University of California Press
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. It was founded in 1893 to publish books and papers for the faculty of the University of California, established 25 years earlier in 1868, its headquarters are located in California. The University of California Press publishes in the following general subject areas: anthropology, ancient world/classical studies and the West, cinema & media studies, environmental studies and wine, music, psychology, public health and medicine and sociology, it is a non-profit publishing arm of the University of California. Of its authors 25% are affiliated with the University of California, it publishes on average 175 new books and 30 multi-issue journals in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences. It maintains 4,000 book titles in print, it is the publisher of Collabra and Luminos open access initiatives. The Press commissioned as its corporate typeface University of California Old Style from type designer Frederic Goudy from 1936-1938, although it no longer always uses the design.
Language As Symbolic Action, Kenneth Burke The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, Carlos Castaneda Technicians of the Sacred: A Range of Poetries from Africa, Asia and Oceania, Jerome Rothenberg The Mysterious Stranger, Mark Twain Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution The Making of a Counter Culture, Theodore Roszak Self-Consuming Artifacts: The Experience of Seventeenth-Century Literature, Stanley Fish The Ancient Economy, Moses I. Finley Joan of Arc: The Image of Female Heroism, Marina Warner Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age, Benjamin R. Barber Art in the San Francisco Bay Area, Thomas Albright Religious Experience, Wayne Proudfoot The War Within: America's Battle over Vietnam, Tom Wells George Grosz: An Autobiography, George Grosz Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, Kevin Bales Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn, Karen McCarthy Brown A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America, Michael Barkun Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, Norman G. Finkelstein Autobiography of Mark Twain: Volume One, Mark Twain Collabra Collabra is University of California Press's open access journal program.
The Collabra program publishes two open access journals, Collabra: Psychology and Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, with plans for continued expansion and journal acquisition. Luminos Luminos is University of California Press’s open access response to the challenged monograph landscape. With the same high standards for selection, peer review and marketing as its traditional book publishing program, Luminos is a transformative model, built as a partnership where costs and benefits are shared; the University of California Press re-printed a number of novels under the California Fiction series from 1996–2001. These titles were selected for their literary merit and for their illumination of California history and culture; the Ford by Mary Austin Thieves' Market by A. I. Bezzerides Disobedience by Michael Drinkard Words of My Roaring by Ernest J. Finney Skin Deep by Guy Garcia Fat City by Leonard Gardiner Chez Chance by Jay Gummerman Continental Drift by James D. Houston The Vineyard by Idwal Jones In the Heart of the Valley of Love by Cynthia Kadohata Always Coming Home by Ursula K.
Le Guin The Valley of the Moon by Jack London Home and Away by Joanne Meschery Bright Web in the Darkness by Alexander Saxton Golden Days by Carolyn See Oil! by Upton Sinclair Understand This by Jervey Tervalon Ghost Woman by Lawrence Thornton Who Is Angelina? by Al Young Books portal California portal Official website Frugé, August. A Skeptic Among Scholars: August Frugé on University Publishing. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993. California Digital Library – University of California Libraries Free Online - UC Press E-Books Collection Mark Twain Project Online "Mark Twain's Biography Flying Off the Shelves", The New York Times, Nov. 19, 2010
Beverly Farms station
Beverly Farms is an MBTA Commuter Rail station in Beverly, Massachusetts. Located at the intersection of Oak Street and West Street, it serves the Newburyport/Rockport Line; the historic 1898 station building is still present but no longer used for railroad purposes. The station has two side platforms serving the line's two tracks, each with a mini-high section to make the station handicapped accessible; the Eastern Railroad only stopped at West Beach to the east when the Gloucester Branch opened in 1847. In 1898, the Boston and Maine Railroad built the current hip-roofed depot; the railroad agency at Beverly Farms closed in 1952 and the freight house was demolished the year after. The station building was closed in 1958. Media related to Beverly Farms at Wikimedia Commons MBTA - Beverly Farms View of station on Google Maps Street View
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th president of the United States and the tenth chief justice of the United States, the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for re-election by Woodrow Wilson in 1912 after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft to be chief justice, a position in which he served until a month before his death. Taft was born in Cincinnati in 1857, his father, Alphonso Taft, was a U. S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. Taft attended Yale and, like his father, was a member of Bones. After becoming a lawyer, he was appointed a judge while still in his twenties, he continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. In 1901, President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War, he became Roosevelt's hand-picked successor.
Despite his personal ambition to become chief justice, Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States, believing his political work to be more important. With Roosevelt's help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908 and defeated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency that November. In the White House, he focused on East Asia more than European affairs and intervened to prop up or remove Latin American governments. Taft sought reductions to trade tariffs a major source of governmental income, but the resulting bill was influenced by special interests, his administration was filled with conflict between the conservative wing of the Republican Party, with which Taft sympathized, the progressive wing, toward which Roosevelt moved more and more. Controversies over conservation and antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to further separate the two men. Roosevelt challenged Taft for renomination in 1912.
Taft used his control of the party machinery to gain a bare majority of delegates and Roosevelt bolted the party. The split left Taft with little chance of re-election and he took only Utah and Vermont in Wilson's victory. After leaving office, Taft returned to Yale as a professor, continuing his political activity and working against war through the League to Enforce Peace. In 1921, President Harding appointed Taft as an office he had long sought. Chief Justice Taft was a conservative on business issues and under him there were advances in individual rights. In poor health, he resigned in February 1930. After his death the next month, he was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the first president and first Supreme Court justice to be interred there. Taft is listed near the middle in historians' rankings of U. S. presidents. William Howard Taft was born September 15, 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Alphonso Taft and Louise Torrey; the Taft family was not wealthy. Alphonso served as a judge, ambassador and in the cabinet, as War Secretary and Attorney General under Ulysses S. Grant.
William Taft was a hard worker. He attended Woodward High School in Cincinnati. At Yale College, which he entered in 1874, the heavyset, jovial Taft was popular, was an intramural heavyweight wrestling champion. One classmate described him succeeding through hard work rather than being the smartest, as having integrity. In 1878, Taft graduated, second in his class out of 121, he attended Cincinnati Law School, graduated with a Bachelor of Laws in 1880. While in law school, he worked on The Cincinnati Commercial newspaper, edited by Murat Halstead. Taft was assigned to cover the local courts, spent time reading law in his father's office. Shortly before graduating from law school, Taft went to the state capital of Columbus to take the bar examination and passed. After admission to the Ohio bar, Taft devoted himself to his job at the Commercial full-time. Halstead was willing to take him on permanently at an increased salary if he would give up the law, but Taft declined. In October 1880, Taft was appointed assistant prosecutor for Hamilton County, took office the following January.
Taft served for a year as assistant prosecutor. He resigned in January 1882 after President Chester A. Arthur appointed him Collector of Internal Revenue for Ohio's First District, an area centered on Cincinnati. Taft refused to dismiss competent employees who were politically out of favor, resigned effective in March 1883, writing to Arthur that he wished to begin private practice in Cincinnati. In 1884, Taft campaigned for the Republican candidate for president, Maine Senator James G. Blaine, who lost to New York Governor Grover Cleveland. In 1887, Taft aged 29, was appointed to a vacancy on the Superior Court of Cincinnati by Governor Joseph B. Foraker; the appointment was good for just over a year, after which he would have to face the voters, in April 1888, he sought election for the first of three times in his lifetime, the other two being for the presidency. He was elected to a full five-year term; some two dozen of Taft's opinions as a state judge survive, the most significant being Moores & Co. v. Bricklayers' Union No. 1 if only because it was used against him when he ran for president in 1908.
The case involved bricklayers who refused to work for any firm that de
Oliver Wendell Holmes House
The Oliver Wendell Holmes House is a historic house at 868 Hale Street in the Beverly Farms section of Beverly, Massachusetts. Built c. 1880, this modest Victorian wood-frame house was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1972, as the only surviving structure associated with the life of Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. whose summer home it was from 1909 until his death. The Holmes House is a 2-1/2 wood frame structure, with a steeply-pitched gable roof, three brick chimneys, its exterior is sheathed in wooden clapboards, with shingles in the front-facing gable end and on the sides of a shed-roof dormer. The house is T-shaped, with a porch that wrapped around two sides, but has since been enclosed; the rear of the house is a full-height service ell, a carriage house stands behind the main house. A gravel drive leads from the street, around the north side of the house, to the carriage house; the house was built between 1875 and 1880 by Asa Obear Marshall, was sold by his widow to Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. in 1909.
The Holmeses divided their time between this house and a residence in Washington, D. C. staying here between June and October. While here, Holmes would continue to work on cases, would entertain legal and political luminaries, including Louis Brandeis, Henry Cabot Lodge, Albert Beveridge, it was here that he was introduced to Harold Laski, a British politician and economist with whom he maintained a long correspondence. After Holmes' death in 1935, the house was sold and its contents dispersed, it remains in private hands. National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts
Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.
The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution.
The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination. The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America"; the full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821.
The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance; the Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession. The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London; the tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions; the Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758.
From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gos
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display, a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks competitions are regularly held at a number of places. Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light and floating materials, they may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, yellow, blue and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations. Fireworks are classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may be shot into the air by a mortar; the most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or cases are combined so as to make when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes variously colored.
A skyrocket is a common form of firework. The aerial shell, however, is the backbone of today's commercial aerial display, a smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States; such rocket technology has been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets. Fireworks were invented in medieval China around the early 9th century. One of the cultural practices for fireworks was to scare away evil spirits. Cultural events and festivities such as the Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is exporter of fireworks in the world. Colored fireworks were invented in Europe in the 1830s. Modern skyrocket fireworks were invented in the early 20th century; the earliest documentation of fireworks dates back to about the early 9th-century medieval Chinese Tang Dynasty. The fireworks were used to accompany many festivities; the art and science of firework making has developed into an independent profession.
In China, pyrotechnicians were respected for their knowledge of complex techniques in mounting firework displays. Chinese people believed that the fireworks could expel evil spirits and bring about luck and happiness. During the Song Dynasty, many of the common people could purchase various kinds of fireworks from market vendors, grand displays of fireworks were known to be held. In 1110, a large fireworks display in a martial demonstration was held to entertain Emperor Huizong of Song and his court. A record from 1264 states that a rocket-propelled firework went off near the Empress Dowager Gong Sheng and startled her during a feast held in her honor by her son Emperor Lizong of Song. Rocket propulsion was common in warfare, as evidenced by the Huolongjing compiled by Liu Bowen and Jiao Yu. In 1240 the Arabs acquired knowledge of its uses from China. A Syrian named Hasan al-Rammah wrote of rockets and other incendiaries, using terms that suggested he derived his knowledge from Chinese sources, such as his references to fireworks as "Chinese flowers".
In regards to colored fireworks, this was derived and developed from earlier Chinese application of chemical substances to create colored smoke and fire. Such application appears in the Huolongjing and Wubeizhi, which describes recipes, several of which used low-nitrate gunpowder, to create military signal smokes with various colors. In the Wubei Huolongjing, two formulas appears for firework-like signals, the sanzhangju and baizhanglian, that produces silver sparkles in the smoke. In the Huoxilüe by Zhao Xuemin, there are several recipes with low-nitrate gunpowder and other chemical substances to tint flames and smoke; the Chinese pyrotechnics have been written about by foreign authors such as Antoine Caillot who wrote "It is certain that the variety of colours which the Chinese have the secret of giving to flame is the greatest mystery of their fireworks." Or Sir John Barrow who wrote "The diversity of colours indeed with which the Chinese have the secret of cloathing fire seems to be the chief merit of their pyrotechny."Fireworks were produced in Europe by the 14th century, becoming popular by the 17th century.
Lev Izmailov, ambassador of Peter the Great, once reported from China: "They make such fireworks that no one in Europe has seen." In 1758, the Jesuit missionary Pierre Nicolas le Chéron d'Incarville, living in Beijing, wrote about the methods and composition on how to make many types of Chinese fireworks to the Paris Academy of Sciences, which revealed and published the account five years later. Amédée-François Frézier published his revised work Traité des feux d'artice pour le spectacle in 1747, covering the recreational and ceremonial uses of fireworks, rather than their military uses. Music for the Royal Fireworks was composed by George Frideric Handel in 1749 to celebrate the Peace treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, declared the previous year. Improper use of fireworks may be dangerous, both to bystanders. For this reason, the use of fireworks is legally restricted. Display fireworks are restricted by law for use by professionals