UCSB; the murderer was a former Santa Barbara City College student.
1944–1946: Clarence L. Phelps 1946–1955: J. Harold Williams 1955–1955: Clark G. Kuebler 1956–1956: John C. Snidecor 1956–1959: Elmer Noble 1959–1962: Samuel B. Gould 1962–1977: Vernon Cheadle 1977–1986: Robert Huttenba
Hartford Seminary is a non-denominational theological college in Hartford, Connecticut. Hartford Seminary's origins date back to 1833 when the Pastoral Union of Connecticut was formed to train Congregational ministers; the next year the Theological Institute of Connecticut was founded at East Windsor Hill, Connecticut. The institution moved to Hartford in 1865 and took the name Hartford Theological Seminary in 1885; the Bible Normal College affiliated with the seminary in 1902 and changed its name to Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy. The Kennedy School of Missions became another affiliated activity organized by the Seminary as a separate organization in 1911. In 1913, these three endeavors were combined. In 1961, the entities were merged and adopted the new name Hartford Seminary Foundation, used until 1981, when the current name came into use; the Hartford Seminary Foundation published the Hartford Quarterly from 1960 to 1968. Hartford Seminary began to offer niche concentrations in Christian-Muslim dialogue in 1972, in 1990 Hartford Seminary claimed non-denominational status.
On Jan. 1, 2018, the Hartford Seminary joined the Boston Theological Institute, the largest theological consortium in the world. When the seminary moved to Hartford in 1865, it was at first located in the area now occupied by buildings of the Wadsworth Atheneum. In the 1910s, it planned a dedicated new campus on Hartford's west side, south of Elizabeth Street. Construction was delayed by World War I, a handsome campus of Collegiate Gothic Revival buildings was constructed in the 1920s. Surviving elements of this construction phase were used by the seminary until 1981, constitute the campus of the University of Connecticut School of Law; the present main seminary building, designed by architect Richard Meier, was completed in 1981, replacing several buildings demolished from the initial building phase. The seminary continues to occupy several adjacent buildings that have been part of its campus. These, as well as the law school, were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982 for their architecture.
Hartford Seminary is centered on two academic centers: the Hartford Institute for Religion Research and the Duncan Black Macdonald Center for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations. The seminary offers certificate programs and graduate degrees, including the only accredited Islamic chaplaincy programs. Hartford Seminary has been home to the academic journal The Muslim World since 1938; the journal was founded in 1911. Akaiko Akana, first pastor of Hawaiian ancestry at Kawaiahaʻo Church Fred Hovey Allen and author, made first photogravure plates in U. S. Thomas L. Angell, scholar at Bates College Yahya Hendi, Georgetown University Muslim chaplain, Named one of the World's Most Influential Muslims, 2012. Fenwicke Holmes, Religious Science leader Charles H. Kraft, evangelical Christian apologist Vergel L. Lattimore, professor at the Methodist Theological School in Ohio Richard T. Nolan, Episcopal Church/USA canon, professor of philosophy and religious studies emeritus Beverly Daniel Tatum, Spelman College Andrew Young, mayor of Atlanta, U.
S. Congressman, UN ambassador, President of the National Council of Churches USA, member of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Henry Allan Gleason Jr, linguist Asnage Castelly, A Haitian-American wrestler who competed for Haiti at the 2016 Summer Olympics in the 74 kg freestyle competition. Yvonne Y. Haddad, Professor of the History of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations at Georgetown University Dr. Clayton R Maud, First Baptist Church of New Market N. J. Official website "Hartford Theological Seminary". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. "Hartford Theological Seminary". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Historically black colleges and universities
Black colleges and universities are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of serving the African-American community. This was because the overwhelming majority of predominantly white institutions of higher-learning disqualified African Americans from enrollment during segregation. From the time of slavery in the 19th century through to the second half of the 20th century, majority schools in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while historic schools in other parts of the country employed quotas to limit admissions of blacks. There are 101 HBCUs including public and private institutions; this figure is down from the 121 institutions. Of these remaining HBCU institutions in the United States, 27 offer doctoral programs, 52 schools offer master's programs, 83 colleges offer bachelor's degree programs and 38 schools offer associate degrees. Most HBCUs were established in the Southern United States after the American Civil War with the assistance of northern United States religious missionary organizations.
However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania and Lincoln University, were established for blacks before the American Civil War. In 1856 the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Ohio collaborated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, a predominantly white denomination, in sponsoring Wilberforce University, the third college in Ohio. Established in 1865, Shaw University was the first HBCU in the South to be established after the American Civil War; the year 1865 saw the foundation of Storer College at Harper's Ferry, WV. Storer has now been incorporated into Harper's Ferry National Park. In 1862, the federal government's Morrill Act provided for land grant colleges in each state; some educational institutions in the North or West were open to blacks. But 17 states in the South, required their systems to be segregated and excluded black students from their land grant colleges. In response, Congress passed the second Morrill Act of 1890 known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890, requiring states to establish a separate land grant college for blacks if blacks were being excluded from the existing land grant college.
Many of the HBCUs were founded by states to satisfy the Second Morrill Act. These land grant schools continue to receive annual federal funding for their research and outreach activities. In the 1920s and 1930s the black colleges developed a strong interest in athletics. Sports were expanding at state universities, but few black stars were recruited there. Race newspapers hailed athletic success as a demonstration of racial progress. Black schools hired coaches and featured stellar athletes, set up their own leagues. Many Jewish intellectuals fleeing Germany in the 1930s after the rise of Hitler to power in Nazi Germany immigrated to the United States and found work teaching in black colleges. HBCUs made great contributions to the war effort, including those of the Tuskegee Airmen, who trained and attended classes at Tuskegee University in Alabama. After the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, the legislature of Florida, with support from various counties, started a series of eleven junior colleges serving the African-American population.
The purpose was to show that equal education was working in Florida. Prior to this, there had been only one junior college in Florida serving African Americans, Booker T. Washington Junior College, in Pensacola; the new ones, with their year of founding, are: Gibbs Junior College Roosevelt Junior College Volusia County Junior College Hampton Junior College Rosenwald Junior College Suwannee River Junior College Carver Junior College Collier-Blocker Junior College Lincoln Junior College Johnson Junior College Jackson Junior College The new junior colleges began as extensions of black high schools, using the same facilities and the same faculty. Some, over the next few years, did build their own buildings. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandating an end to school segregation, the colleges were all abruptly closed. Only a fraction of the students and faculty were able to transfer to the all-white junior colleges, where they found, at best, an indifferent reception; the Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, including federal matching of private endowment contributions.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a "part B institution" as: "...any black college or university, established before 1964, whose principal mission was, is, the education of black Americans, and, accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation." Part B of the 1965 Act provides for direct federal aid to Part B institutions. Some colleges with a predominantly black student body are not classified as a HBCU because they were founded after the implementation of the Sweatt v. Painter and Brown v. Board of Education rulings by the U. S. Supreme Court and the Higher Education Act of 1965. In 1980, Jimmy Carter signed an executive order to distribute adequate resources and funds to strengthen the nation's public and private HB
Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut. Founded in 1831, Wesleyan is a baccalaureate college that emphasizes undergraduate instruction in the arts and sciences, grants research master's degrees in many academic disciplines, grants PhD degrees in biology, chemistry and computer science, molecular biology and biochemistry and physics. Along with Amherst College and Williams College, Wesleyan is a member of the Little Three colleges. In the 2016 Forbes ranking of American colleges, which combines national research universities, liberal arts colleges and military academies in a single survey, Wesleyan University is ranked 9th overall. Founded under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church and with the support of prominent residents of Middletown, the now-secular university was the first institution of higher education to be named after John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. About 20 unrelated colleges and universities were subsequently named after Wesley.
Since its inception, Wesleyan University has graduated 13 Pulitzer Prize winners—including playwright and Hamilton creator Lin-Manuel Miranda—14 Rhodes Scholars, 3 Truman Scholars, 3 Guggenheim Fellows, 7 MacArthur Fellows, 156 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 4 Nobel Laureates have been associated with the university: T. S. Eliot, Satoshi Omura, V. S. Naipaul, US President Woodrow Wilson. Wesleyan was twice named a top producer of Fulbright scholars for the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 school years. Other prominent alumni include 34 members of United States Congress, 16 US Cabinet members, 11 US Governors, 6 US Agency directors and heads, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, 2 Attorneys General of the United States. Three histories of Wesleyan have been published, Wesleyan's First Century by Carl F. Price in 1932, another in 1999, Wesleyan University, 1831–1910: Collegiate Enterprise in New England and Wesleyan University, 1910-1970, Academic Ambition and Middle-Class America, released in May 2015, both authored by David B.
Potts. Wesleyan was founded as an all-male Methodist college in 1831; the university, established as an independent institution under the auspices of the Methodist conference, was led by Willbur Fisk, its first president. Despite its name, Wesleyan was never a denominational seminary, it remained a leader in educational progress throughout its history and erected one of the earliest comprehensive science buildings devoted to undergraduate science instruction on any American college or university campus, Judd Hall. It has maintained a larger library collection than institutions comparable in size; the Wesleyan student body numbered about 300 in 1910 and had grown to 800 in 1960, the latter being a figure that Time described as "small". Although Wesleyan developed into a peer of Amherst and Williams, Wesleyan was always decidedly the smallest of the Little Three institutions until the 1970s, when it grew to become larger than the other two. In 1872, the university became one of the first U. S. colleges to attempt coeducation by allowing a small number of female students to attend, a venture known as the "Wesleyan Experiment".
"In 1909, the board of trustees voted to stop admitting women as undergraduates, fearing that the school was losing its masculine image and that women would not be able to contribute to the college financially after graduation the way men could." Given that concern, Wesleyan ceased to admit women, from 1912 to 1970 Wesleyan operated again as an all-male college. Wesleyan became independent of the Methodist church in 1937, although in 2000, the university was designated as a historic Methodist site. Beginning in the late 1950s, president Victor Lloyd Butterfield began an ambitious program to reorganize the university according to Butterfield's "College Plan" somewhat similar to Harvard's House system or Yale's colleges, where undergraduate study would be divided into seven smaller residential colleges with their own faculty and centralized graduate studies, including doctoral programs and a Center for Advanced Studies; the building program begun under this system created three residential colleges on Foss Hill and three more residential colleges.
Although the facilities were created, only four of the academic programs were begun, only two of those continue today: the College of Letters and the College of Social Studies. Fund raising proved effective and by 1960 Wesleyan had the largest endowment, per student, of any college or university in America, a student-faculty ratio of 7:1. Butterfield's successors, Edwin Deacon Etherington and Colin Goetze Campbell, completed many of the innovations begun during Butterfield's administration, including the return of women in numbers equal to men; the university and several of its admissions deans were featured in Jacques Steinberg's 2002 book The Gatekeepers: Inside The Admissions Process of a Premier College. In the fall 2007 semester, Michael S. Roth, a 1978 graduate of Wesleyan and former president of the California College of the Arts, was inaugurated as the university's 16th president. Wesleyan occupies a 360-acre campus, with over 340 buildings, including the five-building College Row.
Tallahassee is the capital city of the U. S. state of Florida. It only incorporated municipality in Leon County. Tallahassee became the capital of Florida the Florida Territory, in 1824. In 2017, the population was 191,049, making it the 7th-largest city in the U. S state of Florida, the 126th-largest city in the United States; the population of the Tallahassee metropolitan area was 382,627 as of 2017. Tallahassee is the largest city in the Florida Panhandle region, the main center for trade and agriculture in the Florida Big Bend and Southwest Georgia regions. Tallahassee is home to Florida State University, ranked the nation's twenty-sixth best public university by U. S. News & World Report, it is home to Florida A&M University, the fifth-largest black university by total enrollment. Tallahassee Community College is a large state college that serves as a feeder school to Florida State and Florida A&M. Tallahassee qualifies as a significant college town, with a student population exceeding 70,000.
As the capital, Tallahassee is the site of the Florida State Capitol, Supreme Court of Florida, Florida Governor's Mansion, nearly 30 state agency headquarters. The city is known for its large number of law firms, lobbying organizations, trade associations and professional associations, including the Florida Bar and the Florida Chamber of Commerce, it is a recognized regional center for scientific research, home to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In 2015, Tallahassee was awarded the All-American City Award by the National Civic League for the second time. Indigenous peoples occupied this area for thousands of years before European encounter. Around AD 1200, the large and complex Mississippian culture had built earthwork mounds near Lake Jackson which survive today; the Spanish Empire established their first colonial settlement at St. Augustine. During the 17th century they established several missions in Apalachee territory in order to procure food and labor to support their settlement, as well as to convert the natives to Roman Catholicism.
The largest, Mission San Luis de Apalachee in Tallahassee, has been reconstructed by the state of Florida. The expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez encountered the Apalachee people, although it did not reach the site of Tallahassee. Hernando de Soto and his mid-16th century expedition occupied the Apalachee town of Anhaica in the winter of 1538–1539. Based on archaeological excavations, this Anhaica site is now known to have been located about 0.5 miles east of the present Florida State Capitol. The De Soto encampment is believed to be the first place that Christmas was celebrated in the continental United States although there is no historical documentation to back this claim; the name "Tallahassee" is a Muskogean language word translated as "old fields" or "old town". It was an expression of the Creek people who migrated from areas of Georgia and Alabama to this region in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, under pressure from European-American encroachment on their territory, they found large areas of cleared land occupied by the Apalachee tribe.
During the First Seminole War, General Andrew Jackson fought two separate skirmishes in and around Tallahassee, Spanish territory. The first battle took place on November 12, 1817. Chief Neamathla, of the village of Fowltown just west of present-day Tallahassee, had refused Jackson's orders to relocate. Jackson responded by entering the village, burning it to the ground, driving off its occupants; the Indians retaliated, killing 50 soldiers and civilians. Jackson reentered Florida in March 1818. According to Jackson's adjutant, Colonel Robert Butler, they "advanced on the Indian village called Tallahasse two of the enemy were made prisoner." Florida became an American territory in September 1821, in accordance with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. The first session of the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida met on July 22, 1822 at Pensacola, the former capital of West Florida. Members from St. Augustine, the former capital of East Florida, traveled fifty-nine days by water to attend; the second session was in St. Augustine, western delegates needed 28 days to travel perilously around the peninsula to reach Pensacola.
During this session, delegates decided to hold future meetings at a halfway point. Two appointed commissioners selected Tallahassee, at that point an Apalachee settlement abandoned after Andrew Jackson burned it in 1818, as a halfway point. In 1824 the third legislative session met there in a crude log building serving as the capitol. From 1821 through 1845, during Florida's territorial period, the rough-hewn frontier capital developed as a town; the Marquis de Lafayette, French hero of the American Revolution, returned to the United States in 1824 for a tour. The U. S. Congress voted to give him $200,000, US citizenship, the Lafayette Land Grant, 36 square miles of land that today includes large portions of Tallahassee. In 1845 a Greek revival masonry structure was erected as the Capitol building in time for statehood. Now known as the "old Capitol", it stands in front of the high-rise Capitol building, built in the 1970s. Tallahassee was in the heart of Florida's Cotton Belt—Leon County led the state in cotton production—and was the center of the slave trade in Florida.
During the American Civil War, Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital east of the Mississippi River, not captured by Union forces, the only one n
South Hadley, Massachusetts
South Hadley is a town in Hampshire County, United States. The population was 17,514 at the 2010 census, was estimated to be 17,791 in 2017, it is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. South Hadley is home to Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley High School, Pioneer Valley Performing Arts Charter Public School, the Berkshire Hills Music Academy. South Hadley was an uninhabited area of Hadley from 1659 until 1721 when the first English settlers arrived from Hadley. A separate town meeting was held in 1753, the town was split and incorporated in 1775; the town is the home of the nation's first successful navigable canal as well as the oldest continuing institution of higher education for women. The Civil War Monument in the center of the Commons was given to South Hadley by William H. Gaylord in the 1900s; the Gaylords donated the Gaylord Memorial Library, located near the center of town. South Hadley is located in the western part of Massachusetts in the Pioneer Valley, it is bordered on the north by Hadley and Amherst, on the east by Granby, on the south by Chicopee.
The Connecticut River defines the town's western border and separates it from the cities of Holyoke and Easthampton. South Hadley is 45 miles south of Brattleboro, Vermont, 87 miles west of Boston, 145 miles from New York City. Although no interstate highways cross South Hadley's borders, U. S. Route 202, Massachusetts Highways 33, 47, 116 provide primary routes of transportation. Interstate 91 can be accessed in Holyoke. Westover Metropolitan Airport is located in neighboring Chicopee and offers air services throughout the region. Bradley International Airport, serving the greater Hartford–Springfield area, is located 17 miles to the south; the closest Amtrak station is the Holyoke station. The Village Commons, a center for dining and leisure, is located at the juncture of Massachusetts Routes 116 and 47, in the area called South Hadley Center. Additional commercial centers are located on Massachusetts Routes 116 and 33, including South Hadley Falls, across the river from Holyoke. South Hadley is the home of Mount Holyoke College, the oldest continuously operating institution of higher education for women, founded in 1837.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 18.4 square miles, of which 17.7 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. The mountain range called the Mount Holyoke Range passes through the north of the town and separates it from Hadley and Amherst. There are 12 reservoirs in the town fed by eight distinct streams and six natural ponds; the first confirmed evidence of a dinosaur to be found in North America was unearthed in South Hadley by Pliny Moody while plowing in 1802, 40 years before dinosaurs were identified as a fossil group. The sandstone slab bearing large, mysterious footprints was purchased by Elihu Dwight, who gave the prints the name of "Noah's Raven". Professor Edward Hitchcock obtained the slab, now on prominent display in the Beneski Museum of Natural History at Amherst College. Hitchcock believed the fossils were made by gigantic ancient birds, long before scientists accepted that modern birds and dinosaurs are related; as of the census of 2000, there were 17,196 people, 6,586 households, 4,208 families residing in the town.
The population density was 971.0 people per square mile. There were 6,784 housing units at an average density of 383.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.05% White, 1.20% African American, 0.12% Native American, 2.53% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.36% of the population. There were 6,586 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. Of all households 30.4% were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.6% under the age of 18, 14.9% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 72.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 65.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $46,678, the median income for a family was $58,693. Males had a median income of $42,256 versus $31,219 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,732. About 4.1% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. Although South Hadley's economy has changed in the last two centuries, reflecting the trends of the Commonwealth and country, today it still retains businesses in agriculture and manufacturing. With Mount Holyoke College being by far the largest employer in the area, a number of other contractors, service providers, businesses support the college. Additionally the area maintains a small agricultural sector with several farms, is home to several small machine shops and manufacturing firms, including a research and manufacturing facility of the E Ink Corporation. Mount Holyoke College, a member of the Five College Consortium, one of the Seven Sisters colleges, is located in South Hadley.
South Hadley High School is known for its hig