click links in text for more info


Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire. Designating a commander-in-chief, it came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage, where the rank survived the longest, it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces, although in centuries it became devalued into a mere honorific title, its equivalents in Arabic were amir al-umara, in Persian, mir-i miran. The title was used by the Khans of the Indian princely state of Kalat; the title originated with the Seljuqs, was used in the Sultanate of Rum as an alternative for the Arabic title of malik al-umara, designating the army's commander-in-chief. Among the Mongol Ilkhanids, the title was used to designate the chief amir al-ulus —also known by the Turkic title ulusbegi and the Arabic amir al-umara–while in the Golden Horde it was applied to all the holders of the rank of amir al-ulus.

The Mamluks of Egypt used it as an alternative title for the atabak al-asakir, the commander-in-chief of the army. The Ottomans used the title beylerbey from the late 14th until the mid-19th century, with varying meanings and degrees of importance; the early Ottoman state continued to use the term beylerbey in the meaning of commander-in-chief, held by princes of the Ottoman dynasty: under the Ottoman Empire's founder, Osman I, his son Orhan held the post, during Orhan's reign, his brother Alaeddin Pasha and Orhan's son Süleyman Pasha. The first step towards the transformation of the office into a gubernatorial title occurred when Murad I gave the title to Lala Shahin Pasha as a reward for his capture of Adrianople in the 1360s. In addition, Lala Shahin was given military authority over the Ottoman territories in Europe; this marked the beylerbey as the viceroy of the European territories, as the Sultans still resided in Anatolia, as the straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, which connected the two parts of the Ottoman state, continued to escape full Ottoman control until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

Lala Shahin died after 1388. Sometime in 1385–87 Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha succeeded him in the position of commander-in-chief in Rumelia. In 1393 Sultan Bayezid I appointed Kara Timurtash as beylerbey and viceroy in Anatolia, when he himself crossed over into Europe to campaign against Mircea I of Wallachia; this process marked the birth of the first two, by far the most important, beylerbeyliks: those of Rumelia and Anatolia, while the third beylerbeylik, that of Rûm, followed soon after. The beylerbey was in charge of a province—termed a beylerbeylik or generically vilayet, "province", while after 1591 the term eyalet was used and beylerbeylik came to mean the office of beylerbey. Territorial beylerbeyliks were subdivided into sanjaks or "liwa"s under sanjakbeys. With the continuous growth of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries, new provinces were established, the ranks of the beylerbeys swelled to a peak of 44 by the end of the 16th century. A list of eyalets in 1609 mentions 32 in total - 23 of them regular eyalets where revenue was distributed among the military fief-holders, while the rest were under the salyane system, i.e. their revenue was sent to the imperial treasury, the officials and soldiers were paid salaries from it.

The size of these new provinces varied enormously: some containing as many as twenty sanjaks, others as few as two, including the beylerbey's own residence. Among themselves, the various beylerbeys had an order of precedence based on the date of conquest or formation of their provinces; the beylerbey of Rumelia, retained his pre-eminence, ranking first among the other provincial governors-general, being accorded a seat in the Imperial Council after 1536. In addition, the post was held by the Sultan's chief minister, the Grand Vizier himself. In his province, the beylerbey operated as a virtual viceroy of the Sultan: he had full authority over matters of war and administration, except in so far as they were limited by the authority of other officials appointed by the central government, chiefly the various fiscal secretaries under the mal defterdari, the kadı, who could appeal directly to the imperial government. In addition, as a further check to their power, the Janissary contingents stationed in the province's cities were outside his authority, beylerbeys were forbidden from entering the fortresses garrisoned by the Janissaries.

The beylerbey had his own court and government council and could grant fiefs without prior approval by the Sultan, although this right was curtailed after 1530, when beylerbey authority was restricted to the smaller timars only. Reflecting the office's origin in the military, the primary responsibility of the beylerbeys and their sanjakbeys was the maintenance the sipahi cavalry, formed by the holders of the military fiefs, whom they led in person on campaign. From the reign of Mehmed II onwards, the title of beylerbey became an honorary court rank, coming after the viziers. From the 16th century on, viziers could be appointed as provincial beylerbeys, enjoying pr

Arroz chaufa

Arroz chaufa known as Arroz de chaufa is a Peruvian fried rice dish. It is a mix of Peruvian and Chinese cuisine, it consists of a mix of fried rice with vegetables including Chinese onions and chicken cooked at a high flame in a wok with soy sauce and oil. It is influenced by Chinese cuisine due to the influx of Chinese immigrants to Peru. One, specialized in the art of making chaufa is known as a chaufero. Dark soy sauce is preferred for use with Peruvian fried rice. Meats used are pork, beef and shrimp. In some regions the rice is replaced with quinoa or pearled wheat while in others, rice is mixed with noodles; the word "chaufa" comes from the Chinese word "chaofan" " fried rice". Arroz chaufa with chicken Arroz chaufa with beef Arroz chaufa with pork Arroz chaufa "airport" Arroz chaufa "wild" Arroz Chaufa with duck Arroz chaufa with jerky Arroz chaufa with seafood Arroz chaufa with fish Arroz chaufa with alligator or lizard Arroz chaufa "special" Arroz chaufa "Taypa" It is possible to adapt the recipe with other grains: Chaufa of quinua Chaufa of wheatThe dish is accompanied by soy sauce and/or an aji-based cream.

List of fried rice dishes Food portal Rodríguez Pastor, Humberto. "Gastronomía chino-cantonesa y el chifa peruano". Gaceta Cultural del Perú. 32. Zapata Acha, Sergio. Diccionario de gastronomía peruana tradicional. Lima, Peru: Universidad San Martín de Porres. ISBN 9972-54-155-X. León, Rafo. Lima Bizarra. Antiguía del centro de la capital. Lima-Perú: Aguilar. Pp. 134–136. ISBN 978-9972-848-17-9. "Con feria gastronómica promueven consumo de pescado en Cajamarca". Agencia Andina de Noticias. November 7, 2008. Miranda, Luis. "Probando la amazonía". Gaceta Cultural del Perú. 32. "Beneficiarias ancashinas de Juntos ganan concurso ¡San Marcos con Mucho Gusto!". Agencia Andina de Noticias. December 23, 2008


Segol is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign, represented by three dots forming an upside down equilateral triangle "ֶ ". As such, it resembles an upside down therefore sign underneath a letter. In modern Hebrew, it indicates the phoneme /e/, similar to "e" in the English word sound in sell and is transliterated as an e. In Modern Hebrew, segol does the Hataf Segol; the reduced niqqud exist for segol and kamatz which contain a shva next to it. The following table contains the pronunciation and transliteration of the different segols in reconstructed historical forms and dialects using the International Phonetic Alphabet; the transcription in IPA is above and the transliteration is below. The letters Bet "ב" and Het "ח" used in this table are only for demonstration. Any letter can be used. In addition, a letter with a segol or tzere with a succeeding yod makes the "ei" sound such as in they or tape. By adding two vertical dots, the vowel can be made short. However, the vowels lengths are not manifested in Modern Hebrew

GĂ©nesis Carmona

Génesis Cristina Carmona Tovar was a Venezuelan fashion model, beauty queen, college student, killed while protesting against the Government of Venezuela during the 2014 Venezuelan protests. She became a symbol of protest against the Nicolás Maduro government during the time of demonstrations in the country. Born and educated in Carabobo, Carmona majored in Social Studies at Universidad Tecnológica del Centro, a local polytechnic located in Valencia's eastern satellite Alianza City, in the metropolitan capital region of the state of Carabobo in Venezuela, she had participated in fashion events held in the city of Valencia, such as Venezuela Moda and Fashion Week Valencia. In 2010, she was a pre-candidate for Miss Venezuela 2010, though she did not qualify to participate in the pageant. In 2013, as a 21-year-old, she entered a regional beauty contest for her native state of Carabobo, winning one of the titles and becoming crowned 2013 Miss Turismo Carabobo. On 18 February 2014, Carmona participated in an anti-government demonstration.

Protesters, dressed in white, planned to march down Cedeño Avenue to the Plaza de Toros. The march encountered military barricades and prevented the hundreds of demonstrators from advancing, with participants deciding to protest in the space in which they were confined. At 3:30pm, pro-government colectivos arrived on the scene and began to attack the protest with "ottles and gunfire"; as shots rang out, individuals scattered into Cedeño Mall. The attack resulted in several opposition protesters injured, 8 of those injured from gunshot wounds, including Carmona, who suffered a gunshot wound to the back of the head. Witnesses described that she sunk to the ground after a bullet penetrated her left occipital skull area. Carmona was placed in the ICU. A day on 19 February at 12:15 p.m, she died from "significant" brain damage due to gunshot trauma and loss of blood the following day. Dr. Carlos Rosales explained that the bullet was still in Carmona's brain and that if she had survived, she would have been blind.

In an interview with Spanish newspaper ABC, Carmona's friend and fellow protester Héctor Rotunda said Carmona was shot when a group of about 50 individuals outfitted in red approached the demonstration and fired a burst of about 10 rounds at protesters. Mourners at Carmona's funeral stated she was "killed by government mercenaries." Some foreign news sources said that pro-government paramilitaries were the ones who shot and killed her. Carmona's mother has stated that the attackers were identifiable in videos as Venezuelan government supporters and that Venezuelan authorities did "nothing" to clarify Carmona's death; some have blamed Francisco Ameliach for Carmona's death. Days before Carmona was killed, the governor of the state of Carabobo, Francisco Ameliach, called on Unidades de Batalla Bolívar-Chávez, in a tweet, asking UBCh to launch a rapid counterattack against protesters saying that the order would come from the President of the National Assembly, Diosdado Cabello. After Carmona's death, Venezuela's anti-government protesters placed posters in various areas of Valencia, condemning Ameliach's tweet and linked it to the killing of Carmona.

The President of Venezuela, Nicolás Maduro, expressed his condolences to Carmona's family and to the people who loved her. He said that it had been "well-established" by the government's CIPC ballistic research and witnesses that violent groups from the opposition were responsible for her death. Minister of the Interior, Miguel Rodríguez Torres, reported that the bullet that killed her came from her own ranks during the anti-government march. Only one PSUV member, Juan Maza, was placed on parole. However, as of 18 February 2017, three years after Carmona's death, the Venezuelan has never resolved the case surrounding her death. Mayor Alejandro Feo La Cruz paid tribute to those who had died during protests in Carabobo, naming an avenue "Genesis Carmona Avenue" and named a park after another protester, Geraldin Moreno. In December 2014, Carmona's mother, María Eugenia Tovar, as well as her sister, Alejandra Carmona, moved to the United States seeking asylum; as of February 2017, the family has remained residing in the United States.

Bassil Da Costa Newspaper gallery of 15 pictures, from 18 February 2014 in Valencia, Venezuela, including pictures of Génesis Carmona being ferried to the hospital on a motorcycle, thereafter being wheeled on a stretcher,, Wiadomośći section, 20 February 2014.

Modesty Blaise (novel)

Modesty Blaise is an action-adventure/spy fiction novel by Peter O'Donnell first published in 1965, featuring the character Modesty Blaise which O'Donnell had created for a comic strip in 1963. This was the first novel to feature the character of Modesty Blaise and her right-hand-man, Willie Garvin; the series of books ran concurrently with the comic strip until 1996. Technically, this is a novelisation of a screenplay O'Donnell wrote based upon the character although it predated the film release by a year; the filmed version of the screenplay bore little resemblance to O'Donnell's original. Although the 1966 film version of Modesty Blaise was not a critical success, the book proved popular with fans of both the comic strip and readers of spy fiction, O'Donnell followed up with 10 more novels and two short story collections over the next 30 years. Most of the books had their first United Kingdom editions published by Souvenir Press, with Pan Books publishing all but the final volume, Cobra Trap, in paperback.

A variety of American publishers, took turns issuing the series. The American first edition by Doubleday was featured prominently in the Quentin Tarantino film Pulp Fiction; the director used a mock-up of the book for filming, rather than an actual copy. Tarantino has stated his interest in directing a Modesty Blaise film on several occasions, but to date the closest he's gotten was lending his name to a 2003 made-for-video production, Quentin Tarantino Presents: My Name Is Modesty. In the mid-1990s, DC Comics published a one-shot Modesty Blaise graphic novel based upon the novel. Willie Garvin has lost the will to live, he had worked for Modesty Blaise for six years in The Network, Modesty's criminal organisation, rose to the position of her right-hand man and became her best friend. Willie was on top of the world, but Modesty disbanded The Network and retired, Willie didn't know what to do with himself. He got involved as a mercenary in a South American revolution, he is now sitting in a primitive prison, waiting listlessly to be executed.

Sir Gerald Tarrant, head of a British secret service organisation, knows about Willie's situation, he needs the services of Modesty and Willie for a special mission. Sir Gerald lays his cards on the table. Modesty is grateful and agrees to help Sir Gerald as soon as she has rescued Willie; this is the start of the adventure. Sir Gerald's job turns out to be a perilous intervention against the criminal mastermind Gabriel, who intends to steal a huge consignment of diamonds; the action starts in the south of France. It's on to Egypt, where Modesty and Willie get captured by Gabriel's gang; the diamond heist succeeds, the action moves to a small island in the Mediterranean where Modesty has to vanquish the incredible Mrs. Fothergill in unarmed combat, but all of Gabriel's gang are in pursuit, there is nowhere to run. Modesty Blaise

Once Upon a Dream (1949 film)

Once Upon a Dream is a 1949 British comedy romance film directed by Ralph Thomas in his debut and starring Googie Withers, Griffith Jones, Guy Middleton, Maurice Denham. It was made at the Lime Grove Studios with sets designed by the art director Cedric Dawe; the film is a comedy and a social commentary on the period and is set just after World War II. An officer's wife comes to believe it is true. Meanwhile, the husband has asked his servant to help him, after the war, to suggest ways to ignite the romance he and his wife had before the war, as well as find a way to make money in a post-war economy. Misdirection and misunderstandings ensue, it was a J. Arthur Rank presentation, a Sydney Box production and was released through General Film Distributors Ltd. Googie Withers as Carol Gilbert Griffith Jones as Jackson Guy Middleton as Major Gilbert Betty Lynne as Mlle Louise David Horne as Registrar Geoffrey Morris as Registrar's Clerk Raymond Lovell as Mr. Trout Noel Howlett as Solicitor Agnes Lauchlan as Aunt Agnes Mirren Wood as Conductress Hubert Gregg as Captain Williams Maurice Denham as Vicar Mona Washbourne as Vicar's Wife Nora Nicholson as 1st W.

V. S. Dora Bryan as Barmaid Hal Osmond as Bailiff Arthur Denton as Janitor Eric Messiter as Pontefact Gibb McLaughlin as Pontefact Cecil Bevan as Wright Wilfred Caithness as Pontefact Margaret Lockwood refused to do the film and was put on suspension by Rank. Ralph Thomas was head of the trailer department for the Rank Film Organisation, he had made a number of trailers for producer Sydney Box, including one for the film Miranda which Box liked. "He was taken with it," said Thomas. When the original director for Once Upon a Dream fell ill, Box offered Thomas the chance to direct, it was on this film that Thomas met Box's sister Betty, who would go on to make over 20 films with Thomas. By 1953 the film earned a net revenue of £79,000. Allmovie noted, "More silly than funny, Once Upon a Dream is kept alive by the enthusiastic performances of its leading players." Once Upon a Dream on IMDb